(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "Creative Computing Magazine (January 1980) Volume 06 Number 01"

Art 

Thp Mr 



rZoeor- A 
couecrioAf 

OF SEHSORS 

ano aacoirs 

M&TA*£# Foa L 
A HtmAfi/ 



DOLL- A 

COLLECTION 

or CLOTH AN& 
STOFFfNCf 

someTtmes 

k *WSTA*£>/ FcR. A 
A JJUMAkf 



Computerized Re 



Columns for: 
Apple, TRS-80, PET, 






O 



* >i 



^>>i^pMa»fr 






Is it Dungeons and Dragons 
or Dragons and Dungeons? 



Did you read about the fellow who 
became so enchanted playing D & D, 
he disappeared for a month? 

Chances are, when you play the 
Dunjonquest" version, the greatest 
of all the role-playing fantasies, you'll 
be able to hold on to reality just a 
little better. 

You're the hero. Enter into the Dunjonquest 
"Temple ol Apshai" and into the greatest fantasy 
adventure you've ever experienced. The Temple 
has over 200 rooms and catacombs in which lurk 
more than 30 kinds of monsters and beasts ready 
to do you in in real time — before you can reach 
any of the 70 or so treasures waiting for the hero. 
You may spend days, weeks, months . . . the rest 
of your life . . . striking at the forces of evil, or 
running from them, or calling on powers you can 
never completely understand. Always, always 
demonstrating in varying degrees your strength, 
constitution, dexterity, intelligence, intuition, the 
force of your ego. 

Unlike chess or bridge or monopoly, this role- 
playing game — like other good role-playing 
games -is an experience rather than a game: It 
is not played so much as it's lived or experienced. 
Your alter ego goes forth into the world of demons 
and darkness, dragons and dwarves. Your char- 
acter will do whatever you want him (or her or it) 
to do. 

"The Temple ..." comes complete with a superbly 
illustrated 56-page rule book and cassette program, 




Actual photo ol screen during a Dunjonquest game. 
In Room 3 in the Temple ot Apshai. our hero observes 
two treasures unattended by dragons, monsters or 
demons lor the moment He is completely tree of 
wounds, he is not at all fatigued He carries 44 pounds 
of armor and 19 arrows in his quiver He has already 
slain five demons Will he capture the treasures before 
moving on or before the forces of darkness intercept him'' 



designed to operate with the Level II 16K 
TRS 80, the PET 32K or the Apple II 48K (Micro- 
soft) computer. Only $24.95 complete, including 
shipping and handling on orders placed within the 
next 30 days. 

Dunjonquest's "The Temple of Apshai" is 
guaranteed to be the best version of Dungeons 
and Dragons Dragons and Dungeons. It's a 
product of the two guys who arc Automated 
Simulations: Jim Connelley and Jon Freeman. Jim 
is a Dungeon Master, running continuous D & D 
campaigns. He's been a data processing profes- 
sional with Westinghouse, GTE Sylvania, Logisti- 
con ... an expert in computer-based math- 
modeling and in simulation of complex phe- 
nemona. Jon is a game player, designer and 
author. He's a frequent contributor to Gamei 
magazine; . . . and this brings us to our un- 
believable offer: 




FREE: The Playboy Winner'* 
Guide to Board Games the 

bestselling paperback by our own 
Jon Freeman. How to win at 
Monopoly, Scrabble, Dungeons and 
Dragons and almost 100 other 
board games Order your Dun- 
jonquest Temple of Apshai 
now, get the book free . . . and 
you keep it even if you don't 
choose to keep the guaran- 
teed Dunjonquest 



As we said, guaranteed: Guaranteed to be the 
best version; guaranteed that youll be happy with 
it. Order now, use it for two weeks. If you don't 
enjoy completely this fantasy adventure ex- 
perience that goes beyond all others, send it back 
to us. Well refund your money in full; no ques- 
tions asked. 

Master Charge or Visa card holders: 
charge "The Temple of Apshai" to 
your credit card. Just call our toll 
free number: (800) 824-7888, oper- 
ator 861 (In California, call operator 
861 (800) 852-7777. In Hawaii and 
Alaska, operator 861 (800) 824-7919) 
and you can begin enjoying your D & 
D game in days. Or send your check 
for $24.95* to 

Automated 
Simulations 

Dept. C1 

P.O Box 4232 

Mountain View, Ca 94040 







-J 



CIRCLE 160 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



•(".ilitnrnia resident*,, please add 6 



creative 

GOiRp?itii*g 

software 



Creative Computing Software 

offers the educator, small business- 
man, and home user outstanding 
applications programs at modest 
prices. 

We offer a comprehensive selec- 
tion of over 400 programs, on 70 
tapes and disks for Apple II, TRS-80, 
Sorcerer PET, Sol-20, Challenger, 
andCP/M Systems. 

Now, Creative Computing Soft- 
ware brings you Sensational Savings! 



sensational 
software 











COMING IN 
FEBRUARY 



Intelligent Computer Games 
A new column by the renowned David 
Levy. The international chess master, 
and winner of several major human 
versus computer chess matches joins our 
staff of contributing editors with a 
regular column on all types of intelligent 
computer games — chess, backgam- 
mon, go — and the strategies for writing 
and playing these games. 



Investment Analysis and Financial 
Decision-Making 

Four articles by innovators in the field. 




Creative Computing 
Magazine 

Creative Computing has long been 
Number 1 in applications and software for 
micros, minis, and time-sharing systems 
for homes, schools and small busi- 
nesses. Loads of applications every 
issue: text editing, graphics, communi- 
cations, artificial intelligence, simula- 
tions, data base and file systems, music 
synthesis, analog control. Complete pro- 
grams with sample runs. Programming 
techniques: sort algorithms, file struc- 
tures, shuffling, etc. Coverage of elec- 
tronic and video games and other related 
consumer electronics products, too. 

Just getting started? Then turn to our 
technology tutorials, learning activities, 
short programs, and problem solving 
pages. No-nonsense book reviews, too. 
Even some fiction and foolishness. 

Subscriptions: 1 year $15, 3 years $40. 
Foreign, add $9/year surface postage. 
$26/year air. Order and payment to: 
Creative Computing, Attn: Karen. P.O. 
Box789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. Visa or 
MasterCharge acceptable by mail or 
phone: call 800-631-8112 9 am to 5 pm 
EST (in NJ call 201-540-0445). 



Parallel 
I/O Port #3 

\ 



RS-232 or 

Current Loop 

I/O Port #4 

/ 




On Card 

Voltage 

Regulation 



Programmable 
Baud Rate 
UARTwith 

Interval Timers 



4 MHz Z-80A 



Completely Buffered 
Bus Interface 



The single card computer 

with the features 
that help you in real life 



COMPLETE COMPUTER 

In this advanced card you get a pro- 
fessional quality computer that meets 
today's engineering needs. And it's one 
that's complete. It lets you be up and 
running fast. All you need is a power 
supply and your ROM software. 

The computer itself is super. Fast 
4 MHz operation. Capacity for 8K bytes 
of ROM (uses 2716 PROMs which can 
be programmed by our new 32K BYTE- 
SAVER* PROM card). There's also 1K of 
on-board static RAM. Further, you get 
straightforward interfacing through an 
RS-232 serial interface with ultra-fast 
speed of up to 76,800 baud — software 
programmable. 

Other features include 24 bits of bi- 
directional parallel I/O and five on- 
board programmable timers. 

Add to that vectored interrupts. 



ENORMOUS EXPANDABILITY 

Besides all these features the Cro- 
memco single card computer gives you 
enormous expandability if you ever need 
it. And it's easy to expand. First, you 
can expand with the new Cromemco 
32K BYTESAVER PROM card mentioned 
above. Then there's Cromemco's broad 
line of S100-bus-compatible memory 
and I/O interface cards. Cards with fea- 
tures such as relay interface, analog 
interface, graphics interface, opto- 
isolator input, and A/D and D/A con- 
version. RAM and ROM cards, too. 



e 




Card Cage 32K BYTESAVER PROM card 



a 



EASY TO USE 

Another convenience that makes the 
Model SCC computer easy to use is our 
Z-80 monitor and 3K Control BASIC (in 
two ROMs). With this optional software 
you're ready to go. The monitor gives 
you 12 commands. The BASIC, with 36 
commands/functions, will directly ac- 
cess I/O ports and memory locations — 
and call machine language subroutines. 

Finally, to simplify things to the ulti- 
mate, we even have convenient card 
cages. Rugged card cages. They hold 
cards firmly. No jiggling out of sockets. 

AVAILABLE NOW/LOW PRICE 

The Model SCC is available now at a 
low price of only S450 burned-in and 
tested (32K BYTESAVER only $295). 

So act today. Get this high-capability 
computer working for you right away. 



Cromemco 

incorporated 
Specialists In computers and peripherals 
280 BERNARDO AVE., MOUNTAIN VIEW, CA 94040 • (415) 944-7400 
CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



*** 



i 






We're looking for the most original use 
of an Apple since Adam. 



What in the name of Adam do people do with 
Apple Computers? 

You tell us. 

In a thousand words or less. 

If your story is original and intriguing enough, 
you could win a one- week all-expense paid trip for 
two to Hawaii. Which is the closest we could 
come to paradise. 

Win fabulous prizes for 
creative writing. 

To enter, drop by your nearest Apple dealer and 
pick up an entry blank. Fill it out. Then write an 
article, in 1000 words or less, describing the unusual 
or interesting use you've found for your Apple. 

A jury of independent judges will cast the 
deciding vote for the grand prize: a week for two, 
airfare included, in Hawaii. 

The judges will also choose 16 additional 
winners, two each from eight categories: 

CIRCLE 159 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



graphics/music, entertainment, home, business, 
education, scientific, professional, and industrial. 
And each winner will choose from a long list of 
longed-after Apple peripherals — from Apple 
Disk II's to Graphics Tablets to printers. 
Or you can take a $250 credit towards the 
purchase of any Apple product. 

The contest ends March 31,1980. All winners 
will be notified by May 15. 

Entry forms are available at your participating 
Apple dealer. Call 800-538-%%, (800-662-9238 
in California), for the one nearest you. 

Mail the entry blank, your article and any 
photos to: Apple Computer, "What in the name 
of Adam" contest, 10260 Bandley Drive, j 
Cupertino, CA 95014. ^^ttf ft 

And may the juiciest 
application win. 




In This Issue 




articles 

1 7 Personal Computing 79 Craig 

Some glimpses from Philadelphia 

40 Small Business Computing Behrman 

Getting started with a TRS-80 



ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE FEATURES 

44 Computing Machinery and Intelligence 

A n 

1 What Computers Still Can't Do 



> Can Computers Think? 
Thoughts abou 

60 The Great Unending Al Debate. 

How do you know H 

62 Computers Can't Think. 

20' 



. Whaland 



ill 

72 Donald E. Knuth Speaks Out Knuth 

About the art of computer programming 

76 Interview with William Wulf Staples 

We're in the midst of an information revolution 

78 Looking To The Future Scully 

Changes computers are bringing to our lives 

80 Spiral Designs Lomartire 

applications - games 

1 4 Computer Crossword Young & Ahl 

82 RND Frequency Graphs Gerrold 

Which random function is best for you? 

86 The Computerized Resume Green 

Help for getting a better job 

90 Grow: A Program That "Learns" Levinsky 

Use this routine in Animal or Adventure 

98 Recursive Procedures in Fortran Hess 

Pushing, popping and stack discipline 

1 04 Grandapple Clock Howerton 

Your apple can tick, chime and keep time 

1 08 Air Traffic Controller Mannering 

A "real" simulation 

116 Phantom VORTAC Project Solo 

A program for an on-board flight computer 

120 Intelligent Calendar Revisited Prisco 

It gets even smarter 

1 22 Checkboard Problem Solved Chase 

1 24 Poison and Pig Burns 

If you hate mathematics, you'll love these games 

JANUARY 1960 



evaluations 6 profiles 

18 NEWDOS vsTRSDOS Fuller 

Each has its advantages 

20 Tarbell Basic Hart 

A big Basic with many extensions 

24 Auto Scribe Selller 

A versatile word processing system 

26 6800 Baelc's Anderson 

A critical comparison of five Basics 

34 Micro Music for the TRS-80 Wright 

Interesting and easy to use 

36 Register Sellier 

Christianson & Assoc, cash register/inventory pro- 
gram 

Fiction S foolishness 

43 Spinning Yarns, Relatively Speaking Payack 

A pinwheel poem 

1 64 The Master's Voice Brous 

Control a missile by voice 

departments 

6 Et Cetera Et al 

8 Input/Output Readers 

1 2 Effective Writing Ahl 

Numbers are words too 

1 34 Apple Cart Carpenter 

Protected software, keyword search, MOD function 

1 40 TRS-80 Strings Gray 

Games, service manuals, other software 

1 48 Personal Electronic Transactions Yob 

Formatting program and a quickie 

1 52 Software Legal Forum Novick 

Copyright infringement vs permissible use 

1 54 Compleat Computer Catalogue Staples 

Loads of new products for your computer 

1 66 Book Reviews Gray 

Eight new ones for your shelf 

JANUARY 1980 Information about the cover on page 4. 

VOLUMES, NUMBER 1 

Creative Computing magazine It published monthly by Creative Computing. P.O. 
Bo«7S9-M. Morrietown. NJ 07960 (Editorial office: 51 Dumont Place. Morrietown. NJ 
079S0 Phono: (201) S40-044S.) 

Domoilic Subscriptions 12 Issues, f 1 S. 24 InuM $28. 36 InuM $40. Sond subscription 
orders or Changs ot addroaa (P.O. Form 3575) to Creative computing. P O. Bon 789-M, 
Mornstown. NJ 07960 Call 800-631-81 12 toll-fro* (In Now Jersey call 201-S40-O44S) to 
order a subscription (to be charged only to a bank card) 

Second class postage paid at Mornstown New Jersey and at additional mailing offices 

Copyright* 1979 by Creative Computing All rights reserved Reproduction prohibited 
Printed in USA 



IH 



Publisher 



David H. Ahl 



Editor 

Managing Editor 
Associate Editor 



Contributing Editors 




Art Department 



John Craig 

Burchantl Qraan 

Slav* North 

Frederick Chesson 
Charts* Carpenter 
Msrgot Crltchtleld 
Thomas W. Dwyer 
Stephen 8. Gray 
Richard Kaapke 
Stephen Klmmel 
Theodor Nelson 
Harold Novlck 
Pater Payack 
Alvln Tofflar 
. Barry Townsand 
Gregory Yob 
KariZInn 

Carol Prymowlcz 
Nils Lommerin 
Diana Negri 
Diane Qalantl 



Production Manager Robert Borrell 

Editorial Assistant Paulatte Duval 

Typesetter Suzanne Quppy 



Advertising Sales 



Marcla Wood 

Douglas Osbom 



Marketing Coordinators Nancy Wood 
Sheryl Kennedy 



Software Development 



Business Manager 
Retail Marketing 



Office Assistants 



Book Service 



Randy Heuer 

Rob Rich 

Eric Van Horn 

ChrlsVogell 

Ursula Won 



Belay Staples 

Jennifer Burr 

Catherine Sattlethlght 

Rosemary Bander 
Valerie Gullmette 



Order Processing Carol Vita 

Book Service Supervisor Nancy Handler 



Karen Knight 
Scott McLeod 
Bill Thomas 



OK to Reprint 

Material in Creative Computing may 
be reprinted without permission by 
school and college publications, person- 
al computing club newsletters, and 
non-profit publicationa. Only original 
material may be reprinted; that la, you 
may not reprint a reprint. Alao, each 
reprint must carry the following notice on 
the first page of the reprint in 7-point or 
larger type (you may cut out and use this 
notice If you wish): 



Copyright © 1979 by Creative Computing 
51 Dumont Place, Morrlstown, NJ 07960 
Sample Issue $2; 12-issuesubscrlp. $15 

Please send us two copies of any 
publication that carries reprinted materi- 
al. Send to attention: David Ahl. 



Advertising Sales 

Advertising Coordinator 
Marcla Wood 
Creative Computing 
93 Washington Street 
Morrlstown. N.J. 07960 
(201)540-9168 

Western State, Teua 
Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 
1290 Howard Ave., Suite 303 
Buriingame, CA 94010 
(415)348-8222 

Southern California 

Jules E. Thompson, Inc. 

2560 Via Tejon 

Palos Verdes Estates, CA 90247 

(213)378-8361 

Mld-Atlantlc. Northeast 
CEL Associates, Inc. 
36 Sohier Street 
Cohasset, MA 02025 

(617)383-6136 

New York Metropolitan Area 
Nelson & Miller Associates, Inc. 
55 Scenic Dr. 

Hastings-on-Hudson. NY 10706 
(914)478-0491 

Southeast 

Warren Langer Associates, Inc. 

234 County Line Road 

Gilbert svllle, PA 19525 

(215)367-0820 



Responsibility 

Creative Computing will not be re- 
sponsible for the return of unsolicited 
manuscripts, cassettes, floppy disks, 
program listings, etc. not submitted with 
a self-addressed, stamped envelope. 

4-Year Index 

A four-year cumulative index to 
Creative Computing and ROM is availa- 
ble. Articles are cross-referenced to both 
individual Issues and collected volumes 
(The Beat of Creative Computing, Vote. 1 
and 2). Articles are classified by subject 
area and Hated by title and author. Over 
2000 Items are Included. $1.00 postpaid 
in U.S., $2.00 foreign. Creative Compu- 
ting, P.O. Box 789-M, Morrlstown, N.J. 
07960. 

Back Issues 

Back Issues of Creative Computing 
are usually in stock for the current and 
previous volume. Prices on back issues 
are $2.00 each postpaid, three for $5.00, 
or 15 for $10.00. Add $1.00 for postage 
for up to 3 Issues or $2.00 for 4 or more. 

Volumes 1 and 2 are available in book 
form, The Beat of Creative Computing, 
Vola. 1 and 2. Each book Is $10.00 
postpaid. Creative Computing, P.O. Box 
789-M, Morrietown, N.J. 07960. 

Nine back laaues of ROM are avail- 
able In a complete aet for $14.00 postpaid 
($17.00 foreign) from Creative Compu- 



ting. 



The Cover 



The cover photograph by David Ahl 
shows that sometimes we attribute 
qualities to something for erroneous 
reasons. Nowhere Is this tendency more 
pronounced than in the field of artificial 
Intelligence. See the alx Al articles 
starting on page 44. 



Foreign Customers 

Foreign subscribers In countries lilted 
below may elect lo subscribe with our local 
agents using local currency- Of course, 
subscription* may also be entered directly to 
Creative Computing (USA) In U.S. dollar*. 
(bank draft or American Express card). All 
foreign subscriptions must be prepaid 

M*ny foreign agent* stock Creative Com- 
puting megailriM, books, and software How- 
ever , pieeee inquire directly to the agent before 
B lacing an order. Again, all Creative Comou- 
ng product* may be ordered direct from the 
USA— be sure to allow lor lorelgn sNppIng and 
handling. 



j. year 



Surlaca 
S1S 
36 

■ 



RS-232 

Attn: George SplMrl 

188 Queen St VV 

Toronto. Ontario M5V 1Z1 . Canada 



ENGLAND 
1-year 
2-year 
3-year 



13 
25 

36 



n/a 



i 

22 
43 
S3 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 

Attn: Maiel Gordon 

27 Andrew Close 

Stoke GokJIng. Nurweton CV13 = EL 

England 



FRANCE 
1-year 
2-year 
3-year 


F 

106 
200 
290 


F 
ISO 
345 
510 


SYBEX EUROPE 

14/ 18 Hue Plane hat 
75020 Pan*. France 






SWEDEN 

as. 

2-year 
3-year 


kr 
105 
200 

290 


kr 

180 
345 
510 


HOBBY DA T A 

Attn: JanNllsson 

Fack 

S-200 12 Mai mo 2. Sweden 






GERMANY 

1-year 
2-year 
3-year 


dm 
46 
SB 

12S 


dm 
78 

i 


HOF ACKER- VERLAG 

Ing. W. Hof acker 

8 Munchen 75 

Poettach 437. Weal Germany 






Holland. BELGIUM 

1-year 

2-year 

3-year 




tt 

175 
250 


2xF IMPORT VAN BOEKEN EN 

TIJDSCHRIFTEN 
Attn: M.F doVreeze 

Postbus 70196 

1007 KD Amsterdam. Holland 




AUSTRALIA 
1-yMl 
2-year 
3-year 


44 
64 


SA 

47 
02 

136 


ELECTRONIC CONCEPTS PTY.LTD. 
Attn: RudlHoeaa 
Ground Floor 55 Clarence St 
Sydney. NSW 2000. Australia 




2-year 9200 
3-year 13.500 


Y 

9400 

16.400 

27.200 



ASC11 PUBLISHING 

305 HI TORIO 

5-6-4- MlnanH Aoyama. Mlnalo-ku 

Tokyo 107. ,'— 



HONOKONO jHK 
1-y*ar H5 




COMPUTER PUBLICATIONS' LTD. 
22 Wyndham St. ,7th Floor 
Hong Kong 




PHILIPPINES P 

'•T»' 12 
2 year 330 
3-year 480 


P 
355 

890 
1.020 


INTEGRATED COMPUTER SYSTEMS* INC. 
Suite 118. Umketkel Bldg . Ortloaa Ave 
Greenhlll* P.O. Boa 483. San Juan 
Metro Manila 3113. Philippines 


KUWAIT dinar 
1-year 6.5 
2-year 12.5 
3-year 18.0 


dinar 
11.0 
21.5 
31.5 


ASCON 

Attn: SalahZelneddln 

P.O. BOX 4082 

Safat, Kuwait 




OTHER COUNTRIES 

3-year 84 


S39 

78 
112 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 
P.O. Box 789-M 

Morrlstown, N.J. 07980. USA 





CREATIVE COMPUTING 



^ ^ 

2^^ 



■ 



Even at 5-12 a.m. , its hard to quit 
laying Personal Software™ strategy gann 



A quick game before turning in can become an all-night 
session when you load any of the Personal Software " strategy 
games into your Apple,* PET* or TRS-80.* They'll challenge, 
teach and entertain you. And now there are two new games- 
Gammon Gambler" and Checker King'"— joining Bridge 
Partner,'" Time Trek '" and the best-selling Microchess." 

Gammon Gambler is a sure bet. With ten levels of skill, 
you can begin a novice and become 
an expert. Whichever level you play, 
the computer moves so quickly 
you don't have to wait. The 
program follows U.S. 
tournament rules, and in- 
cludes the doubling 
cube to spice up the 
game. Written for 
the Apple and 
PET by Willy 
Chaplin, 
probably forgot 
you move and 




Gammon Gambler 



Checker King— you 
how much fun it is! If 
change your mind, take it back and move 
again— without a peep from the computer. 
Play eight skill levels. Add and remove 
pieces. Save three board positions for later 
play. And solve three challenging checker 
puzzles. Written by Michael Marks for 
the Apple, PET and TRS-80. 

Microchess, the most widely used 
personal computer chess program, is a 
nearly perfect chess opponent for the total 
novice or the advanced enthusiast. Written 
by Peter Jennings for the Apple, PET and 
TRS-80. 

" Applf is a trademark of Apple Computer, Inc.; PET is a 
trademark of Commodore Business Machines. Inc.; fRS SO i 
a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corp. 





Bridge Partner. You against the computer in over 10 million 
different hands of contract bridge. You can even specify the 
hands' high card points. Written by George Duisman for the Ap- 
ple, PET and Level II TRS-80. 

Time Trek is easy to learn, dif- 
ficult to master and impossible to 
forget. Take command of a starship 
in real-time action to make the gal- 
axy safe again. PET version by Brad 
Templeton. TRS-80 program 
by Joshua Lavinsky. 

Personal Software, Inc., 

also produces the VisiCalc '" 

program (the software that's 

revolutionizing personal 

computing), CCA Data Management Sys- 
tem, the Vitafacts series and other exciting 
software for the Apple, PET and TRS-80. 
Now that you've read about the Per- 
sonal Software programs, go see a 
demonstration. For the name of your 
nearest Personal Software dealer, call 
(408) 745-7841 or write to Personal 
Software, Inc., 592 Weddell Drive., 
Sunnyvale, CA 94086. 



Checker King 




CIRCLE 132 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ot cetera 



Improved Fulfillment 

We have just installed an on-line 
subscription fulfillment system. We be- 
lieve that we are one of the only 
magazines in the U.S. to have such a 
sophisticated system in-house. 

The hardware consists of a DEC 
PDP-11/34 with 128K of memory, a CDC 
dual disk unit with 130 megabytes of 
on-line storage, a Printronix line printer 
(300 ipm), and three Hazeltine 1510 
terminals. 

The software was written by Scribe 
Data Systems of Boston, Mass. It is a 
menu-driven package consisting of over 
100 individual program modules. 

When a subscription comes in over 
the telephone (or by mail), the terminal 
operator directly types in all the required 
information filling in the blanks in the 
"form" on the screen. All blanks must be 
filled in before the computer will "accept" 
the subscription so the chance for error 
from Incomplete information is minimiz- 
ed. Furthermore, the system "knows" the 
zip codes for every state in the U.S., it 
can recognize illegitimate bankcard and 
American Express codes, and it keeps 
track of promotional codes so we can 
more wisely target our future promo- 
tions. When a subscriber moves, the 
system leaves a "trailer" record so that 
bill payments from either address will be 
properly credited. Address changes can 
be made virtually instantaneously as can 
renewal extensions. 

Using an outside service, the average 
turn-around time on processing a new or 
renewal subscription or address change 
was four weeks. Occasionally, we got 
two-week turn-around but not infre- 
quently it was six weeks or more. 
Furthermore, our service was virtually 
unable and/or unwilling to handle some 
types of transactions. One example was 
sending renewal reminders to gift donors 
- they just couldn't seem to do it 
correctly. They also tended to ignore 
complaints because they were out of the 
ordinary — name and address misspel- 
lings, for example, were rarely corrected 
even after repeated requests. 

Our turn-around time now will be 
literally the time it takes to type the 
subscription order or address change or 
whatever. Furthermore, we have at- 
tempted to anticipate every type of 
change or transaction that might come 
up and provide a program module for It. 
(Subscribers should not expect to receive 
a magazine the day after an order is 
entered. The labels for a give issue are 
printed on the 12th of the month and 
shipped to our printer in New Hampshire. 
They are applied to the magazines which 
are mailed between the 20th and 22nd of 
the month preceding the cover date. 
Second class mail takes between five and 
20 days to reach its destination, more for 
overseas addresses. On average then, if a 
subscription is entered between March 



12 and April 12, It will start with the May 
Issue which should be received In the 
first week of May.) 

Needless to say, no conversion effort 
can be totally snag free. While we've tried 
to anticipate the possible problems, 
undoubtedly some will crop up that were 
not foreseen. Also, because of the 
massive conversion job, processing of 
any new entries (subscriptions, renew- 
als, bill payments) will be delayed. This 
of course is temporary. 

It is our hope that this new (and 
costly!) subscription fulfillment system 
will help us provide better and more 
timely service to you, our subscrib- 
ers. -DHA 

Wholesale Software 

The Software Exchange, Milford, NH 
announces the formation of it's new 
software wholesaling unit called Ram- 
works. 

The Software Exchange Is a supplier 
of software products for the TRS-80. The 
Ramworks will wholesale software for all 
popular personal computers, including 
TRS-80, Apple, Sorcerer, and Pet/CBM. 

A guaranteed sale and program 
selection service called Ramware is 
featured. Ramworks is planning a pro- 
motional campaign including names of 
all retail dealers beginning in January 
1980. 

CIRCLE 204 ON HEADER SERVICE CARD 
in rn 1 1 t i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 m 1 1 1 1 1 1 ii 1 1 

There is no indigestion worse than that which 
comes from having to eat your own words. 

Our Face Is Red Dept. 

The striking computer graphic on the 
cover of the November issue was 
reported as being in the Westiake Art 
Show described in the same issue. While 
Ruth Leavltt had several similar pieces in 
the show, the particular one on the cover 
was not one of them. It is on exhibit at 
the Modern Museum of Utrecht in the 
Netherlands. We also did not have Ruth's 
current address: it is 86 Audubon Drive, 
Snyder, NY 14226. 



We "did it" to the folks at MicroDasys 
in our November issue. In the chart of 
single board computers on page 26 we 
listed their board as an MD-6906 when in 
fact it's an MD-690b. The 6809 micropro- 
cessor is described as a 16-bit chip and 
it's actually an 8-bitter with 16-blt 
internal addressing and data manipula- 
tion capabilities. Then, on page 159, in 
the Compleat Computer Catalogue, we 
included a photo of one of their systems 
along with a product release from 
Teleray. 



Hie things most people want to know are 
usually none of their business. 



Call for Papers 

Second Clemson Small Computer 
Conference: May 21-22, 1980, Clemson 
university, Clemson, S.C. Papers are 
solicited describing applications of small 
computers. Of particular interest are 
applications in engineering, science, 
manufacturing, small business data pro- 
cessing, and education. Submit 3 copies 
of a 500-word summary by February 1, 
1980, with final papers due April 1, 1980, 
to: Wiliam J. Barnett, Electrical and 
ComputerEngineering Department, Riggs 
Hall, Clemson University, Clemson, S.C. 
29631. 



Computer Aided Graphics 

The Ukrainian Institute of Modern Art, 
2320 West Chicago Ave, Chicago, IL 
60622, is presenting an exhibition of 
computer generated imagery called ART 
IN /ART OUT. The opening and a recep- 
tion will be Friday, February 1, 1980, 
from 7-10:00pm. It will run through 
March 16. The exhibition has been 
coordinated and organized by William J. 
Kolomyjec, computer artist, Lansing, 
Michigan. The state of the art of the 
medium of computer graphics will be 
illustrated and the works of seventeen 
established computer graphic artists of 
national and international origin will be 
on display. 

For further information, please call 
Kalina Pomirko, at (312)227-5522. 



Wanted: CAI Programs 
For TRS-80 

The Craig County (Virginia) Public 
Schools have recently placed Level II 
TRS-80's in pilot programs in both 
elementary and secondary schools. 
These machines are being used with 
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) 
programs and educational programs. 

Because of an apparent scarcity of 
CAI programs, K-12, school personnel 
and advanced secondary students are 
developing such programs. This process 
is quite slow, however, when the ultimate 
objective is to offer CAI in a variety of 
subjects at all grade levels. 

We would be glad to contact schools 
and/or individuals interested in ex- 
changing programs which they develop- 
ed. Write: Earl R. Savage, Craig County 
Public Schools, P.O. Box 245, New 
Castle, Virginia, 24127. 



6 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ABeautifi 

Way To Interface 



101*© 




SOROC's first 
and foremost 
concern, to 
design outstanding 
remote video displays, has 
resulted in the development 
of the IQ 140 This unit 
reflects exquisite appearance 
and performance capabilities 
unequaled by others on the market 

With the IQ 140. the operator 

is given full command over data 

being processed by means of a wide variety 

of edit, video, and mode control keys, etc. 

The detachable keyboard, with its 

complement of 117 keys, is logically 

arranged into 6 sections plus main keyboard 

to aid in the overall convenience of operation. 

For example, a group of 8 keys for cursor control 

14 keys accommodate numeric entry 16 special function keys 

allow access to 32 pre-programmed commands 8 keys make 

up the extensive edit and clear section 8 keys for video set 

up and mode control / and 8 keys control message and print 

Two Polling options available: 1) Polling compatible with Lear 
Siegler s ADM-2 2) Polling discipline compatible with Burroughs 



e SOROC 
■ IQ 120 is the result 
of an industry- 

\wide demand 
for a capable 
remote video 
display terminal 
which provides a 
multiple of features 
at a low affordable price 
The IQ 120 terminal is a simple 
if contained, operator computer unit 

The IQ 120 offers such features as: 1920 character 

screen memory, lower case. RS232C extension. 

switch selectable transmission rates from 75 to 

19.200 bps. cursor control, addressable cursor, erase 

functions and protect mode. Expansion options presently 

available are block mode and hard copy capability with 

printer interface The IQ 120 terminal incorporates a 12-inch. 

CRT formatted to display 24 lines with 80 characters per line. 



e SOROC 
TECHNOLOGY, INC. 



165 FREEDOM AVE., AINJ AHEIIVJ, C ALI F. 92B01 

I714I992-2B60 / ISOOI 854-0147 
CIRCLE 153 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



input/ 

Output 



Another BASIC Trick 

Dear Editor: 

Concerning the article in your September issue entitled, 
"BASIC Tricks" by Jordan Mechner, I was somewhat 
confused by the proposed methods of handling the STEP 
clause. I find the following method (on the right) to be 
clearer and more general in nature: 
FORV = ATOBSTEPS 



NEXTV 

FORU = 1 TO INT( (B-A)/S)+l 
V = A + (U-1)*S 



NEXTU 

Note that this works equally well if A<B and SX) or A>B and 
S<0. 

William Wurzbach 

1429 Windmar Dr. 

Personal Experience? 

Dear Editor: 

I could be wrong but the secretary referenced in "Can 
Computers Think - Part 2" by Peter Kugel (September 1979, 
page 107) was actually Weizenbaum's secretary. He 
describes her in his book, "Computer Power and Human 
Reason." 

What surprises me is that Kugel and Weizenbaum take 
the same point of view; the secretary took a mechanical 
program seriously. It seems to me that the secretary was 
taking seriously the request by Weizenbaum to try out the 
program as if it was a real doctor. The best test is to speak in 
the realities of your own experience, which the secretary 
did; of course it got personal. The test, however, did not 
involve what was said, but how close the conversation came 
to the secretary's perception of reality. (In Eliza's case, not 
very close.) After the test she could describe her experience, 
not in terms of what she said, which was personal, but in 
terms of how well the computer did. 

C. Terrance Ireland 

George Washington University 

Washington, DC 2006 

assasassaasssssssgsgsssaaagaasaaesagesssg 

Apple Hi Res Characters 

Dear Editor: 

I enjoyed the article in November Creative Computing 
concerning user-definable character generators. I think you 
made a serious omission, however, by not reviewing the 
high-resolution character generator written by Christopher 
Espinosa. This program is part of the Apple Software Bank 
(Bank Number: 00405), and is available from any Apple 
dealer, I believe for free. 




The documentation for this program, contained in the 
publication Apple Software Bank Contributed Programs 
Volumes 3-5 (Bonus Issue) (Apple Product H A2L0014), also 
includes full instructions on how to define your own 
characters and save them in the character table. Although 
the documentation describes use of the program in a 32K 
machine, I've used it in 16K and it works fine. 

Scott Steketee 

4639 Spruce St. 

Philadelphia, Pa. 19139 

The Apple Software Bank character generator pro- 
gram is not quite as user-oriented as the other packages 
tested, because it uses POKE statements for control of 
functions such as upper/lower case, rather than embedded 
control characters. Nevertheless it is a nice package and, 
as Mr. Steketee mentions, a best buy [because it 's free]. SN 
»SSSSSSS8SSSSSSSSSSSS9SSSS3SSSSSSSSSSSSSi 

The Turing Test 

Dear Editor: 

Peter Kugel did not describe Turing's test or Turing s 
machine correctly in his article "Can Computers Think", 
(CC, Sept. 79). He also fails to credit Turing for suggesting 
computers be programmed to learn. 

Briefly stated, Turing's test consists ot two experiments. 
In the first experiment, a man, a woman, and an interrogator 
of either sex are placed in separate rooms. The interrogator 
tries to determine who occupies each room by asking 
questions. The man tries to make the interogator come to 
the wrong conclusion and the woman tries to help the 
interrogator make the correct identification. In the second 
experiment, a computer takes theplace of the man and tries 
to mislead the interrogator. The results of the two 
experiments are compared to see if the computer can 
deceive the interrogator as often as a man. I would like to 
think Turing had a keen sense of humor and devised his test 
to encourage development of computers which lie. Indeed, 
the ability to lie well is a good indication of intelligence. 

The machine Turing defined for his test is a digital 
computer, a discrete-state machine, and considered only to 
approximate the function of an analog machine. The 
"universal" machine can only duplicate the workings of all 
other discrete-state machines. 

Turing suggested we try to make computers which can 
learn. Equip them with sense organs, teach them English, 
and allow them to learn by interacting with the environment 
as though they were children. 

A reprint of Turing's 1959 paper on Computing Machines 
and Intelligence is in "Computers and Thought", edited by 
Feignbaum and Feldman, McGraw Hill, 1963 (still in print). 
This is light reading but leads to heavy thinking. The 
imitation game (Turing's test), a definition of his machine, 
and many different views and objections to intelligent 
machines are covered. Those interested in these subjects 
must read this classic. 

Gerald Cahill 

2550-90 East Ave I 

Lancaster, CA 93534 

Turing's original I960 article which appeared in MIND 
Magazine is reprinted in this issue starting on page 44. It is 
light reading but leads to heavy thinking. —DHA 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Fve finally found a personal -;^-^-;i^ 

computer I respect, r rNUU n 1,lh,u " ,,u vH:v , ''' ; '' ;i ' 

J: 1 1 s.i totally-integrated 8080A system 

w ii li tu 1 1 color graphics display, built-in 51 K 
mini-disk drive, and the best tosi performance 
ratio available in .1 personal computer. 

The complete system is only 5 1 595.* And thai price includes 8K user K AM. RS-232( 
compatibility and random access file capabilities. 

Our S foreground and background colors will boost your comprehension, while 
introducing you to an exciting new dimension in BASK programming. The vector graphic s 
have 16,484 individualh -accessible plot blocks. And the I 5" diagonal measure s< reen gn es 
\ on }2 lines of M AS( II charac ters. You also have the flexibility that comes with I6K 
I xtendedDisk BASK ROM. 

( ompucolor II offers a number of other options and accessories, like a second disk 
drive and expanded keyboard, as well as expandability to32Kof user RAM. CM course we also 
have a w hole libran ol low -cost Sot-Disk v programs, including an assembler and text editor. 

Visit your nearest computer store for details. And ^ 

while \ ou're there, do some comparison testing. With .ill 
due respe< t tot he others, once j ou see it. you'll be sold on 
the ( '.ompucolor II. I 1 l»OI"|!OI"3HOil 




JANUARY 1960 



CIRCLE 1*1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 
9 



I/O, con't... 

From An "Interpreter Author" 

Dear Editor: 

Your "Tiny Interpreter Excercise" by Philip Tubb in the 
September 1979 issue was of interest to me since I am an 
author of an interpreter. Although I don't view program- 
ming with the same strength of emotion Mr. Tubb exhibits, I 
disagree with several points in his article. 

1. It is poor to store variable names in a separate table 
because names that are no longer in use build up. Series 
with simple typing errors will cause the symbol table to 
grow ana grow. 

2. HP Basic's interpretation of A$ (2) as a substring 
reference was rejected by ANSI. Microsoft BASIC-80, 
like any ANSI Basic, supports string arrays and treats 
A$ (2) as an array reference. 

3. The surprise that Mr. Tubb expressed at not being able 
to input commas in unquoted strings is confusing since 
this is an ANSI requirement and not shameful as Mr. 
Tubb suggests. Comma is used to delimit multiple input 
items. LINE INPUT is provided in Extended Basic for 
exact literal input. A RENUM command is also 
provided. 

4. HP's Basic, like ANSI, supports only one character per 
name. Applesoft extends this to 2 significant characters 
and Extended Basic to 40. 

5. Microsoft's 5.0 Basic-80 is an ANSI compatible Basic. In 
fact, it is the only ANSI compatible Basic currently 
available for microcomputers. 

Bill Gates, President 

Microsoft 

10800 NE Eighth, Suite 819 

Bellevue.WA 98004 




Now you con really expand your horizons with the tiny-c 
structured programming language The tiny-c owner's manual 
(including 8080 and POP- 1 1 source code and tiny-c in C) is 
still just $40 And we've added these new formats to really 
egg you on TRS-80 Level II SYSTEM Format Cassette; CP M 
Diskettes with 8080 Source. PDP- 1 1 Diskette, North Star 5" 
Diskette. KIM and SYM cassettes And there's more, plus lots to 
come Order your tiny-c owner's manual today and get the 
whole story Call or write tiny c associates, P0 Box 269, 
Holmdel, N J 07733 (201) 671-2296 
You'll quickly discover tiny-c is all 
it's cracked up to be 



New Jersey residents include 5% sales tax. Visa 
and MasterCharge accepted Include charge 
plate number with order 



V 



Is It FORTH, or muSimp? 

Dear Editor: 

Hey, Waitaminute! I'll bet a dollar to a donut that 
muMATH-78/79 (July, 79) is good 'ol FORTH with some 
extended math functions and a handful of new words 
defined. I sat down at my PET, loaded up Programma's 6502 
FORTH (not a very good FORTH, I may add), and 
proceeded to write muMATH 79 myself. But 6502 FORTH 
can't handle the extended math without some machine 
language words being defined (this is fairly easy to do in 
FORTH, but I quit at that point). 

In FORTH, a word is defined by using words that were 
previously defined, which can then be used in the definition 
of more words, and so on ad infinitum . . . , which seems to be 
what was done here. Even the description of the "Package" 
on pp84-85 sounds like it came right out of the FORTH 
operator's manual. The way you "assign" words (WOW?) is 
pure FORTH. Executing words: pure FORTH. Even the 
format of print out/display is FORTH. 

Perhaps $165 for an extended FORTH is worth the price 
(or perhaps not), but they shouldn't try to pass it off as a new 
language. Actually, I think FORTH should be renamed 
GOSUBKthis is an in-joke to FORTH users). 

If this is the way computer languages are written/de- 
signed/created, I think ill write a couple of Hyberbolic 
functions in BASIC, add them to Microsoft's Basic, and call 
the whole "Package" DMC: A NEW HIGHER MATH 
SYSTEM! 

muMath indeed! muForth is more like it. 

David M. Conley 
10571 Kerigan Ct 
Santee, CA 92071 

Subject: Response to the letter by David Conley re: 
muMATH as FORTH 

muMATH is a radical departure from traditional 
scientific programming languages. In contrast to mere 
numerical evaluation of formulas, muMATH can simplify 
expressions containing variables which have not been 
assigned numerical values. In short, muMATH can do 
algebra rather than merely arithmetic. A careful 
rereading of the July and A ugust articles should clarify 
the distinction. 

It is true that muMATH and FORTH share with the 
earlier languages APL and LISP the interactive style of 
permitting incremental mixing of program definition 
with program execution. Beyond that, there is relatively 
little internal or external similarity between muMATH 
and FORTH. Even the colon operator you mention is 
used differently in the two languages. muMATH is 
implemented in a language called muSIMP, which is 
internally similar to LISP but externally more similar to 
Pascal. Thus, I am afraid that you lose your bet of a "dollar 
to a donut. " 

It is of course possible to implement a symbolic math 
system in FORTH or any other general-purpose 
programming language; but you seriously underestimate 
the difficulty of this task, whatever language is used: The 
most powerful systems occupy between 1 and 2 
megabytes of memory, and all of the serious systems 
have taken many person-years to develop by experienced 
experts in the field, with consequent costs which often 
exceed a million dollars. [The correct muMATH-79 
license fee is, by the way, $190, which includes 
documentation that is separately available for $15.] 

Perhaps the easiest way to appreciate the magnitude 
of the task and the dramatic difference from traditional 
scientific computation is to order the documentation, 
which includes reference manuals and lessons. You will 
find that muMATH now has a matrix package, a 
nonlinear equation package, and other powerful new 
capabilities beyond those described in the articles. 

David R. Stoutemyer 

General Partner 

The Soft Warehouse 

P.O. Box 11174 

Honolulu, Hawaii 96828 



10 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SELECTOR III - C2 
THE INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 

Includes these Application Sub-Programs. . . 

Sales Activity, Inventory, Payables, Receivables, Check/Expense Register, 
Library Functions, Mailing Labels, Appointments, Client/Patient Records 



MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO 
-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICI 
iP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO 
JErOAP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
O-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
..IICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
,.CRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
.P MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
AP M ICRO-A P MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
|mICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
kP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
kP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 
MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO- 
VP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICR 



-AP MICRO-AP M 

RO-AP MICRO-Af 

AP MICRO-AP M 

RO-AP MICRO-Af 

-AP MICRO-AP M 

:RO-AP MICRO-Af 

-AP MICRO-AP M 

:RO-AP MICRO-AF. 




NEW RELEASE 

GLector— General Ledger Option 
The Industry's most powerful, flexible and 
informative GL system is now available from 
Micro- Ap. Look at these features . . . 

* Transaction entries by type 

* Trial Balance upon entry. 

* No need to memorize account num- 
bers or whether credited or debited. 

* Full 24 month data storage. 

* Update any account balance in cur- 
rent fiscal year with automatic month 
recomputatlon. 

* Balance Sheet as of any month with 
current and last year balances. 

* P & L for any period of current fiscal 
year . . . any time . . . contains cur- 
rent and last year periods, % of sales. 
YTD, and % change for period. 

* Automatic year-end closing. 

* Menu selected . . . instant ISAM re- 
trievals. 

* Introductory price . . . $250 

* Requires SELECTOR III-C2. 



I-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
RO-AP MICRO-AP I 
l-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
RO-AP MICRO-AP I 
l-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
RO-AP MICRO-AP I 
)-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
:RO-AP MICRO-AP I 



-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
:RO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP i. 
-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP Ml 
:RO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP MICRO-AP » 



RANDOM, MULTI-KEY RECORD RETRIEVAL under CP/M, CDOS, IMDOS, ADOS 



SELECTOR III-C2 ALLOWS INSTANT 
RECALL OP ANY RECORD USING ANY IN- 
FORMATION ITEM IN THE RECORD. That 
statement deserves re-reading, because 
that ability makes SELECTOR III-C2 the 
most powerful information management 
system in microcomputers today! 



The three major activities in business 
computing are.. .Word Processing, Finan- 
cial Accounting, and the storing, pro- 
cessing, and reporting of information. 
The latter is where SELECTOR III-C2 
shines and fills the professional and per- 
sonal need. 



The system represents the state of the 
art using Micro-Ap's unique record Index- 
ing, query, and report writing methods. 
It's 'menu driven' and uses screen 
displays with all the instructions and er- 
ror sensing that allow the novice to 
quickly learn the system and accomplish 
his tasks. 



With SELECTOR III-C2 you... 

• define a record format assigning up to 
24 fields as 'key' fields -meaning that 
records can be instantly recalled by 
name, date, quantity, ZIP Code, or 
whatever. 

• create a file and begin entering edited 
and verified data immediately. 

• browse through your file in key field 
order, making whatever changes or dele- 
tions needed. 

• select collections of records meeting 
your exact requirements and arranged in 
the order wanted. 

• create a unique report that contains 
the precise information you need - with 
numerical totals, averages, maxima, and 
minima -for any period of time and sum- 
marized by name, date.. .or by any item 
you want. 

• bring an application on-line in hours in- 
stead of months. 

CIRCLE 171 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SELECTOR III-C2 is a turn-key' system 
that can manage most applications as is. 
It includes source-code and pre-defined 
record formats and sub-programs to per- 
form the tasks listed at top of page. Pro- 
grammers can easily add other sub- 
programs - using the system's powerful 
utilities - to perform virtually any special 
computation or function required. 

The system runs under CBASIC Vers. 2. 
and is pi iced at $345. It's available in a 
variety of CP/M, disk formats including 
Dynabyte; North Stai; Micropolis; TRS- 
80; Helios II; Heathkit; iCOM; Altair; Im- 
sai; Cromemco; and othei s. 



I 
I 
I 
I 
I 
I 



May be seen at 
COMPUTER STORES WORLDWIDE 



I 
I 
I 



It not locally SIOCkM. order Irom . . 

LIFEBOAT ASSOCIATES 

2248 Broadway. Suite 34 
New York, NY 10024 • (212) 580-0082 | 

Of. | 

MICRO-AP 

9807 Davona Drive. San Ramon. CA 94583 I 
(415) 828-6697 



Effective Writing 



David H. Ahl 



Numbers Are 
Words Too 




Yes, I know when I first threatened 
to run an effective writing column, I 
promised you a well-known lexicolo-' 
gist. Unfortunately, the person I had in 
mind got a better offer, namely a year 
sabbatical in Europe. Edwin Newman 
and William Satire were both com- 
mitted, so it looks like you're stuck with 
me until someone more qualified 
volunteers. Two letter writers, in 
response to my short piece in Septem- 
ber, pointed out that I had no business 
telling other people how to write and 
several others warned of the dangers in 
finding fault with the language of 
others. I agree that there are risks, but I 
disagree that there is no value to this 
sort of thing in the long run. A reminder 
about a rule of grammar or usage that 
might have been forgotten from school 
or perhaps never encountered pre- 
viously may make the difference 
between a mediocre article (or report, 
letter, etc.) and one that stands out. I 
believe, as Donald Knuth believes 
about programming, that attention to 
many little details contributes far more 
to success than the initial idea. 

Since numbers tend to crop up in 
articles about computing more than 
elsewhere, this first column is devoted 
to the proper (and improper) use of 
numbers in writing. 

As a mentioned in my previous 
piece, to facilitate the reading of 
numbers of more than four digits, a 
comma is generally placed before each 
third numeral. The comma is usually 
omitted from numbers of only four 
digits such as 1000 or 9999 unless the 
number appears in a column having 
numbers that do require commas. For 
example, 32,876 or 5,127,467,000. 

While "standard" book and maga- 
zine rules generally specify that all 
numbers in text should be written out, 
the same does not apply in technical 
writing. The general rule is that 
numbers nine and lower should be 
written out, but figures used for 
numbers 10 and higher. Several ex- 
ceptions are noted below which 
require the use of figures for any 
^number, 



A unit of measurement, for ex- 
ample, always takes a figure (3 in., 5 lb, 
8 v, or 15 amp). Figures are also used 
after terms of specific designation 
such as Socket 6, Order No. 4, Section 
5 or page 6. Note that common nouns 
are capitalized when they are used with 
a number or letter to designate a 
specific thing. "Page," for reasons 
unknown to me, is an exception to this 
rule. Perhaps it is because there are so 
many of them. 

Figures are also used for items in a 
series, such as 6 resistors, 4 capa- 
citors, 17 IC's, and 1 mounting board. 
Plurals, incidentally, are formed using 
an apostrophe when the plural is to be 
made of a figure, letter, sign, symbol, 
hieroglyph or other character. Ex- 
amples: 0's, K's, &'s, s's, ()'s and 80's. 
This last one was the subject of some 
debate in Satire's October 21 column 
in the Times. Said Safire. "An apos- 
trophe — from the Greek word mean- 
ing 'turn away' — is a mark inserted 
when you turn away from using a letter 
Or it is used to form the plural of 
numbers and letters. It does not always 
imply possessive." So although some 
editors claim that 80s implies some- 
thing possessed by the decade of the 
eighties, this is just not the case. While 
we're on decades, shouldn't it be '80s 
as in the "spirit of 76?" No. The 
apostrophe goes only before a single 
year, not a decade. So, goodbye 70s 
and hello '80. 

Figures are also used for dates and 
times as in 4:30 p.m. February 1, 1980. 
Use figures for sums of money; note 
the several acceptable ways of expres- 
sing amounts less than one dollar 
($2400, $342.67, $3.49, $0.39, 39 cents, 
39$, 39c). Addresses use figures also 
(51 Dumont Place, Apt. 7C). Use 
figures to indicate a percentage as 4 
percent, 4 per cent or 4%. Figures are 
also used in decimal numbers with a 
zero, if required, before the decimal 
point as 2.5 million, 12.4 volts, or 0.87 
ft. 

The use of figures in fractions is 
sometimes tricky. The rule is that 
figures should be used for fractions 



that appear with a whole number but 
they should be written out when they 
appear alone. Use a hyphen only if the 
word "of" does not follow the fraction. 
Examples: an increase of 5'/ 2 volts, an 
increase of one half of a pound, an 
increase of one-half pound, or two- 
thirds completed. 

Hyphens can be bothersome little 
animals. They are generally used in 
both cardinal and ordinal numbers 
between twenty-one and ninety-nine 
(or twenty-first and ninety-ninth) but 
not for numbers such as one hundred 
or two thousandth. Hyphens are also 
used to form an adjective from a 
number and unit of measurement such 
as a 50-ohm resistance or 2-ton load, 
but not in a resistance of 50 ohms. 

Write out numbers that come at 
the beginning of a sentence. If pos- 
sible, it is better to recast the sentence 
so that the number is not at the 
beginning. "The circuit requires 35 
IC's" is preferred to "Thirty-five IC's 
are required by the circuit." When 
numbers designating two different 
things come together one should be 
written out and the other designated by 
figures. Either of the following is 
acceptable: 20 fifty-volt capacitors or 
twenty 50-v capacitors. 

A particularly confusing pair of 
abbreviations are those used for one 
thousand, namely K and M. In business 
and industry, especially electronics, K 
means 1000, as in 8K memory or a 
salary of $14K. However, in the printing 
industry, M is commonly used to 
represent 1000, as in a press run of 
82M. This obviously stems from the 
Roman numeral usage of M to repre- 
sent 1000. However, for 1000, we 
strongly prefer K. When used in 
Creative Computing, M will refer to one 
million, as in disk storage of 1.2M. Both 
letters, by the by, when used as 
abbreviations, should be capitalized, 
i.e., K and M. not k and m. 

Should there be enough sentiment 
to continue this column, from readers 
that is, next time well delve into plurals 
(like data and S100's) and possessives 
(like the computer's memory versus 
the memory of the computer). D 



12 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



TRSBO MODEL II FORMAT NOW AVAILABLE 



CMOITAL P.ISMKCH •£!■"£? 

D ggr FLOPPY DISKETre OPBUTWO 8Y»- 

* TDM — PacAagaa luKM on orsAane compM* *•»> 

■oio min t iii . mi tam. turn oatuggar ■ 

*»H para A* documam a A o n CP M «¥»__, 
Agurad lor most papular computarKMi aywama mdud- 
«g Nora, SI* SmoM Ooubw or Quad danuy Ma 8 
*i*t Haaoa H. Endy Sorcarar vaclor MZ. Haati Hl7t 
or Ma»t IR&rjot COM 3712 and ,COM Moo Drak 
plus marry omar conaguraaona avaaabMr on vta anaa 

»«" 
CPU varamn 2 |mM aa form 



"WS5S 



>S*[M** { 



_ Full . 
bona Paraido Op. rrtuda BPC WP REPT TITLE 
PAGE ana MACirS Z 80 Wrary naurjad Pnducas 
karri abaoArra ha« ourrjut plus tymtxrr* Ma lor use by SID 
laaaoarowl IUI1I 

□ SaD - 8060 symboac dabuggar Ful aaca. paaa ooum 



d*. 



- 8080 symtokc Oaouggar Fu> not. paaa c 

to tVMk-pffnl program teeeng system w4b back t 

id histogram uUM When uMd w*h MAC. provrdee 
« symbofcc A* ' 



-- . ylfto-AtaDovvtorZaO Reou»re* / <80CPo SSaYSiS 

D TEX — Tart fonrtaOar to craato pagmaMd. page- r»um 

bared and iu. n w.ad copy from source tni Maa. <kreciar«e 

io cast w pnmw trotti 

D DCSPOOi. — Program to parmtf «mu«anaou* printing 
of data i rom dak wfwe user aaacuMa another program 
bom Ma conecto SdaVSS 



BAStC-tO - Disk Ertandad BASIC ANSI compabtt* 
wan tong variable namaa. WMtLE WENO ohammg. va» 
abto tamjrh Ma records H OJIII 

BASIC COMMLER - Language compabbto witti 
BAStC-00 and J- 10 kmes faster nacubon Producaa 
standard Ucroaon rtsto ossa bto bnary output include* 
Uacrr>80 AtM> knfcabto to FORTRAN 80 or COBOL 80 



ANSI 66 <«<capt for COMPLEX) 
p*us many e a torsston s IrKSudaa ratocatabto otsect com- 
p*ar. irntung loader, abrary i 
MACnO-ao (aaa betaw, 



CO»*V. EXTEND 



Loader. Library M a n agar and Croat Ra*aranca 
ukkkea incturJad 



output 

ca List 

S14SSH 



XMACROSS — 80— croaa) ■afcamMai AM Macro and 
uMrty feature* Ol M A O ffchl W**W* Mrserrrorac* 



wrth or w-thout kna nwnbers GtobM and irara-kne com- 
manda aupportad File compare ufthty included SStvSlfl 

MM C BO FOCUS 

STANDARD CIS COBOL - ANSI 74 COBOL 
standard compter fufy vaMatad by US Navy Mats to 
ANSI Mvat 1 .supports many Malum to taval 2 axfudmg 
dynvrwc loadmg ot COBOL rnodulaa and a h* ISAM Ma 
lagM y AMo . prog ram sagmantaaon wiMrartva debug 
and powerful inter actvo extensions to auppofl proMctad 
and unproMcMd CRT acraan formalkng rrorn COBOL 
prograrm uaad Mr«i any dbrmb MrmNW BB6X60 

. 2 - CRT acraan adrtor Outoul <% COBOL daU 
mi tor copying tnto CIS COBOL programs 
laac—y craatat a guary and updan program of *> 
Maa u»«g CRT proMciad and unprotactod acraan 



by CIS COBOL ( 



(Handard) 



KIM — Kayad Indai Saquanaal Saarcn OrMn oom 
pk*ta Murafvvyad lnda« SaquankaJ and Dwacl AcoauMa 
\ todudaa bg*-« uM«y funcaona for 16 or 



S 



compara Oaavwrad aaa ratocatabto krttabM moduM m 
t*croac#t formal tor um vMh FOHTRAN80 or COBOL 
60.MC S33&S2J 

KBAStC - Mkcroaoft Oak EUandad BASIC artttt Ml 
KISS faaMrM. irrtagrMad by irnpMman M bon of rant 



ilia*. infagrMad 
commands in I 
KISSR 6L aa <J 

lo acanaad ijaavs of 1 



°^ia 



SUPER-SORT I - Sort morga a.traa ^ty as ablc- 
(fi Me eiacutabta program or briMCM modula m MFcnjaofl 
formal Sorta t«ad or vartaUa raoorda vMh data m bnay 
BCD Pacfcad OaomM EBCDIC ASCII floakng aaad 
POM axponarMM. fMM N »* **d Mc ate EvanvanaMa 



WORD-STAR - Manu drrvan vtauM word procaaamg 

i aystom tor uaa watt) standard MrmnMa Taxt tormaltng 

partormad on acraan F a otraai tor M>1 pagpnata. paga 

nurnbar ju»My. cantor and undaracora U*ar can pnrt 

/W«a> iVia lamafcTal HaaTtMaBl Baflii laaarn ajni aafc ailU mm ai aaruytrl 



u>»» oaxwmana uiiii sanuaianacwary aorang a sacono 
EdN faoAMM mctuda gtooal saarcn and raptoot. raad 
Mnto to oViar ant Maa. Mook move ate Raqutfaa CRT 
Mmwial •*•> addraaaabta ouraor poaiaorang t44tVtH 

WORD-MASTER T**i Editor - m ona mod* hat 

9 suparaat o< CP Ms ED commands including global 

l aarcning and raplaong lonaard and Backwards m Ma In 

vrdao mode prowdaa fu« aaaan a(Mor lor uaars 



SOFTWARE SVSTCMS 

D CSAStC-2 Oak Ertandad B 

* BASIC *r» psaudo- code con 
Mr Supports U Ma control 



O PASCALS - Z40 i 
Produca* cpMTwad. RO 
Mong to C P M « twough 



PASCAL c 
art coda AJ miar 
Uvary Tha pack 



and 2 80 CPU 
aacapt vanart f- 



SSX& 



8PASCAUWT Subaatot 
arataa ROMabM 6060 rrvactana 




Standard PASCAL Gan 

nbcac dabuogar 

and BCD artr. 

VO and aaaarnbry larv 

"■^a, Enurnarabon and 
BASIC to PASCAL 



Source tor PA! 

MAC (Saaundar Drgrtai P 



4P&&* 



STRUCTURED SYSTEMS GROUP 

D OEMERAL LEDGER MMracMra and flax** sya 

Mm proving proof and report outputs Customwaton of 
COA craatad mMractrvary MulkpM brancri accounting 
center* Extensive checking partormad M data entry tor 
proof COA corractnass atc_ J ournal artnaa may be 
balcti ad prior to poafcng Ctoamg pnxadura automaacaRy 
backs up mput Maa A* reports can be tartored as neces 
sary RaguKM CBAStC-? SBBSfS«l 

I 1 ACCOUNTS RECETVABLC Opan Ham system 
«wtti output tor internal aged reports and customer on 



1 btflmg purpoaaa On-una Enckary 
parmrts ntormaMm tor Customer Serv-ce and CredM de 
partmanta toted aca to General Ladgar providad rt been 
systems used Raqmnts CBASlC 2 SSSSVSSS 

I ACCOUNTS PAYABLE - Provtdn agad state 
mants ot accounts by vendor wrth chack wrttng tor 
t aM ct ad mvocaa Can be uaad aiona or vMh General 
Ladgar and/or ertn NAD Raqurraa CBAStC^ SSBS IH 

I ANALYST - Custorrwed data artry and raporang sys 

Mm User apacMaa up to r^dgR "tarns par record Intor- 



ItMuptMM taQMy makas 
*»#y Sopn«bcatad report 
ama reports uamg a aMclad 



n -ponts tor summarva- 
«on Raquwas CBAStC 2 24 « 6 CRT pnntar and 48K 
s ystem S22sV«19 

I LETTERfQHT - Program to create adtt and type let 
Mrs or cenar documents Mas tacrfcees to enter ckspMy 
delate and move Mat. eMn good vrdao screen presents 
ton Oaargnad to •rtagrate erth NAD tor form MOW mat- 
•nga Raquraa CBAStC 2 sit 

D 

marl MM o raakon and marnlenanca program aaVt outoul 
aa fui reports anlh ratoranoa data or reslnctod rntorma- 
kon tor mail labata Transtor system tor aakacfeon and 
Iranator of sa tactad raoorda to cri M l nasv Mas Requires 
CBASIC-2 STtVSSS 

L] OSORT - Faat sonmarga program tor Mas vrrtn hsad 
record kmgth vanabM '-akf length intormabon Up to frva 



ORANAM-DORIAN -~" _ 

SOFTWARE STSTIHS wC 7^ 

GENERAL LEDGER An onana ayraaiTi. no UAav 
a raqurrrrd Enmaa to offrar GRAMMJ DOftiAN ac- 



SUPER-SORT ■ «oova amUrbu ai ataolula pro 

(I oramonly *1TaV«M 

SUPER-SORT ■ - Aa M wrlhoul SCLECT ( EXCtUO€ 



mgs Kaaps ft rt^sssSatory and provides oompamwn . 
Currant yaw arih prevwus yaar Requires CBASrC . 
Suppfcad rn source S4tM> S3 



ctxjnftng packages 
kahas OLNMorrva' 
record of |Ourrwl 




PAYROLL SYSTEM Marntarna amptoyaa master 
Ma Computes payroll «r4hholding for FICA. Federal and 
SUM Uxaa PrsnM payroa register, checks quarterty r» 
pods and W'2 tor ma Can generate ad hoc reports and 
employee form letters with mail labels Raquires 
CBAStC Suppbed «\ source coda SM M rSJS 

INVENTORY SYSTEM - Captures slock Mvata. 
coats souroaa. sales agas, turnover markup, ate 
Transaction •radrmaaon may be entered tor reporting by 
salesman typo of sate, data of taM. ate Reports avW- 
abM bc4h tor aocotaskng and daoann making Raquraa 
CBAStC Suppfcad m source code 6M J 6S H 




namM managamant system lor receipts and sacunty 
dapoaru of apadmant prcaacts Captures data on vacan 
eras, ravanues etc tor annual trend anjtysrs Dairy report 
snows MM rants vacancy nottoaa. vac 
tost trrough vacancies, etc Raquraa CBASlC 



CASH REGISTER Marntarna Mas on darfy saMs 

FiMs data by MMa parson and earn Tracks saMs over 

rings, refund*, i 
CBAStC f 



Ony C 



systsm lor taacfww 
Manual includes tut 



BOS C COMPILER Supports moat mafor features 
Of language inctodrng structures Arrays Pointers 
recursrve funckon evatoaaon knkable «Hh kbrary to 8080 
bwtary output Lacks data tratakzaaon. long 6 ftoat type 
and suae A ragaMr ctaaa a pac ifM ra Documentation m 
dudes C Programmmg Language book by Kernrghan 4 
Racrva SIlVsiS 



. . - Tha u 

systems aottwara tooM Produces faster coda *tan Paa^ 
cai «Mh mora ertansrva t aokkai Cortorms to tva toi 
UNIX'" version 7 C Language daaenbad by tLamghan 
rSrunctonator 



CPM 



LO Mr 
Don bnkabta to Ucroaofl REL 



M»on and storage i 

Maa RaquraaaOK 



POLYVUE/SO Fua screen adrtor tor any CRT 

XV cursor pcavkonmg Inctudas varticM and homonlal 
scroftng, mtaracnva search and rapUca automat*: teit 
wrap around for word processing , oparatona tor manpu 
la^btocttsoftoat and cemprananarva 70 paga manual 

iiJsvsii 

POLYTEXT/SO Tad lorm a tsar tor word procaawng 
rcetertWes wJi 



pr oc aastng Support tor Daisy Wheel prtoters •nctudes 

vanabM pitch fusbheafcon and motion opkmuafcon 

■ SS6V S1S 

ALGOL -SO - Powerful block structured language 
compttar Ma tu ring aconorracM run Mne dynamc aaoca- 
tion of memory Vary compact (24K total RAM) system 
■mplemenknp almost at Algol 60 report Matures plus 
many powerful e* tensions aickjrjng stnng handbng datacl 

- laaazaffcpu until 



Pnorn and apocHrcalrona aubiacl to cnange rrraioul notroa 



r PACKAOC - Conrraa a 
( I ) <HX Ma ana odu arrri gtobal Mar arm <*a tna la* 

aaa (2) Z80 raioc a ang aaamaiai , — 



lap ato m . I3i anamg loadar pmouong aoaoMa Hal 

•norakMa 8M.SM 

] ZOT 28X1 Oabuggar to aaoa braak and aana raa 

• nan •* turoard z«oo.Uoiir>* mnantonc itaaaaanv 

Wy laaplays $39 aftan ordorad t«rt> 280 Oavatoprnant 

win 

OISTEL - Drak baaad dwaaaambtar to anal 0080 or 

TDUXaan 280 amrroa coda, aamg and croaa rararan ca 

Maa total or TOLXaan paaudo opa opaonal Runa on 

8080 H1I10 

O DTSaLOQ - Aa OISTEL to Zagg MoaMA mnanonrc 
M Maa FkmaonzaOonly tasno 

i ra U ll^ liria— Taallormrr8» toaraalyandpaot- 



carda maaraon ol Mat dumg asacuaon from o*MJr cry* 
Maa or comora parmitang raopa docirmams to b« 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE - Craaan Inal oalanoa 

raporta. p iapaiaa Mal awarrM. aoaaaocoiai 

rnyoroaa Provrdat u ii laj ajMLfA V aiaa L iii d a auaw r j cua- 



tor aorlad mda« labia ol conajma and foolnoay inaaraons 
nuala aK tl* 



isant qdtMEaRaMvBtB*c£n be posted to drtsar- 
ant ladoar ac<4MU^rnr>as automat»catiy update 
GRAHAM- DORIAN gMwMMdoar or runs as stand atone 
system Requires CBASIC-2 Supplied m source 



M 1 bat rrwantananoa Features exsuda kayad record e<fcac 

iron and MbM producbon A form ■attar program is «n- 
cludad wt»ich provides neat letters on swjle snaat or con 
knuous torms Regu>res CBASlC 2 ftMtti 

WHATSIT?*™ Intnrackve daU base system uamg 
m oaab v t lags 10 retrieve information by subject Hash 
«g and random access uaad tor Mat raaponaa Raqtam 
CBASlC? StStVSSft 

XYBAStC miarackve Prooaaa Control BASIC — Ft* 
disk BASIC features plus uraque oomrisanda to hantfe 
bytes rotate and atatt. and to MM and sat baa AvaiMMi 
m totagar Ertandad and RCsVtattU varawna 



t •tended Drak or Eitanded ROMabM 

i SMAUSO structured Macro Aaaerrtbtod Lanpuage - 

Package of powerful general purpose Mat macro proc 

essor and SMAL structured Unguage compear SMAL is 

an assambtar language wrth If ■ THEN- ELSE, LOOP 

REPEAT WHILE. DO END BEGIN END constructs 

•TSS1S 

SELECTOR »-C2 DaM Base Ptofaec* to crsata 

M and rrtamum mult Kay data baaes Pnrts fcrrrsstlad 

sorted reports wrth numerical aummar.es or maikng 

labaM Comas wrth sampM appk ea ttona esdudtng Sates 

Ackvity Irvvwrstorv Payables Rec en. abtos Oacfc Ragai 

Mr and CkaM Patient Apporntmerrts ate Requires 

CBAStC Vatston ? Suppbed « sourc* code SSSsYSSO 

CPM/374X Has tut rang* of tuncfeona to create or 
re name an BM 3741 volume drapMy Oractory irstor 



8 BASK UTILITY DISK - Conwsts of (1) CRUNCH- 
14 - Compackng ukbty to reduce the we and incraaan 
tha speed of programs m U9oac#t Btts«c and TRS-60 
Basic (?) DPf UN - Double preavon subrouMwja tor 

computing nineteen tranecendental funcbona esdudrng 
square root, natural log. log base 10. em arc am. hyper 
bote am, rtyperbokc arc am. ate Furntabad in source on 



. 1 THE STRING BIT Fortran character string rvarv 
M dkog Routmas to Mid M pack move separata, con- 
c ManMs and compara character strings Thai package 
comptotary ebmmatas tt>a probMm a aaaooatad wrth 
character atong handbng -n FORTRAN Suppfcad Wrth 
source S4aVS«S 



CRC btocfc control 




xrtal smgte st 



300 h*.y1 v*tr 

Standard and M 

TRSDOS 

sissvss 

. Disk KM- TampMM and mafruckons to modify 

SfdedS"." aakaties tor use of second s«de m sr>- 

S1S.SS 

FLOPPY SAVER ProMckon tor canter holaa of 5% " 
floppy dtaks Onry t < 

IMM 
Reorders of nogs Inry ST.fl* 

■ 
' i a tiadsmark o> Bet Laboratrmas 

' a a fiademark of Computer H.ujdware 

■-.if TRSW (A.*- i and ■'>,**-, 
moc»ta»d <snd muat use spa o aty co m p aad vers»or<a ol sy st em 
■to -ttAjilaCal-Tns svytw^f 
Mrxktied r»tw». a i a ta tt s ky use wan CP M as <rr>ptarrv < traad 
onHaathand TRS 80 Model i computars 

nee a g reema rt lor S**s product must be sorted and 
to L>bjooet A s so ciat e s batora tt wj mart may ba made 



Shopping 
List No.8 

Software for most popular 8080 Z80 computer disk systems including 
NORTH STAR, iCOM, MICROPOLIS, DYNABYTE DB8I2 & DB8I4, EXIDY 
SORCERER, SD SYSTEMS, ALTAIR, VECTOR MZ. MECCA, 8 IBM, 
HEATH H17& H89, HELIOS, IMSAI VDP42 & 44, REX, NYLAC, 
INTERTEC, VISTA V80 and V200, TRS-80 MODEL I and MODEL II, 
ALTOS, OHIO SCIENTIFIC and IMS 5000 formats. 




..boat Associates 

THE 
SOFTWARE 

.suren- 

MARKET 



1 



Order* must tp*cify riis* 
systems and formats 
eg North Slar single, 
double or quad density 
IBM single or 2D/2S6. 
Altar Mebos II, 
Mtcropohs Mod I or II. 

5V4" soft sector (Micro 
iCOMrSO Systems 
Dynabyto). etc 

P-icesFOB NewYortt 
Sf>ipptog handling and 
COD charges extra 



■ubssQusni nEwsis 

purehBM 

The sale of each 
propriety •oBmmjmj 
package conveys a 
license tor use on one 
system only 



TrVI K ' 



' -Thm SoTfwara Suparmaraar ,1 a radamar* or uttjoH ■■■ u i ' raail 



Lifeboat Associates, 2248 Broadway NY NY 10004 
(212) 580-0082 Tele, 2XXa\^ i / e4iJtl44lt ^ < ^/ ) 



fft£ 



You'll save money, 
have fun, and learn 
by building it yourself 
— with easy-to-assemble 
Heathkit Computers. 
See all the newest in 
home computers, video 
terminals, floppy disk 
systems, printers and 
innovative software. 

Send today 
for your 



Heathkit 

Catalog 




If coupon is missing, write 
Heath Co., Dept. 355-612, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022 



Send to: Heath Co., Dept. 355-612, 
Benton Harbor, Ml 49022. 

Send my free Heathkit Catalog now. 
I am not currently receiving your 
catalog. 

Name 



Address 



City. 



CL-728 



State 
Zip— 



CROSSWORD 

° \ y: m r n 

7Z ■■^■t* 




b 
8 

ACROSS 



I. Ah, that's the 

3. Type of print mechanism 

8. Verdi opera 

10. Exclamation of satisfaction 

II. Inductivity 

12. Computer is modern counterpart of 

this Norse goddess 
14. 01 Informatique published here 
16. Gold Book 

18. This mythical bird could carry a midi 
computer 

19. Functioning 

20. CRT and illness 

23. Former 

24. Kind of electrical current 

25. Religious teacher 

26. Tesla invented it 

28. Phaser, photo torpedo 

30. Memory bubbles travel in one 

32. Type of radio transmission 

34. Doctor of engineering 

35. Sometimes causes blackouts 

36. Steal 

38. You can't have too much of this 

(abbrev.) 
39. Parasitic's power supply compared to 

Altair 

41. Egyptian sun god 

42. That which goes In 
44. Means of ascent 

47. Cheery greeting 

48. Major communications systems 
manufacturer 

49. Scottish explorer 

51 . Ida Tar bell's target 

52. Most video monitors made there 
(second word) 

53. Altairs have one for programmers 

56. Railroad 

57. His relative pops out of a clock 
. 58. Type of power outage 



T 
O 
H 
N 

F. 

Y 
O 
u 
N 

6 



D 
A 
V 
I 
D 

A 
H 

L 



DOWN 



1.-32,767 to 32,767 

2. Mineral used in paint 

3. You need one to enter DOD computer 
installations 

4. Memory — 

5. Moses' older brother 

6. Summer Consumer Electronics Show 
held here 

7. Jumps technology will make 
9. Type of register 

13. Ohio University 
15. Department of northern Chile 
17. Forms the comparative degree of 
adjectives 

21. What a nice girl becomes when 
reading a sexist article 

22. Popular computer game lands you on 
this surface 

26. It pays a company to put one in 
Creative Computing 

27. Code classification assigned to book 
or magazine 

28. Human being 

29. Homophone of 3.14159 
31. Ancient city in Egypt 

33. County where Creative Computing is 
located 

37. Difficult to simulate this woodwind 
instrument on a computer 

38. Moth with powdery wings 
40. A lifetime in computers 

43. Mountain range in Utah 

44. Tree yielding a thick, white fat 

45. Transactional Analysis 

46. Infrared 

50. River in Switzerland 

53. Approx. 22/7 

54. Canadian province 

55. And behold! 

John K. Young, 167 Richard Road, Braintree, 
MA, 02185 



14 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



CIRCLE 170 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



torn PEfiGOM 



One-Drive System: 

$399. (40-track) & $675. (77-track) 
Two-Drive System: 

$795. (40-track drives) & $1350. (77-track drives) 
Three-Drive System: 

$1195. (40-track drives) & $2025. (77-track drives) 
Requires Expansion Interlace. Level II BASIC & 16K RAM 




Low Cost Add-On Storage for Your TRS-80*. 

In the Size You Want. 

When you're ready for add-on disk storage, we're ready for you. 
Ready with six mini-disk storage systems — 102K bytes to 591 K bytes of 

additional on-line storage for your TRS-80*. 



• Choose either 40-track TFD-100™ drives 
or 77-track TFD-200™ drives. 

• One-, two- and three-drive systems im- 
mediately available. 

• Systems include Percom PATCH PAK 
#1™, on disk, at no extra charge. PATCH 
PAK #1 m de-glitches and upgrades 
TRSDOS* for 40- and 77-track operation. 

• TFD-100™ drives accommodate "flippy 
disks." Store 205K bytes per mini-disk. 

• Low prices. A single-drive TFD-100" 
costs just $399. Price includes PATCH 
PAK #1™ disk. 

• Enclosures are finished in system- 
compatible "Tandy-silver" enamel. 



Whether you need a single, 40- 
track TFD-100™ add-on or a three-drive 
add-on with 77-track TFD-200 ™s, you 
get more data storage for less money 
from Percom. 

Our TFD-100™ drive, for example, 
lets you store 102.4K bytes of data on 
one side of a disk — compared to 80K 
bytes on a TRS-80* mini-disk drive — 
and 102.4K bytes on the other side, too. 
Something you can't do with a TRS-80* 
drive. That's almost 205K bytes per 
mini-disk. 

And the TFD-200™ drives provide 
1 97K bytes of on-line storage per drive 



— 1 97K, 394K and 591 K bytes for one-, 
two and three-drive systems. 

PATCH PAK #1™, our upgrade 
program for your TRSDOS*, not only 
extends TRSDOS* to accommodate 40- 
and 77-track drives, it enhances 
TRSDOS* in other ways as well. PATCH 
PAK #1™ is supplied with each drive 
system at no additional charge. 

The reason you get more for less 
from Percom is simple. Peripherals are 
not a sideline at Percom. Selling disk 
systems and other peripherals is our 
main business — the reason you get 
more engineering, more reliability and 
more back up support for less money. 



In the Product Development Queue ... a printer interface for using your TRS-80' with any 
serial printer, and . . . the Electric Crayon ' M to map your computer memory onto your color TV 
screen — lor games, animated shows, business displays, graphs, etc. Coming PDQI 



™ TFD-100. TFD-200. PATCH PAK and Electric Crayon are trademarks ot PERCOM 0ATA COMPANY 

•IRS 80 and TRSDOS are trademarks ol Tandy Corporation and Radio Shack otiich nave no reMnnsfap to PERCOM DATA COMPANY 



PERG0M 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY, INC. 
211 N. KIRBY • GARLAND. TX • 75042 



To order add-on mini-disk storage for your TRS-80* , 
or request additional literature, call Percom's toll-free 
number 1-800-527-1592. For detailed Technical infor- 
mation call (214) 272-3421. 

Orders may be paid by check or money order, or 
charged to Visa or Master Charge credit accounts. Texas 
residents must add 5% sales tax. 

Percom 'peripherals for personal computing' 



JANUARY 1980 



15 



CIRCLE 1S2 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MicroNET 

It's off and running. And delivering 

as promised. 



What is MicroNET? 

It is the personal computing 
service of CompuServe, 
Incorporated. CompuServe is a 
nationwide commercial time 
sharing computer network with 
large-scale mainframes. 
MicroNET allows the personal 
computer user access to 
CompuServe's large computers, 
software and disc storage 
during off-peak hours (from 
6 PM to 5 AM weekdays, all day 
on Saturdays, Sundays and 
most holidays). 

What do I get? 

You can use our powerful 
processors with X-Basic, 
Fortran, Pascal, Macro-10, AID 
or APL. You get 1 28K bytes of 
storage free (just access it at 
least once a month). Software 
includes games— including 
networking multi-player games 
—personal, business and 
educational programs. 

In addition, there is the 
MicroNET National Bulletin 
Board for community affairs, 



for sale and wanted notices and 
the MicroNET Electronic Mail 
System for personal messages 
to other MicroNET users. You 
can even sell software via 
MicroNET. 

NEW!MicroQUOTE,a 
security information 
system for corporate 
stocks and public debt. 
NEW! MicroNET Soft- 
ware Exchange with 
dozens of new 
programs available for 
downloading to your 
personal computer at a 
specified charge. 
NEW! Executive pro- 
grams for TRS-80, Apple 
II and CP/M systems (so 
your machine and ours 
can talk to each other 
error-free). You can 
switch between terminal 
and local mode while 
on line. 

What do I have to have to 
use MicroNET? 

The standard 300 baud modem. 
MicroNET has local phone 



service in most major cities (see 
below) and a reduced phone 
charge in over a hundred others. 

What is the cost? 

We've saved the best for last. 
There is a one-time hook-up 
charge of only $9.00! Operating 
time— billed in minutes to your 
VISA or MasterCharge card— is 
only $5.00 an hour. 

Want more information? 

Good. Write to us at the address 
below. We'll send you a full 
packet of information about 
MicroNET. 

CompuServe 

Personal Computing Division 
Dept. C 

5000 Arlington Centre Blvd. 
Columbus, Ohio 43220 

MicroNET is available via local phone calls 
in the following cities: Akron. Atlanta, 
Boston. Canton, Chicago. Cincinnati, 
Cleveland, Columbus. Dallas, Dayton, 
Denver, Detroit, Houston, Indianapolis, 
Los Angeles. Louisville. Memphis, West 
Caldwell (NJ), New York, Philadelphia. 
Pittsburgh, San Francisco, Stamford (CT), 
St. Louis, Toledo, Tucson and 
Washington, D.C. 

Access to the MicroNET service is avail- 
able in 153 other cities for an additional 
charge of $4.00 per hour. 




. . but the really impressive stuff is in the back room." 



CIRCLE 1t3 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



16 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





Or. Portia Isaacson, in the foreground, has led 
a team of specialists in the development of an 
impressive series of video tapes for computer 
stores and their customers. The tapes have 
been professionally produced, with the objec- 
tive of helping to overcome the lack of basic 
knowledge and understanding found in many 
potential computer purchasers. Some of the 
tapes in this series include; "BASIC Training," 
"What Is The Bottom Line?" (should a small 
busines use a computer), "Apple Basic 
Training" and "What is Personal Computing?" 
Or. Harold Kinne (on the right) and Bryan 
LeBlanc are also involved in the Evolution 1 
series. Electronic Data Systems Corporation, 
14580 Midway Road, Dallas, TX 7S234. 



Smiling Willi Kusche would love to sell you 
6502 owners a good disk operating system for 
your PET, KIM, SYM and AIM systems. You'll 
have the advantage of inter-system compata- 
bility (between those mentioned) because of 
the soft-sectored format used - an advantage 
over Commodore's system. Wilserv Industries, 
PO Box 115, Haddonfield, NJ 08033. 




One of the highlights of the show was 
Micropolis' unveiling of their new Model 1240 
thirty megabyte hard disk for under $5500. 
That price includes their multi-user OSM 
operating system, controller and Z80 S-100 
interface adaptor. Micropolis Corp., 7959 
Deering Ave., Canoga Park, CA 91304. 



Alan Hald and Jeff McKeever (in the rear), are 
President & Chairman of the Board of 
MicroAge. They're sitting in the middle of a 
popular demonstration/display, "Albert the 
Office." The system, based around a North- 
Star Horizon, has many "bells & whistles" 
such as the computer controlling the coffee 
pot, TV, thermostat, lights and so on. . .many 
by interpreting speech commands. I suspect 
that many of these capabilities are, for the 
moment, serving as attention-getters aimed 
toward potential small business customers. 
MicroAge has a similar system, called "Fred 
The House," which is being demonstrated in 
computer stores around the country. Micro- 
Age, 1425 KW. 12th PI, Tempe.AZ 85281. 





Roland Joffe Is demonstrating an impressive 
multi-user education package he developed for 
the North Star Horizon. Micro Innovations, 
Inc., 420 Lexington Avenue, New York, NY 
10017. 






Xymec (17791 Skypark Circle, Suite H, Irvine, 
CA 92714) has developed a daisy-wheel printer 
that has many extraordinary capabilities. The 
features of the Hy-Q 1000 are so numerous and 
impressive, that I wouldn't dare try to describe 
them in a photo caption. You'll be seeing a 
full-blown review of this $2495 beauty in the 
near future. 



o«vkii>«« 
TRS-80 

Smw 5 




It is not often that one has the opportunity to 
play with the console of an IBM 380. The 
obvious glee being displayed by this young 
woman indicates that she's probably one of 
the thousands of programmers who have only 
been able to look at the monster behind glass 
doors and windows. The 360 was part of a 
feature display of historical computing put on 
by PC '79. 



Would you like to have your TRS-80 talk ... In- 
expensively? Percom has developed a small 
PC board which interfaces a Tl Speak N Spell 
to a TRS-80 and it works very well. Drop them 
a line for more info: Percom Data Corporation, 
Inc.. 211 N. Klrby, Grland, TX 75042. 




CC's retail sales rep pushes t-shirts at PC 



JANUARY 1980 



17 




Apparat's latest entry appears the winner 



Radio Shack has introduced a new 
disk operating system for the TRS-80. 
It is called TRSDOS 2.2. It costs former 
TRSDOS 2.1 owners nothing, it's free. 
NEWDOS, from Apparat, Inc., is a new 
disk operating system that costs 
almost $100. Why should anyone pay 
almost $100 for something they can get 
for free? As you might suspect, there is 
a catch. TRSDOS 2.2 and NEWDOS 
both work on the TRS-80 computer, 
but here the similarity ends. It would be 
much like comparing apples to 
oranges. We're going to be examining 
the features of both systems and the 
bottom line is that you should probably 
have both. 

Almost any function of 
this DOS can be stop- 
ped or KILLed if that 
partis not desired. 

We purchased our NEWDOS from 
Jerry Washburn of Microcomputer 
Technology, Inc. A phone call, and 
three days later we had the diskette in 
our hands. The first thing we did after 
opening the package was glance at the 
documentation to see what this new 
DOS does that makes it better than the 
TRSDOS 2.1. We found that it does so 
many new and great things that its 
sophistication and versatility couldn't 
be included in anything less than a full 
page ad! The $95 price is steep, but 
when you think about it, it costs that 
much to go from Level I to Level II. We 
think the step from TRSDOS 2.1 to 
NEWDOS is a similar step, and worth 

Dick Fuller. Fuller Electronics. 7465 Hollister, 
Suite 232. Goleta. CA 93017. 



NEWDOS vs. TRSDOS 



Dick Fuller 



the price, if you find you need the 
additional power in NEWDOS. 

Added BASIC Capabilities 

Let's review the features of this 
new tool. BASIC is now much more 
powerful. A renumber program allows 
you to renumber, starting anywhere in 
the program, to anywhere in the 
program, by any increment. 

The keyboard debounce routine is 
automatic, but can be disabled. As a 
matter of fact, almost any function of 
this DOS can be stopped or KILLed if 
that part is not desired. You can enter 
BASIC with one statement. While you 
are in DOS you type; BASIC 10,32000, 
RUN"SPECIAL/BAS." This will ac- 
complish several things, it puts the 
user in BASIC, with a memory size of 
32000, with 10 files, loads and runs the 
BASIC program of yours named 
"Special." Yes, Virginia, you can now 
run a BASIC program from power up! 

Is there more? Yes, much more. 
Next is a command that anyone with a 
printer in his possession, or future, will 
praise. You now have a screen printer. 
By pressing the J, K and L keys simul- 
taneously, whatever is on the video is 
duplicated on the printer. This feature 
works as well for RS-232 configura- 
tions as parallel. 

With NEWDOS you" 
can add to a closed 
sequential file. 

All DOS commands such as DIR, 
FREE, CLOCK and TRACE can be 
called from BASIC without ever leav- 
ing BASIC. Have you ever left BASIC 
accidentally with a CMD'S" or a reset 
and lost your BASIC program? With 



NEWDOS there is no problem. From 
DOS simply type BASIC *. Not only are 
you back in BASIC with your old 
program, your memory size and file 
size are still the same as you were 
using. 

"REF" gives you an 
ASCII list of all inte- 
gers and letters used. 

Abbreviations are back with 
NEWDOS. Those of us who were 
spoiled by the abbreviations included 
in LEVEL I BASIC, bemoaned the loss 
of them when it was replaced by LEVEL 
II. List, edit and delete can be used, but 
it's easier in NEWDOS to use L, E and 
D. If you type a period or comma 
before the single letter command and 
line number, you will list or edit the line 
pointed to by the period. Remember 
how hard it was to find the line you 
wanted as the LIST went scrolling by at 
Warp 3? Now you can single step as in 
LEVEL I. You can do this from the first 
line, the last line or the line pointed to 
by the period. Or, you can still use 
Warp 3, if you wish. 

With NEWDOS you can add to a 
closed sequential file. TRSDOS 2.1 
required that you start a new file, load 
the old one into it and continue on from 
there. 

Ever write a program, get well into 
it, and wonder whether you have used 
"C" or "Nl" as a variable yet? A 
command called "REF" gives you an 
ASCII list of all integers and letters 
used, and the line numbers where the 
variable or integer was used. It also 
tells you if it is a string variable and how 
many times it is used in that line. 



18 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Level one is also provided on disk. 
We tried LEVEL I on an old CLOAD 
magazine issue; it works, just like a 
LEVEL I computer. Another plus is that 
you can also store LEVEL I programs 
on disk. There are more, but those are 
the main BASIC enhancements. 

Assembler and Disassembler 

The assembler provided with 
NEWDOS is essentially the same as the 
standard Radio Shack assembler. It is, 
however, greatly improved. First and 
foremost, it is on disk. Some of us have 
managed to get Radio Shack's assem- 
bler on disk using DCV put out by the 
good people at Small System Soft- 

The old driver will work 
in both the assember 
and disassembler. 

ware. One advantage from NEWDOS 
for RS-232 systems is that the old 
driver will work, in both the assembler 
and disassembler. The driver should 
be moved down from the top of 
memory far enough so that it and the 
source code you're working with don't 
overlap, and yet not so low as to inter- 



fere with the Editor/ Assembler. When 
you assemble with a symbol table you 
get a bonus. All symbols are listed with 
the program lines each symbol ap- 
pears in. The disassembler will dis- 
assemble a program, using Z-80 
mnemonics, from either memory or 
disk. It supports the video or a printer. 
The disassembler will work with 
displaced programs (programs that 
are located in memory, but not in their 
normal position for running). 

Summary 

Radio Shack's TRSDOS 2.1 isn't 
perfect, and neither is NEWDOS. The 
first deficiency we noted with 
NEWDOS is the documentation. It was 
written using an assembler and a dot 
matrix printer. The result is that every 
line has a line number and a semicolon 
(we understand the line numbers have 
been eliminated from the newest 
copies of the documentation). It also 
means that after the original was 
copied, apparently using a copier, the 
symbols seemed to merge into a blob. 
The text appears to have been written 
as a reminder for the author of 
NEWDOS and not intended to teach 
the new user how to use NEWDOS. 
There are no examples showing how 



commands are used. The author uses 
many buzz words which makes it very 
hard to understand unless you are 
familiar with the terminology freely 
thrown around by professional pro- 
grammers. 

One deficiency we not- 
ed with NEWDOS is 
the documentation. 

One of the reasons we decided to 
buy a TRS-80 was because we felt that 
there would be a lot of software and 
hardware available for the machine. 
This theory seems to have been 
elevated to an axiom. Many new, and 
very useful items are continually 
appearing on the market for the 
TRS-80. If one were to rank these in 
order of usefulness and value, 
NEWDOS would appear very high on 
the list. In our opinion, NEWDOS is 
worth every bit of its $95 price tag. 

NEWDOS is a product of Apparat 
Inc., 6000 E. Evans Ave. #2, Denver, CO 
80222. Thefr phone number is (303) 
758-7275. NEWDOS is also sold by 
Microcomputer Technology Inc., 2098 
South Grand Ave., Grand Centre, 
Santa Ana, CA 92705, (714) 979-9923.D 



EVEN COMPUTERS GET THE BLUES 



Has your TRS-80 been sluggish lately? Slow to respond? Had 
excessive keyboard bounce? 

The problem might be low voltage, or a BASIC misunderstanding or 
IRON POOR SOFTWARE! 

Do you serve your TRS-80's meals on paper sheets? Do you 
(shudder) write it yourself? Recent studies indicate that keyboard- 
feeding causes MALIGNANT BUGS! 

CLOAD Magazine is published monthly on a magnetic IRON OXIDE 
tape, wound up inside a C-30 cassette. Now you may ask "Why 
bother?", but I can assure you that our computer cassettes are 
DIRECTLY readable. I repeat DIRECTLY readable by your computer 
We have Thrills. Variety, and Absurdity. We have every program your 
computer has ever wanted to run after a hard day at the job We 
even include our infamous "yellow sheets" with every issue, filled with 
lies about the TRS-BO computing scene. 

12 Monthly cassette issues S36.00' 

(over oO programs) 
Single issues S 3.50* 

BestofCtOAD SIOOO' 

(9 programs w/ listings) 

' CA residents please add 6% to non-subscription orders 
Please write for overseas rates 

Master Charge / Visa Welcome. Also Cash & Gold. 



CLOAD 




MAGAZINE , inc. • P.O. Box 1267 • Goleta CA 93017 • (805) 964-2761 



CIRCLE 140 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



19 




With a host of new features 



A New BASIC From Tarbell 



Glenn A. Hart 



There are now literally dozens of 
BASIC interpreters and compilers 
available for various microcompu- 
ters. While each has its faithful users 
and fanatic proponents, three main 
families of BASICS have emerged as 
leaders for the 8080/ 8085 /Z-80 
microprocessors. 

Probably the most widely used 
are the various dialects of Microsoft 
BASIC, including Microsoft's own 
versions for cassette systems and 
CP/M disk systems and customized 
variations for the TRS-80, PET, Apple 
and Sorcerer. North Star BASIC, 
which is primarily limited to North 
Star-based disk systems, has gained 
wide usage through its early entry 
into the field and popularity and low 
cost of North Star systems. Finally, 
the CBASIC compiler/interpreter 
system has become increasingly 
popular due to its speed of execu- 
tion, its high precision and use of 
intermediate files, which allows com- 
mercial software publishers to avoid 
distribution of source code. 

Each main family of BASIC offers 
its own point of view on extensions 
to the original definitions of the 
language and has its own set of pec- 
uliarities. For example, Microsoft 
and North Star only recognize short 
variable names, which limits reada- 
bility and can lead to confusion on 
variables used in long programs. 
CBASIC remedies this, but the 
compiler/interpreter structure leng- 
thens software development time 
significantly. North Star's string 
handling procedures in early ver- 
sions, did not allow variable length 
string arrays, which make writing 
certain types of programs difficult. 
Microsoft requires that all data, both 
numeric and string, be stored in disk 
files in string form, necessitating the 
use of cumbersome and artificial 
conventions which can make data 
files a real chore. 

In spite of these and other diffi- 
culties, each BASIC family re pre- 

Glenn A. Hart, 44 Bon Aire Circle, Suffern, NY, 
10901 



sents a stable, debugged, useable 
language. A tremendous number of 
programs have been published or 
offered by commercial software 
houses in each family. Do we need 
yet another, fundamentally different, 
BASIC variation? 

Parameter Passing and Other 
Hardball Programming Tools 

Many microcomputerists cut their 
first programming teeth on BASIC, 
often on mainframe, mini or time 
sharing systems. To them, the 
enhancements offered by current 
microprocessor versions are so far 
above their first BASICS that little 
more could be desired. 

Programmers who started using 
other high level languages may not 
be so enamored with even our 
sophisticated current BASICs. 
Where other languages allow alpha- 
numeric labels for statements to 
improve readability and indicate the 
logical flow of a program, all micro- 
comDuter BASICs use line numbers, 
either on every line or for passing 
control from statement to statement. 

More important, still, are the 
concepts of parameter passing and 
local and global variables. Most 
other high level languages allow 
variables to be defined only for use in 
a given subroutine without affecting 
variables in the main program, even if 
the variable names are the same. 
Such subroutine variables are desig- 
nated local variables, as distinct 
from global variables which are 
common throughout the entire main 
program and subroutine when it is 
called. This parameter passing is an 
extremely important programming 
tool, and while it can sometimes be 
simulated in current BASICs, its lack 
is a major weakness in almost all 
BASICS. 
Enter Don Tarbell 

Don Tarbell, long famous for his 
reliable and low-cost cassette and 
floppy disk interfaces, has intro- 
duced a new BASIC which answers 
these problems and offers many 
interesting new approaches to other 
weaknesses of current BASICs. 
Written by Tom Dilatush of Real time 
Microsystems, Tarbell BASIC is a- 
vailable in both cassette and disk 
versions. This analysis is based on 
the CP/M Version 12.12 release 



dated June, 1979. 

Tarbell BASIC is an interpreter 
requiring 24K of RAM. This is a lot of 
storage, and planned future en- 
hancements will probably up this 
memory requirement still further. 
Tarbell also runs somewhat slower 
than some other BASICs on many 
programs, since it uses 10 digit BCD 
rather than 8 digit binary for im- 
proved accuracy. Long programs 
with many variables and branches 
may actually run faster due to 
Tarbell's internal procedures. 

Tarbell uses four oDerating 
modes: Command or Direct Mode, 
for immediate entry and execution of 
most statements (calculator mode); 
Entry Mode, for creating or inserting 
program text; Edit Mode, with a 
complete line editing facility; and 
Run Mode, the normal, programmed 
execution mode. 

Unlike all other microprocessor 
BASICs. Tarbell line descriptors can 
be either line numbers or any alpha- 
numeric string of characters except 
spaces or punctuation. Thus, lines 
can be designated FINDAREA, 
TABLE /* TERMINATE or any other 
meaningful label. As in CBASIC, the 
only lines that require any line 
descriptor at all are those which are 
referred to by another program 
statement. In normal programming, 
only a very few statements receive 
descriptors, and the alphanumeric 
descriptors make the logical flow of 
the program much easier to discern. 

Variable names can also be as 
long as desired. HYPOTENUSE 
DAYOFMONTH, SORTROUTINE, 
etc., are all okay. Readability would 
be better if Tarbell allowed use of the 
period in names, e.g., DAY. OF. - 
MONTH. 

New or Different Statements 

APPEND adds a program seg- 
ment from a disk file to the end of a 
program currently in memory. This is 
especially useful for inclusion of 
frequently used routines during the 
entry of new programs. 

ASSIGN, CHANNEL and DROP 
control device input-output handling. 
This is an area where Tarbell BASIC 
really shines, offering probably the 
easiest and most flexible procedures 
of any current BASIC. Tarbell recog- 
nizes 8 logical devices, of which 6 are 



20 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




If you're not content with just playing games. TBS is producing 
applications sottware for your TRS-80 Level II that makes it a 
practical tool. 

CHECKBOOK II by Alan Meyers is the finest program of its 
kind yet published. With superb graphic screen displays, it 
does everything necessary to keep your checkbook balanced. 
Data is input directly into a five-column screen display with a 
field for alpha or numeric codes. Editing is done easily in any or 
all columns. CHECKBOOK II will accurately balance and 
reconcile your checkbook, handling balances up to $1 .000.000. 
Your balance brought forward is always in memory. Out- 
standing checks are listed and easily saved You can also search 
for an entry by any field except amount, and all checks with 
matching entries will be displayed and totaled. A numeric sort 
routine is included. Screen prints can be made to a line printer 
from almost any point in the program. In addition, the 32-48K 
version can write files to disk. This and the 16K version are 
included on the same tape. For $18.50. CHECKBOOK II is the 
top of the line in personal checkbook programs. 

INFORMATION SYSTEM by Dale Kubler is simply the best in- 
memory, data base manager on the market. It allows you to 
create files with up to ten categories per page', up to 40 
characters per category and 200 characters total per page. 
Data from the keyboard is entered directly on a screen display 
of one entire page. Once entered, you can sort or search your 
entire data base by any category and have the information 
desired displayed on the screen INFORMATION SYSTEM pro- 
vides a thorough editing mode allowing changes by line without 
rewriting an entire file. Program your own printouts to almost 
any form you desire for line or serial printers Screen prints from 
anywhere in the program are also available. INFORMATION 
SYSTEM creates either disk or cassette files depending on the 
version you use. Four versions are supplied with the program 
tape. From mail lists to recipes, for only $24.50. this program 



is the ideal information manager. 

EXERCISER is for everyone. This program allows you to set 
your own physical fitness goals, then chart and analyze your pro- 
gress toward these goals. Further, you may program an exercise 
regimen, then have the computer coach' you through your 
exercise routines. This system will allow you to use your com- 
puter to reinforce your effort to attain physical health. EXERCISER 
is really two programs in one. One measures your progress in 
jogging, swimming and bicycling and the other is for setting 
calisthenic regimens. It has long been known that to effectively 
structure an exercise program, it is necessary to think in terms 
of goals which can be met over a period of time. Whether you 
are training for the Boston Marathon or just wish for a minimum 
level of fitness. EXERCISER is designed to help you attain your 
goals. The price for this exceptional program is just $1 2.50. 

TBS has other great software for your TRS-80. BASIC 
TOOLKIT. SYSTEM DOCTOR & TERMINAL CONTROL are systems 
utilities BUSINESS MAIL LIST, DATA BASE MANAGER. CHECK 
REGISTER ACCOUNTING SYSTEM & ANALYSIS PAD are strong 
applications for business. Don't forget the LIBRARY 100; 100 
programs for only $49.50. TBS also has DISK HEAD CLEANERS 
for TRS-80 and APPLE and GRAN MASTER DISKETTES, the 
best on the market. 

TBS is YOUR COMPANY, and to you we pledge to produce 
quality software at a price you can afford. The a"bove products 
are available NOW at Computer Stores and Associate Radio Shack 
Stores nationwide or directly through us. For more information 
please contact us at the numbers below. 




(4041 9394031 • P O BOX 49104 C • ATLANTA. GA 303S9 



JANUARY 1980 



21 



CIRCLE 120 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



New Basic, con't. . . 

currently implemented (INPUT. 
PRINT, LOAD, SAVE, BGET/BLOAD, 
BPUT/BSAVE), and 10 physical de- 
vices (Console Keyboard, Console 
Printer, Cassette Input, Cassette 
Output, Spare Input/Output, Listing 
Device Output, Reader Input, Punch 
Output, Disk Input and Disk Output). 
Tarbell allows changing the corres- 
pondence between Logical and Phy- 
sical devices much as STAT does in 
CP/M. CHANNEL shows the current 
assignments, ASSIGN and DROP 
change the settings. The default 
assignments can be changed by 
modifying the assembly language 
I/O routines provided with the inter- 
preter. 

BGET and BPUT handle transfers of 
binary stored data from and to binary 
data files, as GET and PUT are used 
for ASCII stored data files. Up to 64 
data files can be open at one time 
and data handling is very easy, even 
in the random access mode. The 
procedures used are similar to those 
of CBASIC, rather than the com- 
plexity of Microsoft or North Star 
BASIC. The data file formats chosen 
are unfortunate, since they are not 
compatible with most external 
sort/ merge programs, mailing list 
handlers and others. 

CHECK makes a following mass 
storage input statement a checking 
operation instead of an actual read 



into memory. This is a useful 
doublecheck on data integrity, but its 
utility would be much greater if some 
form of ON ERROR GOTO error 
trapping mechanism were included. 

GOPROC is similar to GOSUB 
excedpt it allows the subroutine to 
have local variables which are not 
affected by assignments outside the 
routine. As with Tarbell GOSUB's, 
variable values may be passed to the 
subroutine and received back from it 
with the RETURN and RECEIVE 

St8t6IT)8ntS 

MOVEBOF and MOVEEOF move 
to the beginning or end, respectively, 
of a selected disk file before exe- 
cuting the next disk operation. This 
is useful in positioning pointers in 
sequential files; it doesn't apply to 
random access files. 

PROCEDURE declares local vari- 
ables which can be used in a 
subroutine without disturbing their 
original values in the main program. 
The next RETURN statement restores 
each variable's original value. The 
choice of "procedure" as the word for 
this operation is unfortunate, since it 
is not particularly descriptive (per- 
haps "LOCAL" would be better), has 
nothing to do with any actual 
procedural occurrence and is used in 
PASCAL, COBOL and other lan- 
guages to mean something quite 
different. 

RESET performs a disk operating 
system reset to reread the directory 







TABLE ONE 








RESERVED WORDS BY TYPE 




COMMANDS: 


BYE 


CHANGE 


CONT 


DELETE 




ENTER 


LIST 


NEW 


RUN 




SYMBOL 


EDIT 






STATEMENTS: 


APPEND 


ASSIGN 


BGET 


BLOAD 




BPUT 


BSAVE 


CHANNEL 


CHECK 




CLEAR 


CLOSE 


DATA 


DEFFN 




DIM 


DIR 


DROP 


END 




ERASE 


FOR 


GET 


GOPROC 




GOSUB 


GOTO 


IF-GOTO 


IF-THEN-ELSE 




INPUT 


LET 


LOAD 


MOVEBOF 




MOVEEOF 


NEXT 


ON-GOSUB 


ON-GOTO 




OPEN 


OUT 


POKE 


PRINT 




PRINT USING 


PROCEDURE 


PUT 


READ 




RECEIVE 


REM 


RENAME 


RESET 




RESTORE 


RETURN 


SAVE 


SET 




STOP 


WAIT 


WIDTH 




FUNCTIONS: 


ABS 


ASC 


ATN 


CALL 




CHRS 


cos 


EOF 


EXP 




FILEXISTS 


FILLS 


FRE 


HEX 




HEX$ 


INP 


INT 


LEFTS 




LEN 


LOC 


LOG 


MATCH 




MIDI 


OCT 


OCT$ 


PEEK 




POS 


RIGHTS 


RNO 


SEARCH 




SGN 


SIN 


SPACES 


SPC 




SQR 


STR$ 


TAB 


TAN 




USR 


VAL 






SPECIAL 


DISK 


DO 


FILE 


TYPE 


FUNCTIONS: 


RECORD 








LOGICAL 










OPERATIONS: 


AND 


NOT 


OR 





after changing a disk and before 
writing to the new one. 

WIDTH sets the width of lines 
printed on various physical devices. 

Functions 

Most Tarbell BASIC functions 
operate in a manner similar to other 
BASICS. Here is a list of those which 
operate differently or are unique. 
CALL and USER are both available 
for machine language subroutines. 
Function LOC returns the decimal 
memory address of a variable's value, 
which is useful for passing ad- 
dresses to routines accessed by 
CALL. 

EOF returns true (-1) if an 
end-of-file condition has been en- 
countered during the last read opera- 
tion, false (0) otherwise. Useful for 
end-of-file detection traps like IF 
EOF(1) THEN GOTO WRAPUP. 
FILEXISTS checks if a program or 
data file exists. Example: IF 
FILEXISTS (PAYROLL.DAT) THEN 
GOTO PROCESSPAYROLL ELSE 
GOTO NOTFOUNDTRAP. 

HEX.HEXS, OCT and OCT$ per- 
form hexadecimal/decimal and 
tal /decimal conversions in either 
direction. 

POS returns the current position 
of the print device. More useful than 
Microsoft's implementation, which 
can determine the position only of 
the console device, not the system 
printer. 

RND starts a new sequence of 
random numbers with a negative 
argument, returns the same random 
number as the last RND used with a 
zero argument, and returns the next 
random number in the sequence with 
a positive argument. Useful for 
debugging programs using random 
numbers by allowing a repeatable 
sequence. 

SEARCH searches the current 
disk file for the first or next 
occurence of a specified string. 
Returns the number of carriagae 
returns + 1 that it has passed while 
searching. Useful for indexing ran- 
dom files with sequential files. 

Several "special functions" are 
included as well. These are interest- 
ing in that they merely set the value 
stored in certain memory locations. 
Since this value remains constant 
until changed again, these functions 
make disk handling easier by elimi- 
nating the need for restating disk 
parameters in repeated BASIC state- 
ments unless a change is necessary. 

DISK specifies which drive to 
select from among the four that 
Tarbell BASIC can access. Defaults 
to the currently logged drive. 

DO passes two numeric or string 
expressions to two specific memory 



22 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



New Basic, con't 

locations. The manual indicates that 
this could be useful in machine 
language routines, but implies that 
the current version does not fully 
implement this feature. 

FILE specifies the number of the 
file being used, ranging from to 63. 

TYPE is used in Open statements 
to specify either sequential or 
random access type files. 

RECORD serves a dual function. 
Used in an OPEN statement, it 
specifies the number of bytes per 
record. In a GET or PUT statement, 
RECORD specifies the number of the 
randomly accessed record upon which 
to operate. Record numbers start at 
1. A useful feature is that RECORD 
(0) makes the next character transfer 
take place immediately after the last 
character transferred, much like a 
sequential operation. 

By now you can see that Tarbell 
BASIC contains many features not 
included in any other microprocessor 
BASIC. Nevertheless, there are many 
enhancements which are available in 
other BASICS which would further 
increase Tarbell BASIC'S power. 
Some worthwhile additions would 
include WHILE-WEND REPEAT- 
UNTIL, COMMON, ON-ERROR- 



GOTO. SWAP, TRACE, RANDOM- 
IZE MIN/MAX and FIX. Other inter- 
esting additions might include inte- 
ger variables, multi-line functions 
(although the GOPROC structure 
makes construction of similar rou- 
tines possible), passing arrays to 
subroutines, overlays, XOR, simple 
cursor positioning, ARCSIN, upper- 
case conversion, etc. 

Conclusion 

I feel Tarbell BASIC'S unique 
features make it possibly the best 
microprocessor BASIC for advanced 
users. The attributes which distin- 
guish Tarbell from the others are not 
readily appreciated by beginners or 
intermediate programmers, although 
the language is certainly usable by 
such individuals. Those who have 
used FORTRAN, COBOL, or Pascal 
will welcome the alphanumeric line 
descriptors and parameter passing 
facilities, and anyone trained in 
structured programming will gain 
even more benefit. 

It should be understood that 
Tarbell BASIC is a much "younger" 
language than the Big Three in that it 
is still undergoing intensive develop- 
ment and definition of its boun- 
daries. Tarbell has released several 
versions in the last few months, each 



of which has included new features 
and been less prone to bugs. It is 
reasonable to expect interesting new 
developments in the future. 

From a marketing point of view, it 
is unfortunate that Tarbell BASIC 
appears on the scene after Its 
competition is so well entrenched. It 
may be unlikely that Tarbell will gain 
wide enough penetration for it to be a 
language used in mass software dis- 
tribution or as a common dialect in 
the microcomputer buff publications. 

This view in no way should 
dissuade anyone from purchasing 
the language. The CP/M version 
costs only $48. This is much less 
than either Microsoft Disk BASIC or 
CBASIC, and Tarbell offers an up- 
grade agreement for only $10. Note 
also that Tarbell will supply complete 
source code for only $25, a very 
attractive offer to advanced program- 
mers who can modify a BASIC 
interpreter to include their own 
custom functions. I am not aware of 
source code being available from any 
other software supplier, certainly not 
at an affordable cost. On a cost basis 
alone, Tarbell BASIC makes a very 
interesting addition to a software 
library, and buyers may fine them- 
selves becoming addicted to this 
very special BASIC. D 



EXTEND YOUR WORD PROCESSING POWER 

ELECTRIC PENCIL* + TEXTWRITER 

CREATE AND EDIT DOCUMENTS WITH ELECTRIC PENCIL 
FORMAT AND PRINT THEM WITH TEXTWRITER 



CONTRACTS & SPECIFICATIONS 

Standard paragraphs or sections stored in 
files and inserted by name when printed 



• PERSONALIZED FORMLETTERS 

Names, addresses, etc. replaced by entries 
from a mail list file or from the keyboard 



• BOOKS & ARTICLES • REPORTS & MANUALS 

Footnotes collected & printed at page Table of contents & alphabetized index 

bottom, chapters kept in separate files printed automatically 
chained together when printed 

Formats files created by your editor • Works with any terminal & printer • Written in assembly language for high speed 

Available on all common 8" & 5V4" disks • Versions for CP/M, TRS-80 CP/M, Northstar DOS and Micropolis MDOS • Compatible 
with: Electric Pencil I & II, Wordmaster, Wordstar, ED, Edit 80, PDS Edit, Micropolis Lineedit, and many more. 

\n For Further Information Call 
(415) 455-4034 



Ask Your Dealer For A Demonstration v^ 



$125 



Textwriter I 

Manual alone - $15 

Add $2 per order for shipping 

Foreign airmail $7.50 

$1 extra UPS COD 

California residents add 6V>% sales tax 

•Electric Pencil Is a trademark of Michael Shraver software; CP/M Is a trademark of Digital Research. 
JANUARY 1980 23 



ft* 1 

^^K natura,, y 

h J' '^M'i DU 9 free 

1492 Windsor Way, Livermore, CA 94550 



'% 



CIRCLE 156 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



■ 




A word processor for all systems 



Talk about fun! I never had so 
much. My days as a frustrated office 
Secretary are over thanks to Auto 
Scribe, a software product offered by 
MicroSource in Tempe, Arizona. I am 
not technically oriented and, thank 
heavens, this program was designed to 
be easy to operate. It was planned from 
the operator's point of view and does 
not require computer knowledge for 
use. All typing is done on a video 
terminal which allows the operator to 
immediately correct errors and make 
changes in the text before printing. 

The essential functions of Auto 
Scribe are: 

• Create a new document 

• Rapidly revise any document 

• View the document on the video 
screen 

• Delete documents from the disk 

• Copy documents from one disk 
to another 

• Assemble a document from pre- 
recorded paragraphs or pages 

• Print a document 

The days of laboriously typing 
letters, contracts, dissertations, etc., 
are over. Any typing project benefits 
from this system — even a short letter 
or a single-page document. The typist 
quickly gains confidence and is able to 
type at top speed all the time. This 
confidence comes from knowing that if 
an error is made, it can be corrected 
easily and "on the spot" before printing 
with the added plus of retaining a copy 
of the document on disk for later use. 

When the Auto Scribe system first 



Jane A. Sellier. SELCO. Inc.. 525 St. Francois. 
Suite 13. Florissant. MO 63031. 



Auto Scribe 



Jane A. Sellier 



came into our office I was a little 
intimidated by all the paraphernalia. 
To put it bluntly, I felt dispensable (a 
feeling no secretary likes). My feelings 
were hurt. I thought my boss was trying 
to tell me something and that he just 
didn't have the nerve to tell me to shape 
up or ship out. Well, I was wrong! The 
old boy was actually trying to make 
things easier for me and was being 
helpful. I realized this only a few days 
after the installation and now thank 
him from the bottom of my heart. 

Obviously, the first skill the oper- 
ator must acquire is learning how to 
turn the system on. Plugging the 
system in, pressing the right buttons, 
inserting the diskette in the proper 
drive and knowing how to read the 
"Menu." 

The system we use is made up of 
the following: 

a. North Star HORIZON with Z-80 
processor, 32K static high- 
speed RAM memory and two 
serial interface ports (see 
Figure 1). 

b. Dual minifloppy disk drives. 

c. Soroc video display terminal. 

d. Printer (ours is a NEC Spin- 
writer). 

e. Auto Scribe software on two 
magnetic minifloppy diskettes 
and the Auto Scribe operations 
manual. 

The system is easy to use and 
requires only the standard office 110- 
volt, 3-prong power source. 

Once the hardware is working, the 
operator mounts a diskette in Drive 1 . 
The next step is to momentarily 
depress the red "Reset" switch on the 
computer and Auto Scribe is auto- 



matically loaded and run due to the 
Horizon's "auto-boot" feature. 

The first message that appears on 
the video screen is "System Working." 
This is a great comfort. Pat yourself on 
the back and grin from ear to ear. This 
reassuring remark appears at various 
times during operation of the system to 
let you know that "all systems are go" 
and that you haven't loused anything 
up. It certainly beats starting at a blank 
screen and wondering whether or not 
all is well. 

You will then see the following 
MENU displayed on the screen: 

AUTOSCRIBE I 

A WORD PROCESSOR VER 4.0 

STARTING MENU 

ENTER "C" TO CREATE A DOCUMENT 

"R" TO REVISE A DOCUMENT 

•V TO VIEW A DOCUMENT 

"D" FOR DISK PROCEDURES 

Now, suppose you have to get a 
letter out. Depress "C" for Create and 
the display will ask you for the name of 
your document. You can insert up to 25 
characters in this space and I usually 
put in something like "John Jones 
Letter" or "Manual Part 1" or some- 
thing else that will let me know at a 
glance what it is. A video display pops 
up stating that you are in the Create 
Mode of operation at which time you 
depress the letter "I" to insert text. I like 
the simplicity of all this — "C" for 
create, "I" for insert, etc. Now that you 
and the machine understand each 
other, you can begin to write your 
letter. The manual that accompanies 
Auto Scribe is extremely clear and 
helpful and for the first few days (week) 
I held it on my lap between me and the 



VIDEO TERMINAL 




PRINTER 



COMPUTER 

WITH DISK DRIVES 




CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Auto Scribe, con 




video display terminal, shuffling pages 
back and forth at a furious pace. I 
finally learned that the gold pages are 
for "Create," the beige pages are for 
"Revisions," the green pages are for 
"Viewing," and the blue pages for "Disk 
procedures." 

If at any time during insertion of 
text in the "Create" mode of operation, 
you make a mistake, you simply 
depress the "back" arrow on the 
keyboard and move the cursor back to 
where the error occurred, correct the 
error and go on. 

When you've finished entering 
data and you're anxious to see how 
well you did (or did not do), depress 
"F" on the keyboard. That will make 
things buzz and pop for a second or 
two and the Create Mode will stop. All 
the text entered up to this point will be 
stored on a diskette under the docu- 
ment name that you entered at the 
start. 

The next step is to produce a letter 
(document, etc.) that is free of 
erasures, white-out gunk, Correct-O- 
Type dust and other methods that are 
normally used to get a good copy. 
Once again, the Auto Scribe makes it 
easy. It doesn't allow you to correct 
errors as you go along in the "Create" 
Mode (and this might be considered a 
drawback by some.) After leaving the 
"Create" mode the menu will be 
displayed again. This time depress "R" 
for (you guessed it) "Revise." All you 
do here is enter the document number 
you wish to revise (all the documents 
you have named are automatically 
numbered by the machine) and re- 
name the document when asked to do 
so. I usually put in something like 
"John Jones Letter 2" or "Manual Part 
1-2." The number at the end identifies 
the most recent version of the docu- 
ment. In the "Revise" Mode you can 
really clean up your text and make it 
look pretty. All kinds of things are 
possible. You can insert letters, words, 
paragraphs, or pages easily by de- 
pressing "I" for "insert," keying in the 
proper insertions, hitting the "Escape" 
Key and viewing your corrections on 
the screen. For instance, if you left the 
letter "a" out of "cat," you move the 
cursor to the "t," depress the "I" for 
"insert," depress "a," (the letter you left 
out), hit the "Escape" Key and the 
screen will display your correction. Or 
maybe you spelled it "catt" instead of 
"cat." In that event, you want to get rid 
of one of the t's. Move the cursor to the 
"t" you want removed, depress "D" for 
"delete," hit the "Rub" key and it is 
automatically taken out. If your docu- 
ment totals more than one page and 
you want to see it all, depress "N" for 
"next" and the screen will display the 
next page for you. If nothing happens 



\L55 

10 December 1979 
< 

< 

< 

< 

\L15< 

Mr. Joe Blow 

11 Any Street 

Any Town, U.S.A. 11223 

< 

< 

Dear Joe, 



< 
< 
\JR< 

Thank you for your interest in our tree houses. We have 
had overwhelming success with this addition to our new line of 
products. As wc discussed in our telephone conversation, it 
can be assembled quickly and easily and the price is quite 
reasonable too! Even your children could put it toyether in 
a few hours. I am enclosing some literature for you to look 
over and 1 hope this will help you decide which model tree 
house is best suited to your family's needs. < 
< 
< 
< 
< 

\L55 

Sincerely, 
< 
< 
< 
< 

Sammy Schister 
V.P. Tree House Division 
\L15 
SS/bs 
< 
Enclosure 



Figure 
you are at the end of the document, in 
which case you press "F" to "Finish" 
the revision. 

I must warn you, however, that a 
certain cockiness on your part will set 
in and you'll begin to feel like the 
proverbial magician who is anxious to 
amaze all his friends and acquaint- 
ances with his wondrous powers. 

Once you've convinced yourself 
that the thing won't blow up in your 
face and there's really nothing to fear 
from it, you'll want to see your revision. 
Press "F" for "Finish" and the "Menu" 
will be displayed again. This time (just 
to test your prowess) depress "V" for 
"View." Select the number of the 
document you wish to view on the 
screen and press "Return." Up pops 
your revision ready to be printed! At 
the right hand side of the screen you'll 
notice it's telling you that the printer is 
off. In order to turn it on depress the 
letter "P." Once this is done, you will 
see that the screen now tells you that 
the printer is on. The letter "P" acts as 
an "on/off" switch for the printer. The 
final step is to depress "F" for "Finish" 
and, if all goes well, the printer will take 
off and produce a copy of your 
document. In our office, we use this 
first printer copy of a document for our 
files after we've checked it one last 
time. You can revise it further if you 
notice any errors at this point. 

Now let's talk a little about the 
flexibility of the format controls you'll 
want to use when creating a new 
document. This simply means that you 



have control over such things as page 
margins, page length, or whether or 
not you want certain words or para- 
graphs of your document centered 
within the text. Format Control Com- 
mands are always indicated by a 
Backslash followed by a letter or a 
number. The page-format parameters 
may be changed at any time while 
creating the document or you can 
insert them when in the Revision Mode 
of operation. In other words, if you 
goof, there's no need to despair. If you 
forget to give the format command for 
text you want to center — no matter. 
Enter the Revise Mode and give the 
computer your instructions that way. 
Again, the manual is explicit and, 
before long, you'll be a whiz. Figure 2 
illustrates this more graphically. 

New operators of Auto Scribe will 
occasionally feel that the system is not 
performing properly when, in fact, it is 
performing exactly as it was designed. 
For this reason, it's extremely impor- 
tant that the entire manual be read 
prior to attempting to use the program. 
Auto Scribe was designed to be easy to 
operate and, I feel, it is — and a whole 
lot of fun besides. I hope you enjoy 
using it too. O 



Auto Scribe is available on North 
Star, Vector Graphics, Heath Data 
Systems, Apple, TRS-80, CP/M, 
Cromemco, Data General and 
Micro NOVA systems from: Micro- 
source, 1425 W. 12th PI , Tempe.AZ 
85281, 



JANUARY 1980 



25 




Until recently, only one BASIC 
interpreter has been available for the 
Southwest Technical Products Micro- 
computer system. The original, and 
very nearly free, one by Robert Uiter- 
wyck is a very good one, but could be 
called the "slowest BASIC in the West" 
(or the East, too, for that matter). 
Recently several alternative BASIC'S 
have become available, three of which 
will be reviewed and described here. 
Since most SWTPC owners are well 
familiar with the original BASIC it will 
be used as a standard of comparison. 

Probably some of us were fooled 
into believing that the slowness of 
BASIC on our machines was indicative 
of an inherent limitation of the 6800 as 
compared to the faster BASIC'S that 
ran on the 8080 and 6502 processor 
machines. As you will see, that's so 
much "hogwash." Interestingly e- 
nough, the three BASIC'S to be com- 
pared here all have sufficient differ- 
ences that it will be sort of like 
comparing, if not apples and oranges, 
at least oranges, lemons and limes. 
The first of these to be discussed is the 
A/BASIC compiler from Microware. If 
you were interested in this version 
when it was first released, you may 
have a release that had a few bugs. The 
later disk version has most all of the 
bugs resolved. Along the line of 
compilers, there is another contender, 
the STRUBAL compiler from Hemen- 
way Associates. Strubal doesn't look 
much like BASIC. The name STRUBAL 
is derived from STRuctured BAsic 
Language. Lastly, we will get a look at 
TSC's new BASIC for the SWTPC 
system. 

A/BASIC Compiler 

The A/BASIC compiler is a real 
BASIC. It deviates from the "rules" 
only in that it doesn't require line 
numbers on lines that are not refer- 
enced somewhere in the program. 
That is to say, if you have a GOTO 100 
in the program, line 100 must be 
identified. A look at the manual will 
reveal that A/BASIC has a few limita- 
tions. It is an integer only BASIC. This 
is the largest limiting factor, but once 

Ron Anderson, 3540 Sturbridge Ct., Ann 
Arbor, Ml, 48105. 



you are convinced that you can do a lot 
without floating point, you will be 
amazed at the efficiency and speed of 
A/BASIC compiled programs. The 
arithmetic is double byte precision, 
and therefore limited to the range of 
-32768 to +32767. A year or so ago, one 
of the computer magazines had a 
"contest" to write a program in BASIC 
that would find the prime numbers 
between 1 and 1000 in the least 
possible time. The best I was ever able 
to do in SWTPC BASIC was about 
4y 2 minutes. It is possible to take 
advantage of the integer limitation in 
A/BASIC since the primes are integers, 
and I was able to write a program that 
would find these primes in about 2 
seconds, and have them all listed to my 
terminal at 9600 baud in a total elapsed 
time of around 4 seconds! The pro- 
gram is included here (see Program 1 ). 
Of course, my programming skills, 
which were zero about three years ago, 
have become sharper but, applying the 
same techniques using SWTPC 
BASIC, I wasn't able to do better than 
the old 4y 2 minutes. 

There are one or two other limi- 
tations that should be mentioned. The 
IF-THEN statement only allows line 
numbers as the object of the THEN. 
That is, you cannot use a statement 
like IF A>B THEN PRINT "A IS 
GREATER THAN B". It is necessary to 
use IF A>B THEN 123 — 123 PRINT 
"A IS GREATER THAN B" — GOTO 
<LINE AFTER TEST>. You can also 
use the form IF-THEN-GOSUB, which 
can help keep you from destroying 
the order of a program being trans- 
lated from SWTPC BASIC. There are 
many good string handling functions 
in this BASIC. In fact, there are a few 
more than are available in SWTPC 
BASIC. It is possible to read a whole 
line of data from a disk file and print 
it, regardless of the commas that 
usually delimit data items in a file line. 
This is done by reading a record from 
the file and then printing the contents 
of the string buffer. READ #2,BUF$ — 
PRINT BUF$ will do the job. Multiple 
statements on a line are allowed, 
separated by a colon. Another inter- 
esting function is the SUBSTR. You 
may search, for example for the letter 



N in the string L$="ABCDEFGHIJKL 
MNOPQRSTUVWXYZ" by using A= 
SUBSTR(L$,"N"). This function will 
return the value 14 for A. That is, the 
position of the letter in the string 
will be returned. If the substring is 
not contained in the larger string, a 
zero is returned. The substring is not 
limited to a single letter, but may be 
any size less than the main string. 
When strings are dimensioned, their 
length is specified. When a string array 
is dimensioned, the string length and 
array size are specified. This is parti- 
cularly nice in keeping memory usage 
down since all strings don't have to 
be dimensioned to be as long as the 
maximum as in SWTPC BASIC. 

Most of the other features of 
A/BASIC are standard. There is pro- 
vision for specifying the program 
starting address, and the addresses of 
the variables. In fact, you can assign an 
input port a variable name, and then 
read the port simply by including that 
variable in a calculation or a statement 
like PRINT A. There is provision for 
inserting machine code directly into 
the BASIC program, which is possible 
since the compiler compiles a line at a 

Some of us were fooled 
into believing that the 
slowness of BASIC on 
our machines was indic- 
ative of an inherent limi- 
tation of the 6800 

time. The efficiency of the compiler is 
excellent. An exact number is difficult 
to pin down, because it depends on the 
type of program. A good estimate 
would be about a factor of 2 over the 
same program in Assembler. I recently 
did a program that does only logic. It 
looks at a group of data from two input 
ports and calculates a group of outputs 
to be written to two other ports. The 
run time package for this was 7 bytes. If 
"run time" is not familiar to you, I can 
explain it this way. Certain routines are 
needed in almost any program. Those 
who do a lot of Assembler program- 
ming are familiar with some routines in 



26 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



uefi a^mk^ ( ^^U BU)v CW 




inouncement I The first eight Personal 
|ograms*from Aladdin Automation are 
Biting for you now at your neighborhood 
bmputer retailer or direct from Aladdin 

pw you can get your full share of Aladdin 
31c in every one of these Personal 
grams* : 



ath-Ter-Mind" A delightful, 
educational learning experience 
for your pre-school child Watch 
1 smile on your child's face as a correct 

ver makes the mathematician smile on the 
teen before you A nursery song also serves 
I a reward for learning elementary addition 

I subtraction With Aladdin's Math-Ter- 
Ind" your child's pathway to learning will be 
i-filled for both of you Math-Ter-Mind" 
1 first release from the Aladdin Education"* 
ries (nursery song currently available only 
I Apple II** program) 



unar Lander In a controlled 
descent, you're just seconds away 
from your first landing on the cold. 
Diddmg surface of the moon As you 
ngate your delicate spacecraft downward to 
t safety of Moonbase, you must be ever 
|tchful of the dangers rising to meet you with 
ch passing moment a fuel level fast 
proaching zero: deadly meteor showers that 
ne from any direction, at any time, sheer- 
ted rock cliffs and rough terrain, choosing 
1 correct landing pattern and rate of descent 
ddm's Lunar Lander Your chance to reach 
I and touch the stars without leaving the 
|ety and comfort o' your own chair The first 
ease from the Aladdin Simulation** Series 



Craps All eyes in the casino are 
on you The dice are in your 
hands Lady Luck sits at your 
shoulder, whispering "Just one more time 

Try your luck just one more time . " You throw 

and watch the dice tumbling on the 
screen With Aladdin's Craps you play against 
the computer, so it's awfully tough to win But 
when you do. it's an experience you're likely 
never to forget Craps An exciting, heart- 
pounding Personal Program" The first release 
from the Aladdin Las Vegas" Series 

Mastermind A challenging game 
of intrigue, centuries old. that will 
give you full chance to test your 
powers of logic, deduction and reason And 
test them you will, as you try and solve the 
computer's puzzle, using clues as they're 
provided one-by-one You control the degree of 
difficulty in this classic Personal Program" that 
offers one simple, yet all-consuming challenge 
beat the Mastermind in a direct, one-on-one 
battle of wits Aladdin's Mastermind The first 
release from the Aladdin Old Favorites'* Series 

Tic-Tac-Toe Five different levels 
of difficulty allow a person of any 
age or skill to take part in this 
relaxing, enjoyable game that can act as a 
learning tool, as well Level I. for example, is 
suitable for children and is excellent also for 
teaching simple mathematics The computer 
plays just about perfectly at Level V Just 
about, that is. so go ahead and take your best 
shot See if you can beat the computer in this 
traditional favorite of young and old alike 
Tic-Tac-Toe Another first release from the 
Aladdin Old Favorites'* Series 



Jungle Island" Shipwrecked in a 
raging storm at sea. miraculously 
you survive only to find yourself 
stranded on a seemingly deserted jungle 
island Without food, water or supplies of any 
kind, you begin to try and find your way to 
safety The computer will be your eyes and 
ears as you explore your jungle island and all 
the mysteries and dangers that he in wait for 
you Jungle Island™ A captivating first 
release from the Aladdin Adventure" Series 

Stix" Aladdin's Stix" can be 
played with 2 to 5 piles of sticks 
and between 1 and 1 9 sticks in 
each pile The object to be the one to pick up 
the last stick Sounds simple' Yes. but you're 
playing against the computer Take heart, 
though, because you can control the degree of 
difficulty in this update of the ancient game of 
Nim Stix*" Another first release from the 
Aladdin Old Favorites'* Series 

Super Pro Football" Here's your 
chance to be more than just an 
armchair quarterback With 
Aladdin's Super Pro Football" you can replay 
any Super Bowl game, from the first, between 
Green Bay and Oakland, to last year's classic 
victory by Pittsburgh over Dallas For once you 
can turn back the clock and go for that one big 
play that made the difference between victory 
and defeat in pro football's biggest game of all 
Super Pro Football" The first exciting release 
from the Aladdin Super Pro" Series 

Visit your neighborhood computer retailer or 
contact Aladdin direct to get your full share of 
the magic in Announcement I. the first eight 
Personal Programs" from Aladdin Automation 



nse- 



• ? ••• 



L2 



?PZ 







Ith-Ter-Mind" Lunar Lander 



Craps 



Mastermind 



Tic-Tac-Toe 



Jungle Island" 



Sti) 



Super Pro FootbalP 



come to the All-New World of 
lin. And Get Ready to 
<e Your Own Magic 




A/4DDN AJIOMAUOH IMC. 
XAXHM CCM-UTER CORR 

3-420 Kenyon Street. Ste 131 San Diego CA 92110 



rr.grit 1978 by Waddin Automation 



Design and copy by Campbell Marsh Graphic Communications 



CIRCLE 13* ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



27 



BASICS, con't. . . 

MIKBUG or SWTBUG that are refer- 
enced in most programs. These are run 
time packages. A/BASIC has a library 
of routines that are compiled only if 
needed in the program being com- 
piled. For example, my logic program 
didn't have any math in the way of add, 
subtract, multiply, or divide, so the 
subroutines necessary to do those 
operations were not compiled. If you 
don't have string manipulations in your 
program, none of the string handling 
routines will be compiled. 

The compiler is fast and easy to 
use. A listing may be generated that 
has the source listing with the memory 
location at which the code for each line 
starts. It is also possible to get a 
complete listing of the compiled code. 
It is informative to disassemble some 
of the compiled output. You will see 
that it looks just like "hand assembled'' 
program. It is possible to insert error 
traps that allow your program to exit 
gracefully when an error is detected. It 
is also possible to indicate the type of 
error encountered by printing out the 
error number. 

A/BASIC in the disk version also 
has extensive disk I/O capabilities. 
There seem to be some bugs in these 
when multiple file accesses are made, 
particularly when in subroutines. Most 
normal file accesses seem to work 
properly. In fact, I have been able to 
write a few utilities in A/BASIC. 

Is this BASIC worth having a- 
round? I think so. I'm not much of a 
game nut, but I was able to translate 
the game of CHASE that involves 
printing out a map, and runs irritatingly 
slowly in old BASIC. The mapping is 
instantaneous, and the game suddenly 
becomes enjoyable to play. If it only 
had floating point and some Scientific 
functions . . . 

STRUBAL and STRUBAL 

After some considerable delay, I 
have been able to obtain STRUBAL. 
There is a whole story there, but I now 
have it. My first impressions of STRU- 
BAL were very negative. It is not very 
compatible with FLEX. There is no 
provision for use of the P command to 
get the output to the printer. The 
output goes to the printer alright, but 
so do all the prompts for input of 
filename, etc. After some frustration, I 
finally altered my PRINT.SYS routine 
so that everything that is printed is also 
output to the terminal. Since my 
terminal is running at 9600 baud, there 
is no slowdown because of this. Now, 
at least I can read the prompts and 
respond to them. 

Strubal, as supplied, produces the 
final file as a multi-step process. First 
the source file is created using your 
editor. At this time the compiler is used 



to produce a compiled file that is 
essentially a source file for the as- 
sembler. The Strubal Compiler in- 
cludes a complete relocatable as- 
sembler. The next step is to use the 
compiled file as a source for an 
assembler pass. This produces a re- 
locatable object file which must be 
loaded to memory using a linking 
loader. When it is loaded, prompts are 
given for load address etc. If you want 
to save the object file, you can use the 
SAVE utility to save the program from 
memory, I had a little problem with 
that. The Linking Loader didn't honor 

Once you are convinced 
that you can do a lot 
without floating point, 
you will be amazed at the 
efficiency and speed of 
A/BASIC compiled pro- 
grams. 

the TTYSET parameters, and the 
program load address limits were the 
first thing output in the load map. They 
zipped right off the terminal screen 
before I could read them. No matter, 
there is provision for an output file in 
the loader. Next problem, the output 
file is in the standard punch format (S1 
ETC). The obvious thing to do is 
search out the linefeed carriage return 
routine in the linking loader and 
change it to a jump to PCRLF in FLEX 
which keeps track of the lines output 
and initiates the pause. Now the load 
limits stop on the screen and I can use 
SAVE. 

How about the efficiency? Ter- 
rible. I have a two page program in 
BASIC that contains lots of math and 
scientific functions. It translated easily 
to STRUBAL. Though I got about 12 
errors per page, most of them turned 
out to be easily spotted syntax errors 
(if all else fails read the manual). 

The BASIC version uses the 9K 
BASIC and the listing takes another K. 
Strubal compiles my program to 5K 
and uses 6K of run time package. That 
means that the STRUBAL compiled 
program is larger than the BASIC 
program and the interpreter together. 
Further, the compile process took over 
10 minutes toget from the source to the 
final binary file which could be run. 
The program does some fairly complex 
vector manipulations. It runs 6 sec- 
onds in BASIC, and ran 6 seconds in 
STRUBAL. Apparently the floating 
point and scientific functions are not 
too fast. This same program runs 3 
seconds in Computerware's SUPER- 
BASIC. SuperBASIC is a straight 
interpreter that runs about twice as fast 
in general as SWTPC BASIC. 

I have also written this program in 



assembler using TSC's floating point 
package to do the math. I've written 
some fast trig functions using the 
floating point to sum. terms of an 
infinite series expansion. The as- 
sembler program runs about iy 2 K 
long, and the run time is a fraction of a 
second. This puts the "overhead ratio" 
of STRUBAL at about 7. That is the 
amount of memory required is about 7 
times that required by the equivalent 
program in Assembly language. This is 
admittedly a worst case condition, 
since most of the STRUBAL run time 
packages are required for this pro- 
gram. STRUBAL does not do a library 
search and includes only those rou- 
tines required for a particular program. 
It does, however, have several pack- 
ages that are not loaded if not needed. 
This decision is left to the programmer 
at load time. There is a package 
required for all programs, about 2K 
long. The additional packages are 
required for floating point, scientific 
functions and file manipulations. 

Variables may be defined as 
Integer, Floating point, or String. All 
variables but integer must be defined 
before they are used. Program 2 is a 
sample of a source program for 
STRUBAL. It doesn't look much like 
BASIC but the differences are slight. It 
allows the use of labels rather than line 
numbers. There is no REM statement, 
but any line started with a * in the label 
field is considered a comment. All the 
standard functions in BASIC are 
supported, though the syntax varies a 
bit. The comparison symbols, rather 
than the usual "<, >, =" are two letter 
mnemonics such as .GE. for greater 
than or equal, NE. for not equal, etc. 
This is not much of a confusion factor, 
except that the "=" is still used in 
equations and assignment statements 

When a string array is 
dimensioned, the string 
length and array size are 
specified. This is par- 
ticularly nice in keeping 
memory usage down 

such as "A = .SQR(10). Note that the 
period (.) is used to start all function 
names. 

STRUBAL allows the skipping of 
lines in the source listing by using a 
blank comment line, and passes 
indenting along to the listing. One 
puzzling error occurred when I first 
started using STRUBAL. I finally 
discovered that I had been trying to use 
a variable name that had the same first 
letters as a keyword in STRUBAL. The 
compiler gets very confused when you 
do this. I knew about the limitation 
from reading the manual, but it is easy 



28 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Build your own microcomputer 

as you learn 
computer technology at home. 



New from NRI! The Most Complete and Up-to-date Home Study Course Ever Offered 



As the microprocessor revolutionizes the 
computer world and microcomputers appear 
almost everywhere, NRI brings you a new, 
convenient, and effective way to keep up with 
this expanding technology. It's NRI's Computer 
Technology Course, created and designed exclu- 
sively for learning at home in your spare time. 

Featuring NRI's Exclusive 
Dual Language Microcomputer 

NRI goes beyond book learning to 
give you practical, "hands-on" experience in 
designing circuitry, interfacing components, 
programming, and troubleshooting. As you 
learn, you actually assemble NRI's designed-for- 
learning microcomputer, incorporating the latest 
advances in the state of the art. It looks and 
operates like the finest of its kind, actually does 
more than many commercial units. But NRI 
engineers have designed components and 
planned assembly so it demonstrates important 
principles, gives you working experience in detect 
ing and correcting problems. And it's yours to 
keep, put to work in your own home or business. 

You also build and keep your own test 
instruments, including a transistorized volt- 
ohm meter and CMOS digital frequency counter. 
And NRI's Discovery Lab® broadens your 
horizons with specialized experiments and 
theory demonstrations. 

The Proven Way 
to Learn at Home 

You don't have to worry with travel, 
classes, or time lost from work when you learn 
the NRI way. As they have for more than 60 





years of teaching technical subjects, NRI brings 
the material to you. You study in your spare time, 
at your convenience, using "bite-size" lessons 
that program material into logical segments for 
easier assimilation. You perform experiments 
and build equipment using kits we supply. And 
your personal NRI instructor is always available 
for consultation should you have questions or 
problems. Over a million students have already 
shown the effectiveness of NRI training. 

Choice of Courses 

Several courses are available, depending 
upon your needs and |~ ~~ """ """ "~ 

background. NRI's Master 
Course in Computer 
Technology starts with 
the fundamentals, ex- 
plores basic electronics 
and digital theory, the 
total computer world, 
and the microcomputer 
The Advanced Course, 
for students already 
versed in electronics 
and general comput- 
ers, concentrates on the 
microprocessor and mic- 
rocomputer. In both 
courses, you build all 
instruments and your 
own computer. 



Send for Free Catalog... 
No Salesman Will Call 

Get the details on these exciting new 
courses in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. Shows 
all kits and equipment, lesson outlines, and full 
information, including facts on other electronics 
courses. Mail the coupon today and we'll rush 
your catalog. No salesman will ever call. Keep up 
with the latest technology as you learn on your 
own computer. If coupon has been removed, 
write to NRI Schools, Computer Department, 
3939 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, DC 20016. 




NRI School* 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Education Center 
3939 Wisconsin Avenue 
Washington. DC 20016 
NO SALESMAN WILL CALL 
Please check for one fire catalog only 

O Computer Electronics Including 

Microcomputers 
D TV/Audio Mdeo Systems Servicing 
Q Complete Communications Electronics 

with CB • FCC Licenses • Aircraft. 

Mobile, Marine Electronics 
D CB Specuhsts Course 
D Amateur Radio • Risk: and Advanced 




D Digital Electronics • Electronic 
Technologv • Basic Electronics 
O Small Engine Repair 
D Electrical Appliance Servicing 
O Automotive Mechanics 
D Auto Air Conditioning 
O Air Conditioning. Refrigeration. A Hearing 

tnJ.ullu C»l«. — ' ' 

inciucung aotar lecnnoiogy 



Clly/San/Zlp 

Accredited by the Accrediting Commission of the National Horne Study Council 



175-010 



JANUARY 1980 



29 





BASICS, con't. . . 














PRIME 








to overlook. The compiler doesn't flag 












all occurrences of the name as errors, 




REM PRIME NUMBERS FRUtl 1 TO YOUR CHOICE UP 10 








making the problem even more 




REM THE LIMIT OF INTEGER ARITHMETIC 








mysterious. 




REM 








STRUBAL does not allow multiple 




OPT S 








statements per line which would tend 












to obscure the program structure. 




BASE=»30 

DIM P( 50 ).R(50 ).L( 1 ).M( 1 ).I( 1 1 








The PRINT line syntax might be 




BASE=$800 








puzzling. The slash (/) causes a 




ON ERROR GOTO 90 








linefeed. Single quotes (') are used for 
literals rather than the (") used in 


10 


PRINT TAB(8W "PRIME NUMBER PROGRAM' ! PRINT 
PRINT TAB( 8 )i "LARGEST NUMBER" i I INPUT M 








BASIC. Commas separate the items in 




I=4TP1=0 








the print list. In the example the [6] is a 




p<i)=i:p(2)=2:p(3)=3:rem prime the primes 








format specification that indicates that 




R( 1 1=1 !R( 2 )-2;R( 3 )=3 

PRINT TAB(8)i " "»P<1>." "iP(2>." "iP(3>." "! 








6 digits are to be printed with none 












after the decimal point. If the result 




FOR K=5 TO M STEP 2 








were floating point, you would use 




FOR L=3 TO K 

N=R(L>:S=P(L) 








[4.4], for example to specify four digits 


70 


B=K 








before and 4 after the decimal point. 
Leading and trailing zeros are sup- 


30 


O=0-N 

if o<=o then 3o:n=n+s:r(d=n:goto 20 

IF 0=0 THEN 60IREH NUMBER IS NUT PRIME 








pressed, and the output positioned so 




IF S*S>K THEN 40TREM ONLY NEED TEST NUMBERS < SORT OF 


K 






the decimal points are aligned verti- 




NEXT L 








cally if several lines of various values 


40 


PRINT K." "i 








are printed. The TAB function is 




IF P1O0 THEN 50IREM SUITCH AVOIDS 1ES1ING REPEA1EDLY 
IF K*K>M COSUB 70 












to 


P(I)=K:R(I )=K 

1=141 :rem COUNT PRIMES 








PRIME NUMBER PROGRAM IN STRURAI. 










IF P0S>70 GOSUB 80IREM SET LINE LtNGTH 












60 


NEXT K 










* 




PR1NTJPRINT 










* STRUBA1. PRIME NUMBERS PROGRAM 




PRINT TAB(8)CTHERE ARE "il-l!" PRIMES BtlUEEN 1 AND "!M!". 










» 




PRINT 










CSFCT 




GOTO 10 










INTEGER PRIKF<50).I.J.K.l.MAX.N.I- 




STOP 










CEHD 














t 




REH SUBROUTINES FOLLOW 










t PRIMF (HE PRIMFS 


70 


Pl»lt RETURN 










* 


80 


PRINT IPRINI TAB(8)J!REIURN 










PRIMF( 1 >=1 


70 


PRINT TAB! 8)T "ERROR ♦ "TERRiSTOP 










PR1MF<?>=7 




END 










PRI«F< 3 >=3 
* 

MNITIALI7F NFXI PRIME POINTER 
* 

START 1=4 
1 

» ITEM COUNT FOR LINE 
1 
























PRIMES IN TSC BASIC 










J=4 
» 




10 REM PRIME NUMBER FINDING PROGRAM It; NEW BASIC 










* SUITCH FOR SAVE OF PRIMES TO SORT OF MAX 




20 REM INITIALIZE L1NJ LENT,TK 










t 

P=0 

1 




30 DIM PR<50> 












40 POKE HEXC4B" >,HtX< "TF" ) 










PRINT/. 'PRIMF NUMBER PROGRAM'./ 




50 PRINTifRINT'PRlf,. NUMBER PROGRAM," 










INPUT 'LARCEST NUMBER' .MAX./// 




60 IHFUI "LARGEST NUMBER". MX 










IF MAX .Ft). 1HEN EXIT 




70 IF MX=0 THEN 1100 










PRINT UT.PRIMFCl >.PR1NE(2).PR1ME(3> 




80 IM .At 










K=5 




90 IF At^"Y" THFN GOSUB .<!(. 










WH11F K.IF. MAX 




100 IT At="N" 1HF.N COSUB 










FOR 1=3 TO K 




110 1MIJ-4 










1 




120 Fk<: 1 )■ 1IPRC2)»2:PR(3 










* RFDUCE ARRAY REFERENCES BY ASSIGNING CONSTANT 




130 PRINTPRtl ).PR(2).PR< 










t 




140 TOR t. 










N=PRIMF(l ) 




150 FOR L*3 TO t. 










* 




160 H=PR(I ) 










IF K .HOD N .FR. THEN SKIP 




170 IF K/M- IHKK/tl) TH; .n 260 










IF NtN .GT. K THEN OUT 




180 IF N*N;i; THEN 200 










NEX! I 




190 NFX! 1 










OUT PRINI [6 




200 PRINI t.. 










IF P ,NE. THfi. MO 




205 J=JF1 










IF K(K .61. MAX LET P=I 




210 IF POO THEN 240 










LFI ! 




220 IF K«C>HX THEN P=l 










NOSAVE I»I« 




230 PR; I Y-\, 










J=J + 1 




240 1=1+1 










IF J .E0. V GOSUB LINE 




250 IF J=5 IIIKI PRINI !..:-• 1 










SKIP K=K+2 




260 NT XI 1. 










BLOCK 




270 PRINTTPRINTTHFRI ARE "»] THEEN 1 AND "SMX!"." 










PRINT //,' THERE ARE ,L-1,' PRIMES BETWEEN 1 AND '.MAX,' 




280 1 










GOTO START 




290 PRINT IPRINTIPRINI 










t 




295 COSUB 










LINE J=l 




300 GOTO 50 










PRINT / 




310 POKE 0.0 1 RETURN 










RETURN 




320 POM 0.S 










EXIT JMP $7103 




330 REf, POI 1 UFT 










END 




1100 END 










30 


CREATIVE COMPUTING 













BASICS, con't 




implemented by using >7 to indicate 7 
spaces. Actually, it is more of a space 
function than a tab. 

In my quest for more I was 
supplied with a copy of STRUBAL+ 
which has some additional features. It 
allows the defining of a function (like 
the DEF FNC(X)) in BASIC. I didn't 
mention the fact that STRUBAL's 
floating point is 10 digit precision. 
STRUBAL+ has provision for varying 
the precision from 4 to 14 digits! 
Supposedly, the math is faster with 
fewer digits. I couldn't see the differ- 
ence in the vector program, though the 
presence of all the scientific functions 
probably obscured the time difference 
in the math. STRUBAL+ comes with a 
much improved manual. It has a page 
devoted to each instruction with 
application examples. 

A LINKAGE EDITOR is supplied 
with STRUBAL+. This makes it pos- 
sible to link programs and produce an 
output file that is straight binary, and 
not punch format, without actually 
loading the program to memory. It is a 
major advantage in capability, and un- 
fortunately very complicated to use. 
The original Linking Loader is easier to 
use for straightforward linkage and 
load applications. 

The language is pleasant to use. 
The output formatting is very nice, and 
the precision excellent. You don't 
know what you are missing until you 
have used labels for references rather 
than line numbers, and had the luxury 
of assigning names to variables. The 
cost of STRUBAL is $100, but it is no 
longer being sold. STRUBAL+ is $280. 
In my opinion, STRUBAL is not a 
practical development tool because of 
the inefficiencies of memory usage. A 

A/BASIC has a library 
of routines that are 
compiled only if needed 
in the program being 
compiled. 

program of more than about 4 pages 
would result in a compiled assembler 
source file of more than a full mini- 
floppy disk. Jack is obviously ap- 
proaching the problem from the other 
end of the spectrum than Ken Kaplan 
at Microware with A/BASIC. The 
Linkage Loader was written in STRU- 
BAL+. It is about 12K long. It works 
very well, but is huge, cumbersome 
and slow. On the other hand, 14 digit 
precision is hard to come by and it is 
here if you need it. STRUBAL+ might 
be a good language to use to design a 
small business system built around a 
6800 system with 48K and a couple of 8 



nch disk drives. As a development tool 
for programs to be put in ROM for an 
end product, it is sadly lacking. 
Whether it is worth the price is up to 
you. By the way, the prime number 
program that uses only integer arith- 
metic in STRUBAL runs almost as fast 
as the A/BASIC version, (9 sec.) and is 
about 4 times as large in terms of 
memory usage. 

TSC New BASIC 

This BASIC started out to be a 
compiler, and ended up an interpreter. 
When a source file is loaded, the 
interpreter generates an intermediate 
code file. It substitutes hex codes for 
the keywords, etc. The intermediate 
code is somewhat mysterious. I have a 
pre-disk version, essentially the cas- 
sette version revised very slightly to 
allow saving and loading the inter- 
mediate code files to disk. The features 
are roughly the same as the old BASIC. 
The incredible thing about this BASIC 
is its speed. Some time ago, one of the 
computer magazines ran tests of 
several systems using some bench- 
mark test programs. This new BASIC is 
faster than a Z-80 basic running at 4 
Mhz, and about % as fast as the fastest 
tested, the OSI BASIC for the 6502 
running at 2 Mhz. If you have a 2 Mhz 
6800 system, you can have the fastest 
BASIC for any Microcomputer. 
SWTPC BASIC was very near the 
bottom of the list in these tests. 

What do you pay for this speed? 
The arithmetic is 6 digits. Actually the 
internal arithmetic is 7 digits and the 
results are rounded to 6. TSC has taken 
great pains to see that you don't get 
resu Its like 2+2=3.99999, as happens in 
some other BASIC interpreters that 
use binary floating point arithmetic 
internally, as theirs does. They have 
hidden the binary so well, that you can 
find prime numbers by dividing and 
checking the result for it's being an 
integer. Some of the binary arithmetic 
BASIC interpreters won't do this. 
There is no DIGITS command, so you 
can't control the printout of such as 
dollars and cents directly. You can 
round by using PRINT INT(A*100+.5)/ 
100 but if the "cents" come out even, 
the zeros will be dropped. Dan Vanada 
of TSC indicates that the final disk 
version will allow the use of all the 
FLEX system utilities without leaving 
BASIC. If you have FLEX2 operating 
this means that you can run any of the 
utilities. (In MINIFLEX some of the 
utilities load at $100 and would destroy 
BASIC.) 

There is not a whole lot more that 
can be said about this BASIC except 
that outside of the differences ex- 
plained above, it has all of the features 
of the old BASIC. It worked flawlessly 
for me. TSC has also made it conform 
more closely to the ANSI standard. It 



now treats a comma properly in a print 
list. If a line to be printed is ended with 
a comma, the linefeed is inhibited, and 
the next item is printed in the next 
zone. The old BASIC worked properly 
with a semi-colon, but went to the next 
line on a comma. This BASIC also 
allows an array subscript of zero. This 
will be of great help when translating a 
program from another BASIC in which 
these are allowed. You don't have to 
use them, but you must remember that 
if you dimension A(10) you will have 
A(0) through A(9) available. To avoid a 
problem when you translate an old 
program you can simply increase the 
dimension by 1 and not use the (0) 
location. 

In keeping with the other two 
programs presented here, program 3 is 
the "Find the Primes" program in the 
new BASIC. This version runs 42 

The compiler is fast and 
easy to use. 

seconds to find the prime numbers 
from 1 to 1000. If that seems slow 
compared to the compilers, let me 
remind you that both compilers have 
integer only capability that may be 
taken advantage of. Also remember 
that this is more than six times faster 
than the old BASIC. Just for the record, 
this program in Computerware's 
SUPERBASIC also runs about twice as 
fast as SWTPC "coming" in around 2 
minutes and 20 seconds. 

TSC has indicated the availability 
of an Extended BASIC some time this 
summer. It will have "print using" 
capability, and 12 digit arithmetic. It 
will not be as fast but will be well suited 
to business applications. 

The interpreter is about 9.5K long. 
TSC started out to produce a compiler, 
but found the run time package 
growing larger and larger, and so 
abandoned the original project in favor 
of the interpreter. They are to be 
commended on producing a major 
breakthrough in software that reveals 
the true potential of the 6800. 

Conclusions 

If you are perplexed at this point, 
so am I. These three BASIC'S are all 
different. I had hoped for a compiler 
that could be used to implement some 
rather complicated math in ROM so it 
could be installed in a microprocessor 
based product. It would seem super- 
fluous to install an 8K or 9K interpreter 
in ROM just to avoid writing 3K of 
assembler program. As you have seen, 
A/BASIC suffers from limited capa- 
bility; though what it does, it does very 
well. STRUBAL has all the capabilities, 
but suffers from inefficiency and slow 
execution. TSC's new BASIC is fast 
enough and has all the capabilities, but 



JANUARY 1980 



31 



BASICS, con't. 



has a 9.5K interpreter attached. Per- 
haps the problem is insoluble. Maybe 
no one can write an efficient compiler 
around a Microprocessor with the 
capabilities of the 6800. Perhaps it will 
take the 6809 or one of the 16 bit 
processors to do the job. Meanwhile, 
any of the above are great fun. Take 
your choice, or get one of each as I did. 
I am looking at these from a 
particular point of view because I have 
a particular application in mind. 
Perhaps you have a different per- 
spective, and this article will help you 
to find just the software you need for 
your application. 

Update 

Since this was written, TSC has 
released the disk version of BASIC. As 
promised, the FLEX Utilities are all 
accessible from BASIC. The FLEX2 
version has several random access file 
modes including "virtual arrays" and 
"record I/O" as well as all the previous 
sequential files. It should be noted that 
only the FLEX2 version has these and 
not the Miniflex version. Time has not 
permitted trying these yet. TSC also 
foresaw a difficulty with array dimen- 
sion compatibility in converting old 
programs. The new BASIC allows zero 
subscripts. Normally when zero sub- 
scripts are used, dimensioning an 
array as A(10) would reserve A(0) 
through A(9). Most of our old pro- 
grams would expect to use A(1) 
through A(10). TSC chose to waste a 
bit of memory and save us some 
confusion. DIM A(10) reserves eleven 
locations, A(0) through A(10). Conse- 
quently there is no confusion, and A (0) 
need not be used, though we will learn 
to take advantage of it as we write new 
programs in the new BASIC. 

Old source files created by the old 
BASIC contain some control charac- 
ters that foul up this BASIC, and they 
must be passed through the Editor, 
which ignores control characters, 
before they will run in the new BASIC. 
Old programs that have any DIGITS=, 
LINE=, OR PORT= commands must 
also be deleted because this BASIC 
does not support any of these com- 
mands, and their inclusion results in an 
error when the program is loaded. 

One inconvenience that I noted is 
that if you try to load a program with 
one of these or a simple syntax error, 
an error message is returned, and a 
'LIST' command will reveal to you the 
successfully loaded part of the pro- 
gram up to and including the line 
BEFORE the one that contains the 
error. It is then necessary to exit BASIC 
and go into the Editor to correct the 



bad line. It would be much nicer if the 
bad lines would load so that they could 
be edited in BASIC. The rejection of a 
bad line is a nice feature while entering 
programs when in BASIC, but most of 
us will use the Editor at least for the 
first try at entering a program. 

TSC has also provided a way 
(though a step backward in my opin- 
ion) to output to a printer. Rather than 
'PORT=7' one uses the special output 
channel '0' by inserting the instruction 
OPEN "0.PRINT" AS 0. The manual is 
rather confusing on this as the and O 
are not distinguishable from each 
other in the text. After is opened, 
output is sent to the printer by using 
PRINT #0,"TEXT ETC.". A line that has 
simply the keyword PRINT always 
goes .to the terminal. If you do not open 

I had been trying to use a 
variable name that had 
the same first letters as a 
Keyword in STRUBAL. 
The compiler gets very 
confused when you do 
this. 

0, or if after output to the printer you 
CLOSE 0, all output goes to the 
terminal again. The reason I think this 
is a step in reverse, is that extensive 
modification (editing) is required to 
convert a program where the PORT 
commands were used. The OPEN 
"0.PRINT" results in your PRINT.SYS 
file being loaded and the printer 
initialization taking place. If you 
CLOSE0 and then open it again in 
response to prompts in your program, 
PRINT.SYS will be again loaded from 
your disk and the process repeated. It 
seems rather incompatible with this 
very fast BASIC to be stopping to load 
a disk file whenever the PRINT to 
printer is turned on. Several of my 
programs have prompts for printer 
such that printer output is turned on as 
requested and turned off at the end of 
the program, when the program loops 
back to the beginning, the prompt 
again appears and the choice is again 
made. 

Software available from: 
Microware Systems Corporation 
P.O. Box 4865 
Des Moines, IA 50304 
(515) 265-6121 

A/BASIC compiler Extended Disk 

Version $150 
(SSB. SWTPC. MDOS) 
A/BASIC Cassette Version $65 
(requires RT/68 operating system 

available in ROM for $55. 
Contact Microware for catalog and 

details.) 



Hemenway Associates, Inc. 
101 Tremont St., Suite 208 
Boston, MA 02108 
(617) 426-1931 

STRUBAL + compiler $249.95 
(This is a price reduction from the 
previous $280.) 



Technical Systems Consultants 


P.O. Box 2574 




West Lafayette. IN 47906 




AP68-11 




TSC BASIC w/cassette 


$39.95 


AP68-11D 




With miniFLEX disk 


$49.95 


AP68-11F 




With 8" FLEX 1.0 disk 


$59.95 


AP68-11F2 




With 5" FLEX 2.0 disk 


$54.95 


■W^l W^l W1 1^—H— — 1 W^l !■»* 



Response from Robert D. Grappel of 
Hemenway Associates, Inc. 

Hemenway Associates appreci- 
ates this opportunity to comment on 
the review by Ron Anderson of our 
STRUBAL+ language. We feel that this 
negative attitude is due to a difficult 
slant on the relative merits of lan- 
guages/compilers than that which 
guided the design of STRUBAL+. 

First, Ron mentions that the 
compiler and Linking Loader do not 
make use of all the features of the FLEX 
operating system. This is true. How- 
ever, since all Hemenway Associates 
products are supplied for FLEX 1.0, 
SmokeSignals DOS, PERCOM Mini- 
DOS, ICOM FDOS, TANO COPS11, 
and our own system CP/68, they had to 
be written for the most common 
denominator of these operating sys- 
tems. Ron mentions that the Linking 
Loader outputs files in the Motorola S1 
format. This is the standard format for 
6800 systems: that FLEX cannot 
support it is more a deficiency of FLEX 
than a problem with the loader. The 
trouble with the P command is specific 
to the FLEX version. Under our CP/68 
the printer prints listings and the 
terminal gets the prompts. Note that 
each of the other BASICS described 
"live" in only one operating system. 

STRUBAL+ is not intended to be a 
BASIC compiler. The language was 
designed to include all the function- 
ality of BASIC, but to change where 
change seemed beneficial and to 
extend where extensions seemed 
useful. Line numbers were eliminated 
and replaced with labels for enhanced 
readability. I/O formatting uses FOR- 
TRAN-like constructs. Structured 
forms are included. Data records 
(mixed data type structures) were 
taken from COBOL. STRUBAL+ can 



32 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



BASICS, con't. . . 

directly manipulate the stack which 
allows writing recursive subroutines 
... try that with a BASIC. 

Ron points out that STRUBAL+ 
floating-point is fairly slow - about as 
fast as SWTPC BASIC. Some of this is 
due to the use of 14-digit BCD arith- 
metic - the accuracy necessary for 
business applications; maintaining 
control over the accuracy of the cal- 
culations can be a big help in some 
scientific problems, too. In a program 
which uses mostly floating-point arith- 
metic, STRUBAL+ will show no speed 
benefit over an interpreter. This is 
because both are spending nearly all 
their time doing the arithmetic. The 
rest of the program (compiled or inter- 
pretered) is taking negligible time. In 
integer manipulations or logic, STRU- 
BAL+ can keep up with the fastest 
languages (as Ron mentions in his 
comparison with A-BASIC). 

Ron's comments about the size 
inefficiency of STRUBAL+ need clarif- 
ication. STRUBAL+ compiles a pro- 
gram by writing an assembly language 
equivalent to disk. This file is then 
assembled in subsequent passes of the 
compiler. Assembly language does 
tend to be space inefficient . . . but it is 
readable by the programmer. 

Ron gives figures for the memory 
size of STRUBAL+ programs versus 



other languages. This is somewhat 
misleading. STRUBAL+ was never 
intended for writing small game 
programs or one-page programs. It is 
designed for writing large complex 
programs which need the power it 
provides. A 16K STRUBAL+ program 
needs no more runtime support than a 
5K program and the larger the source 
program, the better STRUBAL+ will 
appear. Also, since STRUBAL+ pro- 
vides the facilities for writing programs 
as modules and linking them together 
at load time, there is no need for huge 
files on disk when several smaller files 
will do. This linking process allows for 
flexibility. True, there are 20 com- 
mands in the Linkage Editor, but 
powerful software requires handles for 
the programmer to manipulate it. 

Ron has some factual mistakes in 
his article. STRUBAL+ was never 
$280.00, it always has sold for $249.95. 
The Linking Loader is no longer sold. 
(Use the Linkage Editor instead.) The 
Linkage Editor can perform library 
searches. 

One final point, perhaps the most 
important of them all, the source-code 
of the STRUBAL+ compiler, and all its 
runtime libraries.is available as a book, 
including the manuals and algorithm 
descriptions ($49.95). This will allow 
programmers to optimize the floating- 
point, change the I/O, or just learn how 
one compiler works. □ 



- Texas Instruments - - - 
Home Computer Ti-99/4 




Speech Synthesizer S 
Video Graphs 
Early Learning Fun 
Beginning Grammar 
Diagnostic 
Home financial 
Football 

Physical Fitness 
Early Reading 
Household Budgrt 

Speech Editor 

investment Anal 

Personal Record «pg 

ViCeo Chess 

Statistics 

Tax / investment Record 



■•I 


t ATf&0».» •! llfCTMC't* 


1** 


ll 




HT 


«• 


.III 


till 


liSi 


«• 


ill 




\Er 




******** 


0" 


-"■ 



tra»?a BTii.Mill(»U 




Send $1.00 for 12 page Color 
Brochure. (Refundable with 
your TI-99/4 order.) 



Superior color, music, sound and graph ics-- 

anda powerful extended BASK .--nil built in 

l*lus a unk|uc. new Si >l id State Speech Synthesizer . 





FACTORY DIRECT SALES 
Depl 114 
1317 E Colorado SI 
Glendale, CA 91205 
Pkww (2131 245-1417 



ORDER TODAY 

Reian Store Hours lues Fn 10AM lo 6PM 
Sal 9AM lo 5PM Closed Sunday & Monday 

211% deposit required on CO orders 

C«tc» "MgntfOtt* ' Cwe* 

CA IMH1 MO eX IMI !*■ 1ft* C D MUM taMMHWU, U S » I 



26K ROM 

Up to 72K total 

memory capacity 

16-color graphics 

capability ! 

Built-in equation 

calculator 



• SATISFACTION GUARANTEED OR YOUR MONEY BACK! 

Copyrigm i 1979 Factory Direct Sales 



ORDER NOW 
SAVE $150 

Retail Price J1150 

Your Price 



999 



Pnee subject to change without notice 
Refunds guaranteed 



33 



*€%* 

<$i& 
<>?%&<»> 




AT YOUR LOCAL 

COMPUTER 

STORE! 

New! SONGS IN THE KEY 

OF APPLE (Lopatin) Allows you 
to see and hear your favorite tunes, pre 
programmed tunes, or music you create (up 
to 200 notes, including rests, per musical 
piece). Multicolor graphics accompany all 
music 103304. Apple II. $10.95 



New! SKETCHMODE 

(Walton) Create computer graphics, modify 
them, save them, and read them from 
tape. Your drawing can be reproduced, 
saved, or translated into a form BASIC can 
use »03203. TRS 80 Level II, $1195 



New! BIOCURVE 

(Microflair Associates) Will chart your 
biorythms against another person's and 
suggest when you will be in a state o( instability 
and therefore vulnerability 
«O3103. TRS 80 Level II. $9 95 



LB 



Hayden Book 
Company, Inc. 

50 Essex Street. 
Rochelle Park. NJ 07662 



CIRCLE 169 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



4 i J 

4 i 



Micro Music for the TRS-80 

Jim Wright 



J, 






Beethoven won't have to worry 

just yet, but Radio Shack is attempting 

to create a whole new breed of 

musicians. For $9.95 you can buy 

Radio Shack's new Micro Music (pro- 

w, gram #26-1902) and within minutes 

J* have your TRS-80 playing music. 

J Micro Music can be played on any 

* Level I or Level II TRS-80 by recording 
your composition on tape and replay- 
ing the tape in the normal fashion; or 
you can have your orchestration 
played directly through your hi-fi and 
watch your friend's expressions when 
you hit ENTER on the keyboard and 
your whole room fills with computer 
generated music. For the "in-be- 
tweener" the Micro Music manual 
indicates that you can buy the small 
Realistic #277-1008 amplifier ($10.95) 

x^ for listening to the music. It appears 

* that the AUX cable of the TRS-80 will 
plug directly into the Realistic ampli- 
fier; however, if you want to interface 
with another amplifier you will prob- 
ably need to buy or make a cable. 

Beethoven won't have to 
worry just yet, but Radio 
Shack is attempting to 
create a whole new 
breed of musicians. 

"ijon^worry if you are not a 
musician or can't read music. The 8 
page instruction manual will have you 
programming music within a few 
minutes. After an hour or so you will be 
scurrying through all the old music 
books you have looking for songs to 
enter into the TRS-80. While the 
manual is very thorough in teaching 
Micro Music's operation, I felt that it 
could have included a section on basic 
music fundamentals and reading 
simple sheet music for those who don't 
know or can't remember the differ- 
ences between a half rest, quarter rest, 
eighth rest, etc. (The manual does 
include one line of sheet music 
converted into Micro Music coding as a 
sample.) 

Programming Micro Music is 
amazingly simple. If you can read 
notes from sheet music you need only 
type in the note and duration (e.g., half, 



Jim Wright. 10140 N.W. 43rd St.. Coral Springs. FL 
33065 



quarter, eighth, or whole — Micro 
Music does not allow for sixteenth 
notes). If you can't read sheet music, 
the manual provides a large chart that 
will allow you to look up each note to 
determine if it is a C, D, E, F, G, A, or B. 
The manual does not, however, help 
you in reading sharps or flats. I find 
most of mine when I play the music 
back the first time. Figure 1 shows a 
sample of the Micro Music conver- 
sions. To change from one octave to 
another you simply press <SHIFT>t or 
<SHIFT>I depending on the direction. 
Micro Music has a five octave range, 
but only three octaves are program- 
med. The five octave range allows you 
to play your composition in either the 
high range or base range. I used this 
range transition to program the begin- 
ning of "Dueling Banjos" for quite a 
dramatic effect. Sharps and flats are 
handled by inserting a # (sharp) or - 
(flat) directly after the note (e.g., F#4, 
B-8). Dotted notes are also provided 
for along with a stacatto effect (a very 
short pause between notes) and the 
capability to handle triplets (playing 
three notes in the normal time it takes 
for two). You can program two basic 
tempos (speed); however, by com- 
bining these with the triplet speed up 
you can actually generate four tempos. 
Additional options allow you to choose 
from three types of tones, to me they all 
sound like those in "Close Encoun- 
ters." Finally. Micro Music allows you 
to repeat sections by enclosing the 
section in parentheses along with a 
number up to 9. ' 

When typing in your music you 
can move the cursor in any direction 
using the four arrow keys. This allows 
you to quickly move around the screen 
and correct or add to your composi- 
tion. <SHIFT> D will delete a character 
and <SHIFT> I will create a blank space 
allowing you to insert a character. To 



listen to your composition simply 
press <ENTER> and whatever you 
have entered will be played. If you like, 
you can record your music on tape. 
You can also record your program 
steps on tape for later reading back 
into Micro Music. t 

The 8 page instruction 
manual will have you 
programming music 
within a few minutes. 

After using Micro Music for some 
time, I have only one real criticism of 
the program. Whenever you press 
<ENTER> to listen to a portion of your 
program, Micro Music will play every- 
thing that has been entered. This can 
be very time-consuming and annoying 
when trying to compose or debug a 
long piece of music. I would like to see 
a way to start a composition at any 
point in the music. One other problem I 
ran into is after writing or reading a 
program on tape Micro Music returnsa 
"@" symbol. This symbol will appear in 
the position that the cursor was last in. 
Occasionally, this position was over 
one of my notes causing the note to be 
replaced by "@". When running the 
composition, I found that a note was 
missing and had to go back and rein- 
sert the correct note. 

Overall, I found Micro Music to be 

an interesting and fun program and 

would recommend it for anyone who 

j. would like to have their TRS-80 play 

■ music. While Micro Music is quite 

' flexible, it is easy to operate and can be 

enjoyed by any TRS-80 user. It is one 

program that will be sure to answer the 

age old question ". . . but, what will it 

do." Composing your own music is a 

very satisfying and creative outlet that 

will bring hours of enjoyment to you . . . 

and those listening. □ 




d d \ d ' * \ m dd ' \— j- ) m \ * + w 



¥ 



w 



^ 



F6 F4C4A8A8 A4 F4 F8 A8 ',C4C8;B-8A8 G2 G8 A8 B-4 B-4 A8 G8 

(<SHIFT>1)(<SHIFT>1) 



Figure 1. 
Example of MICRO MUSIC programming <SHIFT>t & <SHIFT>l 
changes octaves The "-" in B- indicates a B flat. 



34 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Mainframe 
Owners . . . 



Maybe TRS-80 Model II 
Should be Your Next 

[Hardware Investment! 




\ 



V 1 






TRS-80 Model II Features 


•32Kor64KRAM 


• Interpreter BASIC (Other 


• Built-in 8 Floppy (500K 


Languages Available 2nd 


BytM) 


Quarter 1980) 


• Supports 4 Floppies (Up to 


• Z-80A Processor at 4 MHz 


2 Megabytes) 


• Separate Keyboard 


• DMA and Vectored 


Processor 


Interrupts for Faster 


• 2 RS-232C I/O Ports, 


Throughput 


1 Centronics Parallel Port 



Designed for business. Radio Shack's design 
concept for TRS-80 Model II was to build a busi- 
ness computer — not a hobby, "home" or per- 
sonal computer that could be used by the busi- 
nessman. Model II is compact, fast and powerful. 
It's ideal for a small business, and also "just right" 
for many time-consuming small jobs within 
larger businesses. For firms 
with large mainframe com- 
puters, Model II can 
handle the jobs that 
constantly interrupt 
the data processing 
schedule — or those too hot 
to wait for open time on the 
mainframe. Use it either as a 
stand-alone computer or an 
intelligent terminal. 

Language. Model lis in- 
terpretive BASIC language is 
easy to use, and will soon be 
supplemented by other 
compiler languages. The 
built-in half-meg disk stor- 
age can be expanded to two 
megabytes. Vectored inter- 
rupts, direct memory access 
and a separate keyboard 
processor add to the throughput. 

Availability. TRS-80 Model II is on dis- 
play at 50 Radio Shack Computer 
Sales/Service Centers and 100 spe- 
cialized Computer Departments in 
major area Radio Shack stores. It's 
being delivered through our 7300 retail 
outlets on a first-come, first-served 
basis. Visit your nearest Radio Shack 
store for details or write the address 
below. 



TRS-80 Model II 32K 
1-Disk Systems from . . 

TRS-80 Model II 64K 
4-Disk System (shown) 



•3450 
•6599 



Retail prices may vary at individual stores and dealers 



Radio /hack 

The biggest name in little computers® 

A Division of Tandy Corporation • Ovor 7000 Locations in 40 Countrias 



Free 24-Page TRS-80 Catalog 

Write: Radio Shack, Oept. CMA-415. 
1300 One Tandy Center, 
Fort Worth, Texas 76102 



JANUARY 1980 



35 




Register is a Cash Register/ 
Inventory Control Program for a 
small retail store to prepare sales 
tickets, accumulate sales Infor- 
mation and adjust inventory at the 
time of sale. It also provides daily 
reports of sales activity and current 
status of inventory items at or 
below reorder point. Routines are 
provided to perform inventory 
functions such as ordering or 
receiving products, adding or 
deleting items, full Inventory list- 
ing and producing a price book. 



The Programs 

The package is comprised of two 
functions — Inventory and Sales Pro- 
cessing. Let's look at the inventory 
process first. There are four programs 
that are used to maintain the inven- 
tory (Figures 1 and 2 list the programs 
and files on the program and data 
disc, respectively). 

1. IRPT prints a detail listing of 
the master file (shown in 
Figure 3). 

2. IRPT1 produces a price book 
with current quantity on hand 
(see Figure 4). 

3. IENTRY provides the utility to 
maintain the inventory data 
base by adding new items and 
changing existing items. 

4. ORDREC is used to indicate 
product ordered or received. 



A2SI0-2 4 

BASIC 14 

CLOSEOUT 106 



IENTRY 

IRPT 

IRPT1 

ORDREC 

REGISTER 



FILE 
DATA 
TEMP 
PUSH 
BIN 



59 
123 

70 
130 

76 



10 

45 

17 

11 

7 

6 

9 

30 



2A00 



Figure 1 



4 256 
271 50 
260 10 
270 1 
321 25 
Figure 2 



A retail store cash register/inventory program 



Evaluating "Register" 



Gene F. Sellier 



The Inventory Programs work 
quite well. The reports are nicely 
formatted and data entry routines 
function smoothly. All inventory 
information is contained in one file 
named "FILE" and all data on an indi- 

INVENTORY REPORT AS OF 06/14/79 



INV NO. DESCRIPTION R- 

RETAIL C- 



vidual unit is contained in a 70 byte 
record. The file is pre-initialized for 
934 random access records. In short, 
the inventory programs seem to func- 
tion as designed. 



THE XYZ COMPANY 



PAGE 1 



LEVEL 
LEVEL 



R-QTY 
ORDERED 



MIN-BAL 
UNIT 



COST 
TOTAL 



SELCO, Inc., S25 St. Francois, Suite 13, 
Florissant, MO 63031. 




Figure 3 



INVENTORY REPORT AS OF 06/14/79 
INV NO. PART NO. 



THE XYZ COMPANY 



PAGE 1 



1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

10 

11 

12 

13 

14 

15 

1 



7400 

74L00 

74LS00 

7401 

7402 

74LS02 

74LS03 

7403 

74L04 

74LS04 

74S04 

7405 

7406 

7407 

7 



DESCRIPTION 



DUAL GATE 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 

IC 



QUANTITY 



920 

10 

9 

4 

60 



124 

14 







6 

5 





PRICE 



30 
33 
39 
16 
22 
41 
59 
21 
44 
46 
45 
24 
00 
44 
28 




T9 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 



7489 

7490 

7493 

74107 

74LS109 

74121 

74122 



IC 
IC 
IC 
IC 
IC 
IC 



6 

500 

21 

7 

13 







.53 
.95 
.82 
.45 
.73 
.49 
.48 



Figure4 



36 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



legister", con't. 

The most interesting application 
begins with using the Register Pro- 
gram. After setting the opening date, 
cash and ticket number, the Register 
Menu is displayed. Figure 5 shows 
the dialogue for completing a routine 
sales transaction and the resultant 
update to the cash drawer. [This illus- 
tration was produced by changing a 
conditional branch to an uncondi- 
tional branch at memory location 
10550 in the standard North Star 
Release 5 BASIC configured for a 
Horizon with two serial and one 
parallel ports. A FILL 10550,205 will 
copy data sent to the CRT on a printer 
connected to the right serial port. 
FILL 10550,202 restores print to the 
left serial port only. (Thank North Star 
for this useful tidbit.)] An unfortunate 
situation results from entering a 
command incorrectly. When the pro- 
gram is restarted, the cash drawer 
totals are somewhat modified. Start- 
ing cash is now the last total of the 
cash drawer. The Closeout program is 
shown in Figure 6. The amount of 
starting cash is correctly reflected 
under "Transactions." 

Now that we have a general idea 
how the Register system works, we 
can try to evaluate the practical value 
of these programs. The first thing we 
must realize is that no offering such 
as Register is likely to match the 
requirements of every potential user- 
the crucial point is how close it comes 
to meeting our needs and how diffi- 
cult it will be to modify the programs 
to produce the desired results. 

Evaluating the Package 

The first step in determining 
whether or not a particular piece of 
business software will be satisfactory 
is to clearly define the job that needs 
to be done. If you are unsure then 
seek professional advice from a CPA 
or other qualified professional. Do 
not assume that any software pack- 
age will fulfill the necessary legal 
requirements for recordkeeping and 
documentation. The IRS holds you, 
the businessperson, responsible-not 
your accountant or the software 
house that wrote your business pack- 
age. Most business software pro- 
ducts carry a disclaimer against loss 
through the use of the package. In 
short, it's up to you to insure that your 
records are accurate and follow 
accepted accounting methods. So 
much for sermon. 

For most retail or wholesale 
businesses, merchandise inventory 
represents the most sizable invest- 
ment and is the most volatile. Lack of 
adequate control can produce losses 



that may cause business failure. The 
minimum information on an inventory 
item might be: 1) stock number; 2) 
description; 3) manufacturer's order- 
ing number; 4) cost; 5) selling price 
(may be more than one); 6) reorder 
point; 7) minimum order quantity; 8) 
quantity on hand; 9) quantity on 
order; 10) date of last order; 11) 
backorder quantity (sold but not 
delivered); 12) General Ledger ac- 
count or department number. Inven- 
tory reports required could include: 1) 
complete inventory listing; 2) price 
book; 3) backorder report; 4) mini- 
mum quantity report; J>) inventory 
investment by department and grand 
total ; 6) audit trail of item entered into 
the data base; 7) audit trail of items 
removed from the data base by any 
method other than sales. This would 
not be a super comprehension inven- 
tory system but would provide most 
of the control necessary to manage a 
small to medium sized inventory 
base. 

Does the inventory portion of 
Register meet these hypothetical 
minimum requirements? It's close but 
doesn't quite fill the bill. No provision 
is made for backorders (only impor- 
tant if you will accept a customer's 
order for product that you don't have 
on hand) or date of last order. The 
manufacturer's number could be part 
of the description. Complete inven- 
tory listing and price book are pro- 
duced. The most serious deficiencies 
are in the area of documenting trans- 
actions. No hard copy results from 
either ordering or receiving products. 
Products can be removed from inven- 
tory by merely changing the quantity 
on hand figure with the CRT. This not 
only makes finding mistakes more 
difficult but it makes the system 
vulnerable to theft by dishonest 
employees. No system is foolproof 
but the temptation to steal can be 
reduced. The investment figures can 
only be obtained by printing the entire 
master file and no provisions for 
department totals have been made. 
Department or account numbers are 
important because they generally 
relate to a sales account number. 
Statistics such as "Profit by Sales 
Category" can be calculated by using 
the department totals. It would be a 
rare business that had only one 
General Ledger Account number for 
sales. 

It's hard to compare Register to 
the action of a conventional cash 
register because it also manipulates 
inventory while producing a sales 
receipt. The time required to produce 
a sales receipt is considerably longer 
than using a cash register for a couple 
of reasons: (1) many more keystrokes 
are required and (2) each sales receipt 



is printed on 8% inch x 1 1 inch paper. 
Printing speed is naturally dependent 
on the print rate of the printer 
attached to the system. The sales 
receipt contains a more complete 
description of the transaction than 
you normally receive on a cash 
register receipt. This is a plus and 
using two part form stock would pro- 
vide an audit copy of all sales trans- 
actions that occurred in the system. 

On most cash- registers, functions 
such as Sub-Total, Total and Cancel 
are single keystrokes. Register re- 
quires from three to six keystrokes to 
perform the equivalent function and if 
you make an entry error, the program 
will crash. This can be remedied by 
changing the input codes to a single 
character for each function and per- 
forming a test to insure that a valid 
entry is made. This would also speed 
up the process somewhat making the 
program easier to run and more 
tolerant of operator error. 

Summary 

The really big question now is 
this: "Is Register worth $199.95?" 
The answer is a definite "It depends." 
If you have some business program- 
ming experience and a clear idea of 
what you want to achieve, then this 
program probably wouldn't be of 
particular value. The code almost 
looks like different people wrote the 
various modules or else the person 
who wrote it was learning and got 
progressively better. The Register 
module had one syntax error, a 
missing REM statement for a com- 
ment line, and is not what you would 
call structured programming. More 
like "put it down as you think of it." 
Exit from the Menu Display sub- 
routines is a GOTO statement instead 
of RETURN. It is possible to get a 
Stack Overflow error under certain 
conditions. The other modules ap- 
pear to be relatively straightforward 
and functional. An important point to 
remember is that, as a system, 
Register works, which is more than I 
can say about some other software 
products I've seen. If you're new to 
business programming and need a 
package like this, Register could be a 
good starting point for you. With time 
and revision, it could be a useful 
system. On a scale of one to ten, I'd 
rate this package at 4.13 (.13 above 
mediocre). 

I hate to be critical of anyone's 
programming effort since I am only 
too aware of the time involved to pro- 
duce a package. Christianson & 
Associates stated that this is an 
installer's package rather than an end 
user package-l agree. However, the 
advertising information included with 



JANUARY 1980 



37 



"Register", con't... 



the package states that it is ready to 
run which to me means no modifica- 
tions are necessary. If this package 
was priced at $50.00, 1 believe it would 



be a fair value-but not at $200.00. 

Register is a software product 
offered by Gene Christ ianson & As- 
sociates, Box 267, Santa Barbara, CA 
93102 for $199.95. The package 
reviewed was labeled "Version 1.0" 
and included one program diskette, 



one pre-init ialized data diskette and a 
twenty-two page Operator's Manual. 
The programs are written in North 
Star BASIC and require a video dis- 
play device and hard copy printer. 
Two disk drives are nice but not 
required. □ 



***** REGISTER ***** COPYRIGHT 1978 BY GENE CHRISTIANSON ASSOC. 

DATE [CR-RELOAD DATA] > 04/04/79 

STARTING CASH > 250.00 

STARTING TICKET NO. > 1234 
OK? ICR-YES] 



REGISTER COMMAND TABLE 



04/04/79 



I CANCEL CANCELS RECEIPT IN PROGRESS 

I ENTER/S ENTER ITEM NOT ON INVENTORY 

I DEPOSIT/I TAKE DEPOSIT ON PART AND PRINT TICKET 

I PAYOUT WRITE PAID OUT TICKET 

I TOT TOTAL AND PRINT TICKET 

I SUB PRINT SUBTOTAL TO SCREEN 

I |CR] PRINTS THIS PAGE 

I P/N INVENTROY NUMBER TO BE FOUND 

I P/N ? DISPLAY ALL ITEMS CONTAINING P/N STRING 

I P/N * FIND FIRST OCCURANCE OF P/N STRING 




Item 



> 5 



INVENTORY NO. 
DESCRIPTION 
STOCK ON HAND 



PRICE 



5 
7402 
72 



.22 



IC 



HOW MANY ? 12 

TAXABLE [Y/N CR-Y) ? Y 



Item 



> 4 



INVENTORY NO. 
DESCRIPTION 
STOCK ON HAND 



PRICE 



4 
7401 
5 



IC 



.16 



HOW MANY ? 1 

TAXABLE (Y/N CR-Y) ? Y 



Item 



> 3 



INVENTORY NO. 
DESCRIPTION 
STOCK ON HAND 



PRICE 



74LS00 
10 



.39 



IC 



HOW MANY ? 1 

TAXABLE [Y/N CR-Y] ? Y 



GENE CHRISTIANSON ASSOC. 
BOX 267 
SANTA BARBARA, CA. 93102 
PHONE 805/682-5693 






JOHN DOE 
321 A STREET 
WOMBAT CA 95555 

04/04/79 




NO. 1234 


QTY INV. NO. DESCRIPTION UNIT 




TOTAL 


12 5 7402 IC 
1 4 7401 IC 
1 3 74LS00 IC 


.22 
.16 
.39 




2.64 
.16 
.39 




TAX 
TOTAL 




.19 
$3.38 


TICKET TOTAL 3.38 
ENTER AMOUNT PAID > $5.00 


AMOUNT RCD 
BALANCE 




5.00 
$-1.62 


YOUR CHANGE IS $1.62 
HIT [CR] TO CONTINUE 








Item > TOTX 








ALPHA DATA SYSTEMS 






04/04/79 


TICKET NO. 1235 










— — 


TRANSACTIONS 1 
CASH DRAWER $253.38 
DEPOSITS $.00 
TAXABLE SALES $3.19 


STARTING CASH $250 
MINUS STARTING $3 
PAID OUTS $ 
NONTAXABLE SALES $ 


.00 
.38 
.00 
.00 


HIT [CR] TO CONTINUE 



Item 
QTY 



SUB 

INV. 



NO. 



DESCRIPTION 



12 

1 
1 



7402 IC 
7401 IC 
74LS00 IC 



HIT [CR] TO CONTINUE 

Item > TOT 

NAME [CR-CASH] 

ADDRESS 

CITY STATE ZIP 

OK ? [CR=YES] 



JOHN DOE 
321 A STREET 
WOMBAT CA 95555 



UNIT 



.22 
.16 
.39 



TAX 
TOTAL 



TOTAL 



2.64 
.16 
.39 

.19 
$3.38 



Figure 5 



38 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



***** CLOSCOiJT ***** COPYPIGI'V 107*1 BY GSI»E CMP.ISTIAHS0M & ASSOC. 
PFT PRINTER A!1D HIT [CP.l 



GEHE CRRXSTXIUISOTl 1 r\£80C. 

CLOOBOOT ^r:?or.7 

Po L >ort as of 04/-'*/7? 

BBEESSEessrssassBscECBiiiiMisiciatiGiniicteMsiBBcscssscciitrrBesssLSs: 

*************** ^» n ^ [j '; t \ Q 1" i q ii <; *************** 



Page l 

■BtCSSSRl 



4 

34 

67 

122 

145 

158 



NUMBER 



6 
10 



FACTIONS 
CASH DRAPER 
LESS S?ARTMB CAS'l 



$2«r,.c 



TAXABLE S 

'AXACLS S.M.-P 

DEPOSITS 

?:n oots 



?U7.77 

s.oo 
s.oo 

»*** i t n :: s 'i o ? on I H v s - i TORY ******** 



KtniBEn 


description 






r»TY prict; 


TOTAL 




******* I T E ! 


! S 


T 


3 E R E P. n P. B ******** 




:tu::bep. 


DESCRIPTION 






CURRENT LEVEL REORDER OTY LAST 


PRICE 



7401 IC 

7430 IC 

74157 IC 

A15E- GEN ELECT DIODE 

DD25-P EIA CONNECTOR 

IQ120 SORP.OC TERMINAL 



5A 200 










10 

5 



$.03 
S.OO 
S.OO 
S.OO 
SI. 76 
S765.00 



DESCRIPTION 



CRITICAL ITEMS *****«****< 

CURRENT LEVEL REORDER OTY 



LAST PRICE 



74LS02 
74L04 



IC 
IC 



00 
00 



Response From 
Gene Christianson 
& Associates: 

Thank you for the opportu- 
nity to comment on the Review 
of Register written by Mr. 
Sellier. 

Mr. Sellier reviewed a ver- 
sion 1 copy of Register. We are 
now shipping version II which 
uses North Star 'PRINT #' 
routines as supplied by the end 
user. Menu dialog has also 
been shortened. We have also 
added more documentation to 
the software. 

We are aware that a package 
can't be written to suit every- 
one's needs, users comments 
and suggestions are always 
welcomed. 

Gene Christianson 



Figure6 



BITS PROGRRMMCR PADS" 



Bits 






Z80 




Good programming deserves good documentation. BITS Inc has 
developed a programming form to help assembly language program- 
mers write and preserve their programs in a loose-leaf notebook for- 
mat. BITS PROGRAMMER PADS™ are now available for the 8080A. 
Z 80. 1802. 6800. and 6502 microprocessors. On one side of the 
form the proccessor's register architecture is laid out along with con- 
tinuous memory locations. This allows the details of your program's 
register use, stack manipulations, indexed addressing, and table and 
data storage to be permanently recorded. The other side is for your 
program or subroutine listing. Its source listing is entered in the in- 
structions, labels and comments columns. Assembling is done next 
by filling in the object code column which is wide enough for two or 
three byte instructions. Memory locations are assigned in the address 
column. If revision or relocation of the program is necessary, the ad- 



For Fastest Service 

CALL TOLL FREE 800-258-5477 
FOR BANK CARD ORDERS 

(in N.H. 924-3355) 

dress column can be renewed using typewriter correction tape (a 
white paper tape about 1/3" wide) and memory addresses reassign- 
ed. 

BITS PROGRAMMER PADS will protect the effort you have put into 
your programs and take some of the pain out of hand assembly. Each 
50-page pad is printed on durable stock paper, and prepunched for a 
standard three-ring notebook. They are available for $2.50 each. 
(Postage and handling: Domestic- 75 c for one pad, $1 .25 for two or 
more; Foreign- $1 .00 per pad to a maximum of $4.00) Please 
specify which microproccessor. 



Dl I 9 In* Books to erose the impossible 

POS 478 ?S HouH 101 Dm. P>t»rbo>ou«h NH 03458 



FREE 
CATALOG 
of over 200 Microcomputer Books CC020 



JANUARY 1980 



39 



CIRCLE 102 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




-gy^> 



Small Business 
Computing 

Chet Behrman 



So you're thinking of going into 
business as a consultant and pro- 
grammer for small business appli- 
cations? 



Twelve pages have been ripped off 
the wall calendar, signalling the 
completion of one year of making a 
living with the TRS-80. Everyone has 
his own definition of "making a living," 
so the statement is safe. Beginning in 
June, 1978, I officially launched a 
company offering microcomputer 
services in the Evansville, Indiana, 
area. The initial objectives have 
changed slightly, profits and peri- 
pherals have both grown, and the 
number of error messages continues 
to decrease. 

I'm careful to avoid the 
"domino setup": Press 
this button and you start 
a routine that you wished 
you hadn't! 

What started as a vague offer of 
"computer services" has now become 
a strong emphasis on custom business 
programming for the TRS-80. I've 
dabbled in games for national syndi- 
cation, but the real money-maker has 
been programming and corporate 
hand-holding among small and not- 
so-small businesses in the area. 

My situation isn't typical, but there 
must be some lessons to learn from the 
past twelve months. After spending 
more than thirty years in broadcasting, 
the last 22 as program manager of the 
NBC-TV station in Evansville, I made 
the move to a second career. In your 
mid-fifties, you don't fill out work 
application forms no matter what the 
EEO people say. So I turned to an old 
love - data processing - and a business 
of my own. 

Two off-and-on years of comput- 
ing science at the local university 
provided the official background, but I 
had been poking into computers and 
punchcards for more than two dec- 
ades, always with broadcast applica- 

Chet Behrman, The Program Manager. 
PO Box 45. Inglefield. IN 47618. 




Typical TRS-80 multi-drive business system. 

tions in mind. In 1977, 1 decided to buy 
a microcomputer, and Radio Shack's 
announcement of the TRS-80 that fall 
prompted an immediate order. 

Starting with Level I and a handful 
of cassettes I began feeding in some 
modified programs I had run on the 
IBM 370 and was pleased to see that 
the TRS-80 came up with the same 
answers. The decimal points weren't 
aligned, but PRINT USING was still a 
few months off. 

When I saw Level II performance, 
the whole idea of making something 
practical out of the TRS-80 began to 
take shape. With a disk drive and a line 



printer on order, I sat down with 16K 
Level II and looked around the commu- 
nity. Without a printer, turning out 
reports is rough. (Although my first 
self-appointed assignment was a 
television syndication report labor- 
iously copied off the CRT and sold to a 
number of TV stations around the 
country.) While waiting for a printer to 
materialize I struck up chatting ac- 

A custom program is 
much like a painting - 
you never know when 
you're finished. 

quaintances with all the Radio Shack 
managers in the area, including parts 
of Kentucky and Illinois. They men- 
tioned potential customers who had 
come in to see the TRS-80, but they 
were properly reluctant to send me 
knocking on business doors in viola- 
tion of Tandy policy. 

The New Business Computeristt 

So I literally followed the advice of, 
"Don't call us . . . we'll call you." The 
calls began coming in - from busi- 



REG 


U. S. TREASURY 
PAYROLL FOR MEEK ENDING 
OVT FED FICA 


JULY 4 
STATE 


1777 

OTHER 


NET 


312-22-1732 
190. ee 


GEORGE 
18. 41 


WASHINGTON 
19. 88 


42 HRS 35 MINS 
12. 78 3. 81 


2. 25 


178. 49 


385-11-1776 
168. 88 


THOS JEFFERSON 48 
8 88 8. 45 


HRS 8 MINS 
9 81 1 66 


5. 88 


135. 88 


371-13-4848 
ISO. 88 


BETSV ROSS 41 HRS 
7. 83 23. 11 


15 MINS 
9. 63 


2. 76 


1. 15 


128. 38 


382-84-1313 
148 88 


AARON BURR 42 HRS 
11. 38 17. 88 


18 MINS 
9. 28 


2. 26 


8 88 


121. 96 


TOTRLS 
648 88 


36. 82 


69. 32 


41. 58 


9. 69 


8 48 


547. 91 


GROSS TOTALS: 
GEORGE WASHINGTON 
THOS JEFFERSON 
BETSV ROSS 
AARON BURR 

TOTAL PAID 


288. 41 

168 88 
157. 83 
151 38 
676. 82 










12. 262 TAX 


THIS WEEK IS 152. 


38 








ee.-ee/ee 















Figure 1. Sample custom payroll program. 



40 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Small Business, con't 

nesses that had already bought a 
TRS-80 and didn't know how to pro- 
ceed from there - and from business 
people who were thinking of buying 
but needed more information about 
software possibilities. Since then, the 
prospect list has become a long one. 

My first customer was a plumbers' 
local . . . asking for a mailing list 
program. Actually, what was termed a 
mailing list turned out to be a complete 
membership file, displaying and print- 
ing name, address, age, telephone 
number, card number, work classifica- 
tion, Social Security number, initiation 
date, apprentice/journeyman labels 
and active/retired designations. The 
program was set up to search the files 
by name, city, state, county, card 
number, work classification and active 
status. In these areas, it could print 
mailing labels, display on the screen, 
print lists and summarize classifica- 
tions. All of this wasdone with 16K, one 
drive and a line printer; and they've just 
recently expanded to another drive. 

Every TRS-80 user knows what 
waiting for equipment delivery is like; 
so the initial program for the union 
local was a Level I creation, using 
cassettes and CRT. Later, this was 
modified for Level II with printer, and 
then modified again for disk operation. 

By the time my disk and printer 
arrived in the fall of 1978, local 
business was brisk. All of us learned 
later about the tremendous sales 
success of the TRS-80 in 1978; I was 
feeling that local impact, surprised at 
how many of the systems were being 
purchased in the area for business 
purposes. 

The absence of business systems 
ready for demonstration in Radio 
Shack stores brought my clients and 
potential clients to my home for a 

The very fact that the 
TRS-80 (Model I) is 
modular makes a stand- 
by arrangement very 
attractive. 

hands-on demonstration. An all-day 
seminar set up by Radio Shack in 
downtown Evansville also spurred a 
great deal of business interest. People 
like to see the equipment, press the 
keys, and see CRT or printer response 
before they sign on the line. 

32K and two drives seem to be a 
good minimum layout for business 
with the Model I. The DOS takes a lot 
out of 16K, and I've since expanded my 
own layout to 32K. Even with a one- 
drive application, two drives ease the 
BACKUP chore — and BACKUPS do 
become a way of life. If inventory is 
involved, its size, of course, dictates 





MAXIMUM TRS-80 FILE SIZES 




Sub 


Bytes per 


Records on 


Records on 


Records on 


Record* 


Record 


DOS 2.1 


DOS 2.2* 


Full Disk 


1 


255 


230 


205 


325 


2 


127 


460 


410 


650 


3 


85 


690 


615 


975 


4 


63 


920 


820 


1300 


5 


51 


1150 


1025 


1625 


6 


42 


1380 


1230 


1950 


7 


36 


1610 


1435 


2275 


8 


31 


1840 


1640 


2600 


9 


28 


2070 


1845 


2925 


10 


25 


2300 


2050 


3250 


11 


23 


2530 


2255 


3575 


12 


21 


2760 


2460 


3900 


13 


19 


2990 


2665 


4225 


14 


18 


3220 


2870 


4550 


15 


17 


3450 


3075 


4875 


'DOS 2.2 figures refer to a disk with all accessible programs removed. 



Table 1 



the required number of drives. 

Subsequent jobs included my own 
payroll program and a great variety of 
inventory approaches, including such 
diverse businesses as upholstery, light 
manufacturing, automotive parts, 
telephone answering, country club, 
beverage distributor and tax return 
preparer. One customer, a vending 
machine company, was lost due to a 
long wait for equipment. This was 
unfortunate because the application, 
processing a few hundred vending 
machines, was a natural for the TRS- 
TRS-80. 

Custom Programming and 
Systems Analysis 

The most difficult part of the past 
year hasn't been the programming but 
rather the systems analysis - under- 
standing how the client operates. 
Actually, custom programming is the 
simplest approach - tailoring systems 
to the customer's particular needs 
rather than creating programs that 
must satisfy dozens of potentially 
conflicting situations. But learning 
what those needs are takes a great deal 
of consultation. My years of on-the-air 
interviewing have helped in keeping a 
discussion on the track and probing for 
hidden pieces of information. It isn't 
easy for people to explain to you what 
their business is all about. I listen, 
make notes, and then debrief myself 
into a cassette recorder (not the one 
that goes with the TRS-80!). 

After initial discussions, an outline 
is prepared showing just what the 
system will do. (By that time, we're 
using the term "system" because a half 
a dozen or more individual programs 
are involved.) This is the critical point 
- getting the customer to agree that this 
is what he wants in the way of reports, 
and this is the type of entry required to 
feed the data into the files. The written 
proposal quickly pinpoints misunder- 
standings on either side, and it's 



revised, several times, if necessary, 
until an agreement is reached. 

In the meantime, you've already 
turned out a few quickie demo pro- 
grams with miniature files to give the 
customer an idea of what he can 
expect. To be honest, you point out 
that the larger, actual files won't 
process as fast as these smaller demo 
jobs. But, hopefully, he's still im- 
pressed. (The male pronoun is used for 
convenience. About half of my con- 
tacts have been female.) 

Disk backups, yes . . . but 
the cassette is still a 
very efficient way of 
storing programs. 

All of the consultation, demon- 
stration and initial flowcharting is done 
while the customer is waiting for 
equipment delivery. As soon as it's 
delivered, initialization programs start 
him into the process of file building 
while you're working on the main 
program structure. 

Then there's the question of 
space. One of the first questions asked 
by a potential customer is, "How many 
inventory pieces can you store on one 
disk?" 

"It all depends" isn't a very satis- 
factory reply. I put together the chart in 
Table 1 which shows how many 
random records can be accommo- 
dated with a given record length. A 
record length of 44 bytes, for example, 
shows you can put a maximum of 1 1 50 
records on the TRS-80 DOS disk. 
Table 1 shows that an "open" disk with 
the same record length can accommo- 
date 1625 records. This also means 
that if you can possibly shorten the 
record to 42 bytes, the DOS disk can be 
expanded to 1380 records. Without a 
long explanation of what a byte is, this 
is good, factual information that a 
would-be user can appreciate. 



JANUARY 1980 



41 



Small Business, con't. . , 

User Programming 

It's probably coincidence that the 
word "custom" is also found in the 
word "customer." Custom program- 
ming certainly keeps the customer in 
mind. In dealing with first-time users, 
especially, you assume nothing. You 
create the program to help the person 
at the terminal in what may be, to him 
or her, a rather frightening experience. 
If your opening menu has a choice of 
five options, be prepared for the user to 
choose a sixth option that doesn't 
exist. If choosing 6 automatically spills 
you to 1, you've done the user a 
disservice. Explanations on the screen 
have to be complete but concise, 
saving the detailed remarks for the 
written manual. INKEY can be a very 
fancy way to input data, but it can be 
confusing to a new user to whom 
you've emphasized again and again, 
"Be sure to press Enter after you've 
made your entry!" 

I've even abandoned the time- 
honored word "menu" in favor of 
"select" and "master select" which 
seem to be more meaningful and less 
whimsical to a first-timer. 

As far as user satisfac- 
tion is concerned, cus- 
tom programming is 
difficult to beat. 

I'm careful to avoid the "domino 
setup": Press this button and you start 
a routine that you wished you hadn't! 
For example, after the payroll is 
printed, the screen asks, "Are you 
ready to update the file?" In most 
cases, the answer is yes. But this gives 
the user a chance to backtrack on an 
unfortunate mistake and redo the 
entries without inevitably spilling all 
that wrong information into the file. 

The true custom program, of 
course, needs less explanation than 
something off the shelf. The customer 
has already asked for many of the 
features that the program contains. 
Yet, documentation is still necessary. 



Every program has a date at the top. 
When a change is made, the date 
changes. Modifications are inevitable 
when you have a continuing working 
relationship. "Could you change it so 
that . . . ?" is a common question. So a 
custom program is much like a paint- 
ing - you never know when you're 
finished. A dab here and a dab there, 
and the system becomes more and 
more polished. 

Hardware Considerations 

Equipment problems need some 
mention. When a disk drive or an 
interface act up, they're easy to remove 
and send off to a service center in 



When I saw Level II per- 
formance, the whole 
idea of making some- 
thing practical out of 
the TRS-80 began to 
take shape. 



another city. But a business user can't 
go down for two weeks or even two 
days without serious repercussions. If 
one drive in a four-drive system goes 
out, the program may be temporarily 
modified to limp along on three drives 
until the fourth is returned. But the real 
answer to this problem is standby 
equipment. This is not included in 
Radio Shack's policy: if there's a drive 
on the shelf, someone wants to buy it. 
However, the very fact that the TRS-80 
(Model I) is modular makes a standby 
arrangement very attractive. The 
burden of such an arrangement prob- 
ably falls on the company providing 
support; but it's to everyone's advan- 
tage - Radio Shack, the business user 
and the software supplier - that the 
system continues to operate. 

In the 18 months I've worked with 
my own TRS-80, only one problem 
developed - a chip flaw in the CPU that 
knocked out the upper part of RAM. 
This was immediately correctable by 
designating full memory size, and the 
chip was eventually replaced. 





APEX MANUFACTURING CO INVENTORY 


AS 


OF JUNE 


29 1979 




STOCK 


VENDOR VEND STOCK 


DESCRIPTION 




ON HAND 


AVG COST 


TOTAL VALUE 


10024 


93 


800T-N40 


RED LENS CAPS 




5 


48 50 


242 50 


10025 


93 


800T-XD1 


CONTACTS 







00 


0. 00 


10026 


93 


800T-XD2 


CONTACTS 




21 


13. 95 


292. 92 


10027 


93 


8O0T-XD5 


CONTACTS 




7 


36. 81 


257 64 


10028 


93 


800T-XD6 


CONTACTS 




13 


18. 92 


277 80 


10029 


93 


800T-N129 


MUSHROOM HEAD GUARDS 


2 


126. 72 


253 44 


10030 


93 


800T-N229 


MOUNT RING KIT 




12 


20. 84 


250 08 


10031 


93 


P271 


SEL SWITCH KIT 




1 


242. 73 


242. 75 


10032 


93 


P272 


SEL SWITCH KIT 




2 


124. 15 


248. 30 


10033 


93 


RRD 


CONTACTS 




12 


22. 40 


268 80 


TOTfiL VALUE 


OF INVENTORY 


IS *2334. 23 











Figure 2. Sample custom inventory program. 



Another system developed major 
problems finally traceable to a bent 
cable connector plus dive misalign- 
ment, but the majority of the systems 
have worked well. The chief annoying 
factor for the user is the disk read/write 
error message that breaks the pro- 
gram, yet I've seen systems turn out 
hour after hour of printouts without a 
single mishao. 

One of my customers, an auto- 
motive parts company, eventually 
switched from a four-drive TRS-80 
system to the Tandy 10, and the 
improved reliability of performance 
was immediately apparent. The Tandy 
10 is a modified System 70 made by 
Applied Digital Data with the Tandy 
label attached. With its 8-inch disks 
and special-function keys it bears a 
striking operative resemblance to the 
new TRS-80 Model II. Or maybe it's the 
other way around. If the Model II can 
match the Tandy 10's reliability quo- 
tient (it already has a potential of twice 
the capacity of the Tandy 10), Radio 
Shack has another winner. The Tandy 
10 has received little publicity and is 
reportedly being phased out, over- 
shadowed now by the lower-priced 
Model II. 

After the superb performance of 
Level II, one is somewhat taken aback 
by the appearance and reappearance 
of error messages in disk operation. 
Hopefully, the latest DOS version will 
ease some of this anxiety (and the 
introduction of 8-inch disks in the 
Model II may put it completely at rest). 
After losing two programs while 
SAVEing them - a read-write error 
spilling into the system level - I 
adopted a new practice. When I plan to 
spend an hour or two creating at the 
keyboard, I operate at Level II. When 
I'm finished, I feed it to a cassette, 
activate the disk system, CLOAD it into 
CPU and then SAVE it to the disk. 

My first customer was 
a plumbers' local . . . 
asking for a mailing list 
program. 

Although most of my business 
customers have abandoned their 
cassettes, I make active use of mine in 
storing programs. Disk backups, yes 
. . . but the cassette is still a very 
efficient way of storing programs. I 
have literally hundreds of programs, 
including various versions of a single 
program, stored on cassettes, with 
more than forty disks dedicated to 
individual clients and projects. 

The Money Angles 

How do you make money at all of 
this? Very deliberately! I give an initial 
estimate for programming a specific 



42 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Small Business, con't 

system. By a system I mean a series of 
related tasks, a working package, in 
other words. My programming rates 
have gone up this past year, not due to 
inflation but rather to a growing 
recognition of the time it takes to 
produce a quality system. I'd like to 
charge more, but charging more than 
hardware costs doesn't seem practical 
at this level of the profession. 

In addition to programming 
charges, I request a monthly "service 
and support fee." This keeps me on call 
to answer questions, make minor 
program modifications, do a little 

Custom programming is 
the simplest approach - 
tailoring systems to the 
customer's particular 
needs rather than creat- 
ing programs that must 
satisfy dozens of poten- 
tially conflicting situa- 
tions. 

hardware troubleshooting, and gen- 
erally keep the system operating. So 
far, no one has really taken advantage 
of me on this. The support fee begins 
when the equipment arrives, and it 
serves a double purpose. One, it 
permits the customer to call me at any 
time without having to watch the clock 
and worry about a mounting hourly 
expense. Second, it prompts customer 
cooperation in putting the system 
together. If he drags his feet, calls off 
appointment after appointment, delays 
in initial file building, it costs him 
nothing but money. I already have the 
incentive to get the system operating 
as quickly as possible: I can't bill for 
programming until it's finished. 

When I first announced that I was 
going into business for myself with a 
microcomputer from Radio Shack, I 
was tactfully asked, "Have you 
checked with people like IBM or 
Burroughs?" Somehow, the name 
Radio Shack doesn't have the authori- 
tative ring of a Honeywell or a Control 
Data. Apparently, the Tandy Corpora- 
tion has been worrying about this all 
the way to the bank. I have great 
respect for IBM and all the other DP 
giants, but the computer on the table 
next to me is a Radio Shack TRS-80 
It's the only computer I can afford, and 
it's done, and is doing, a great job for 
me. 

Summary 

The future of custom program- 
ming isn't necessarily bright. Right 
now, custom software fills an obvious 



need in the microcomputer field. But 
DP history shows a trend toward 
standardization - a package for every 
need right off the shelf. In fact, many 
other industries display the samd 
trend. How many people buy custom 
suits as compared with those buying 
clothing off the plain pipe racks? 

So I'm working on a series of 
specialized, off-the-shelf programs. In 
the meantime, as far as user satisfac- 
tion is concerned, custom program- 
ming is difficult to beat. The customer 
remains in control - he remains an 
individual in a growing world of 
sameness. He may buy his car off the 
showroom floor, his noon lunch from a 
franchised restaurant, his very com- 
puter from a busy assembly line; but 
his custom software is distinctively his 



You create the program 
to help the person at 
the terminal in what may 
be, to him or her, a 
rather frightening ex- 
perience. 

own. Its operation echoes strong links 
with his past operation, something 
with which he can identify. How long 
the independent small business per- 
son will continue to buy this kind of 
personal identification is a question 
worthy of feeding into the nearest 
TRS-80. The answer, of course, de- 
pends upon who is doing the pro- 
gramming. D 



Spinning Yarns, 
Relatively Speaking 

(a pinwheel poem). 

^- --^ Peter Payack 



• 



• 



/ 




uj *"■ O (O -\ 

s u_ uj m ] £ 

P ° \ 4/0* * - j. 

\ % *° ^ # S? / 



X 

z 
o 

CO 



O \ 

o ! 

T| | 

/ 



\. ^iVOO^ 



^ 



"p 



'•^'Od N3M° ^ 

^^Gborfc° v 

Instructions: 

1. Cut out along dotted line. 

2. Place a pin through the period in the center of the 
poem, and then stick it into the eraser of a pencil. 

3. Spin while reading. 



JANUARY 1980 



43 




Computing Machinery 
And Intelligence 



A.M. Turing 




Of the early computerists, Alan Turing stands out as a 
result ot his contributions to mathematics, cryptography and 
artificial Intelligence. But today his name la spoken most often 
In conjunction with "The Turing Test." Here Is an historical 
article which originally appeared In Mind magazine, October 
1 950 in which Turing first described his famous test. — OHA 



/. The Imitation Game 

I propose to consider the question, "Can machines think?" This should 
begin with definitions of (he meaning of the terms "machine" and "think." 
The definitions might be framed so as to reflect so far as possible the 
normal use of the words, but this attitude is dangerous. If the meaning of 
the words "machine" and "think" are to be found by examining how they 
are commonly used it is difficult to escape the conclusion that the meaning 
and the answer to the question, "Can machines think?" is to be sought in a 
statistical survey such as a Gallup poll. But this is absurd. Instead of 
attempting such a definition I shall replace the question by another, which 
is closely related to it and is expressed in relatively unambiguous words. 

The new form of the problem can be described in terms of a game 
which we call the "imitation game." It is played with three people, a man 
(A), a woman (B), and an interrogator (C) who may be of either sex. 
The interrogator stays in a room apart from the other two. The object of 
the game for the interrogator is to determine which of the other two is the 
man and which is the woman. He knows them by labels X and Y, and at 
the end of the game he says either "X is A and Y is B" or "X is B and Y 
is A." The interrogator is allowed to put questions to A and B thus: 

C: Will X please tell me the length of his or her hair? 
Now suppose X is actually A, then A must answer. It is A's object in the 
game to try and cause C to make the wrong identification. His answer 
might therefore be: 

"My hair is shingled, and the longest strands are about nine inches long." 

In order that tones of voice may not help the interrogator the answers 
should be written, or better still, typewritten. The ideal arrangement is to 
have a teleprinter communicating between the two rooms. Alternatively 
the question and answers can be repeated by an intermediary. The object 



of the game for the third player (B) is to help the interrogator. The best 
strategy for her is probably to give truthful answers. She can add such 
things as "I am the woman, don't listen to him!" to her answers, but it will 
avail nothing as the man can make similar remarks. 

We now ask the question, "What will happen when a machine takes the 
part of A in this game?" Will the interrogator decide wrongly as often 
when the game is played like this as he does when the game is played be- 
tween a man and a woman? These questions replace our original, "Can 
machines think?" 

2. Critique of the New Problem 

As well as asking, "What is the answer to this new form of the question," 
one may ask, "Is this new question a worthy one to investigate?" This latter 
question we investigate without further ado, thereby cutting short an 
infinite regress. 

The new problem has the advantage of drawing a fairly sharp line be- 
tween the physical and the intellectual capacities of a man. No engineer or 
chemist claims to be able to produce a material which is indistinguishable 
from the human skin. It is possible that at some lime this might be done, 
but even supposing this invention available we should feel there was little 
point in trying to make a "thinking machine" more human by dressing it 
up in such artificial flesh. The form in which we have set the problem 
reflects this fact in the condition which prevents the interrogator from 
seeing or touching the other competitors, or hearing their voices. Some 
other advantages of the proposed criterion may be shown up by specimen 
questions and answers. Thus: 

Q: Please write me a sonnet on the subject of the Forth Bridge. 

A: Count me out on this one. I never could write poetry. 

Q: Add 34957 to 70764. 

A : ( Pause about 30 seconds and then give as answer ) I0S62 1 . 

O: Do you play chess? 

A: Yes. 

Q: I have K at my Kl, and no other pieces. You have only K. at K6 and 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



SAVE 



ON ADD-ON TOO Of\ 

PRODUCTS FOR I KO"OU 




The largest family 

of disk drives from 

the largest supplier, 

drives come 

complete with 

power supply and 

cabinet. 

TF-Pertec FD200. 40 track, use both sides $382 

fF-3 Shugart SA400. 35 track, same as tandy $389 

TF-5 MPI B51. 40 trock $379 

TF-70 Micropolis. 77 track with 195K of storage $639 

TDH-1 Dual sided drive. 36 trock $499 

"^MAXI DISK * ~ 

Max, Disk 1 10 Megabyte Hard Disk with 5 t«ed. $6299 

5 removable with controller 

Max, Disk 2 10 Megabyte (fixed) $5349 

Winchester Technology , 

77 frocks of Storage includesnewDOS- 

PRINTERS 

DP800 Anodex. 80 column. 1 12cps $950 

LP779 Centronics 779 $1099 

LP730 Centronics 730 $950 

LP700 Centronics 700-1 $1495 

LP701 Centronics 701-1 $1 759 

LP702 Centra ics 702-2 $1995 

SPW-1 Splnwriter-NEC $2495 

NEWTUNEPRINfER 
BASE 2 

* DRIVES FOR ANY MICROCOMPUTER* 

Does not include power supply & cabinet 
MOD II DISK DRIVES NOW AVAILABLE 

Perfec FD200 $282 

Pertec FD250 (dual head) $399 

Shugart SA400 (unused) $286 

Shugart SA800 $479 

MPI 851 $279 

MPI B52 $349 



SOFTWARE 



New DOS- with over 200 modifications and 

corrections to TRS-DOS $99 

New DOS* 40 trock $110 

AJA Word Processor $75 

AJA Business Program $250 

Racet Infinite Basic $49.95 

Disk Drive Alignment Program $109 

Radix Data Base Program $99.95 

Electric Pencil $150 

ALL PRICES CASH DISCOUNTED. FREIGHT FOB/FACTORY 
^T^ AJCROCCWPOTER / ' WL 

CllfliKSSSS&D i-WTpporot, Inc. 

2080 South Grand Ave. 7310 E. Princeton Ave. 

Santa Ana, CA 92705 Denver, CO 80222 

(714) 979-9923 (303) 758-7275 



BETTER NEWS 
FOR APPLE OWNERS 



Now on a single diskette— 

-Character Edit Program 

-Disk Interface Program 

-Word Processor I Program 

First, we offered Apple 
owners SUPERCHIP. the 
firmware ROM that added 
the full ASCII character set 
plus graphic/text 
processing capability. 

Next came the Character 
Edit Program, allowing you 
to define your own char- 
l ^B| I acters and character sets, 

P"| I including musical notation, 

I game pieces and foreign 
J^^J I alphabets. 

Then, the Disk Interface 
Program, permitting you to 
run all SUPERCHIP func- 
tions under Apples DOS II. 

And, Word Processor I, 
a mini-text editing program 
for personal correspon- 
dence, papers and reports. 

Formerly available only 
on separate cassettes, the 
Character Edit, Disk Inter- 
face and Word Processing 
programs are now on a single diskette at a substan- 
tial saving over the three-cassette cost. 

But, supplies are limited So place your order 
now. Use the handy coupon below or telephone 
with your VISA or Master Charge number. 

SUPERCHIP 
TO Also, Character Edit, Disk Interface, 

ORDER and Word Processor I Programs on 1 

diskette. $ 99 95 

Shipping: U.S. $ .75 

Overseas $1.25 $ 

Total $ 

Check or money order attached 

Charge my D VISAD Master Charge 

Card Number 

Expiration Date 

Name 

Address __ 

City 




.State. 



-Zip- 



Signature. 



To order by phone: 

(Have card number ready, please.) 

(214)661-1370 



CLECTIC 



SYSTEMS CORP. 

PO Box 1 166 • Addison. TX 75001 




JANUARY 1980 



45 



CIRCLE 1»1 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Machinery, con't. 

R at Rl. It is your move. What do you play? 
A: (After a pause of IS seconds) R-R8 mate. 

The question and answer method seems to be suitable for introducing 
almost any one of the fields of human endeavour that we wish to include. 
We do not wish to penalise the machine for its inability to shine in beauty 
competitions, nor to penalise a man for losing in a race against an aero- 
plane. The conditions of our game make these disabilities irrelevant. The 
"witnesses" can brag, if they consider it advisable, as much as they pleas.- 
about their charms, strength or heroism, but the interrogator cannot de- 
mand practical demonstrations. 

The game may perhaps be criticised on the ground that the odds arc 
weighted too heavily against the machine. If the man were to try and pre- 
tend to be the machine he would clearly make a very poor showing. He 
would be given away at once by slowness and inaccuracy in arithmetic. 
May not machines carry out something which ought to be described as 
thinking but which is very different from what a man docs? This objec- 
tion is a very strong one, but at least we can say that if. nevertheless, a 
machine can be constructed to play the imitation game satisfactorily, we 
need not be troubled by this objection. 

It might be urged that when playing the "imitation game" the best 
strategy for the machine may possibly be something other than imitation 
of the behaviour of a man. This may be, but I think it is unlikely that there 
is any great effect of this kind. In any case there is no intention to inusti- 
gatc here the theory of the game, and it will be assumed that the best 
strategy is to try to provide answers that would naturally be given by a man. 

3. The Machines Concerned in the Came 

The question which we put in §1 will not be quite definite until we 
have specified what we mean by the word "machine." It is natural that wc 
should wish to permit every kind of engineering technique to be used in 
our machines. We also wish to allow the possibility than an engineer or 
team of engineers may construct a machine which works, but whose man- 
ner of operation cannot be satisfactorily described by its constructors be- 
cause they have applied a method which is largely experimental. Finally, 
we wish to exclude from the machines men born in the usual manner. It is 
difficult to frame the definitions so as to satisfy these three conditions. One 
might for instance insist that the team of engineers should be all of one 
sex, but this would not really be satisfactory, for it is probably possible 
to rear a complete individual from a single cell of the skin (say) of a man. 
To do so would be a feat of biological technique deserving of the very 
highest praise, but we would not be inclined to regard it as a case of "con- 
structing a thinking machine." This prompts us to abandon the require- 
ment that every kind of technique should be permitted. We are the more 
ready to do so in view of the fact that the present interest in "thinking 
machines" has been aroused by a particular kind of machine, usually called 
an "electronic computer" or "digital computer." Following this suggestion 
we only permit digital computers to take part in our game. 

This restriction appears at first sight to be a very drastic one. I shall 
attempt to show that it is not so in reality. To do this necessitates a short 
account of the nature and properties of these computers. 

It may also be said that this identification of machines with digital com- 
puters, like our criterion for "thinking." will only be unsatisfactory if (con- 
trary to my belief), it turns out that digital computers are unable to give 
a good showing in the game. 

There are already a number of digital computers in working order, and 
it may be asked, "Why not try the experiment straight away? It would be 
easy to satisfy the conditions of the game. A number of interrogators could 
be used, and statistics compiled to show how often the right identification 
was given." The short answer is that wc arc not asking whether all digital 
computers would do well in the game nor whether the computers at present 
available would do well, but whether there are imaginable computers which 
would do well. But this is only the short answer. We shall see this question 
in a different light later. 

4. Digital Computers 

The idea behind digital computers may be explained by saying that these 
machines are intended to carry out any operations which could be done by 
a human computer. The human computer is supposed to be following fixed 
rules; he has no authority to deviate from them in any detail. We may 
suppose that these rules are supplied in a book, which is altered whenever 
he is put on to a new job. He has also an unlimited supply of paper on 



which he does his calculations. He may also do his multiplications and 
additions on a "desk machine," but this is not important. 

If we use the above explanation as a definition we shall be in danger 
of circularity of argument. We avoid this by giving an outline of the means 
by which the desired effect is achieved. A digital computer can usually 
be regarded as consisting of three parts: 

(i) Store. 

(ii) Executive unit 

(iii) Control. 

The store is a store of information, and corresponds to the human com- 
puter's paper, whether this is the paper on which he does his calculations 
or that on which his book of rules is printed. In so far as the human com- 
puter does calculations in his head a part of the store will correspond to 
his memory. 

The executive unit is the part which carries out the various individual 
operations involved in a calculation. What these individual operations are 
will vary from machine to machine. Usually fairly lengthy operation* can 
be done such as "Multiply 3540675445 by 7076345687" but in some ma- 
chines only very simple ones such as "Write down 0" are possible. 

We have mentioned that the "book of rules" supplied to the computer 
is replaced in the machine by a part of the store. It is then called the "table 
of instructions." It is the duty of the control to see that these instructions 
are obeyed correctly and in the right order The control is so constructed 
that this necessarily happens. 

The information in the store is usually broken up into packets of mod- 
erately small size. In one machine, for instance, a packet might consist of 
ten decimal digits. Numbers are assigned to the parts of the store in which 
the various packets of information arc stored, in some systematic man- 
ner. A typical instruction might say — 

"Add the number stored in position 6809 to that in 4302 and put tlu- 
result back into the latter storage position." 

Needless to say it would not occur in the machine expressed in English. 
It would more likely be coded in a form such as 6809430217. Here 17 
says which of various possible operations is to be performed on the two 
numbers. In this case the operation is that described above, viz., "Add the 
number. . . ." It will be noticed that the instruction takes up 10 digits and 
so forms one packet of information, very conveniently. The control will 
normally take the instructions to be obeyed in the order of the positions 
in which they are stored, but occasionally an instruction such as 

"Now obey the instruction stored in position 5606. and continue from 
there" 
may be encountered, or again 

"If position 4505 contains obey next the instruction stored in 6707, 
otherwise continue straight on." 

Instructions of these latter types are very important because they make it 
possible for a sequence of operations to be replaced over and over again 
until some condition is fulfilled, but in doing so to obey, not fresh in- 
structions on each repetition, but the same ones over and over again. To 
take a domestic analogy. Suppose Mother wants Tommy to call at the 
cobbler's every morning on his way to school to see if her shoes are done, 
she can ask him afresh every morning. Alternatively she can stick up a 
notice once and for all in the hall which he will see when he leaves for 
school and which tells him to call for the shoes, and also to destroy the 
notice when he comes back if he has the shoes with him 

The reader must accept it as a fact that digital computers can be con- 
structed, and indeed have been constructed, according to the principles we 
have described, and that they can in fact mimic the actions of a human 
computer very closely. 

The book of rules which we have described our human computer as 
using is of course a convenient fiction. Actual human computers really 
remember what they have got to do. If one wants to make a machine 
mimic the behaviour of the human computer in some complex operation 
one has to ask him how it is done, and then translate the answer into the 
form of an instruction table. Constructing instruction tables is usually de- 
scribed as "programming." To "programme a machine to carry out the 
operation A" means to put the appropriate instruction table into the 
machine so that it will do A. 

An interesting variant on the idea of a digital computer is a "digital com- 
puter with a random element." These have instructions involving the 
throwing of a die or some equivalent electronic process; one such instruc- 
tion might for instance be, "Throw the die and put the resulting number 
into store 1000." Sometimes such a machine is described as having free 
will (though I would not use this phrase myself). It is not normally pos- 
sible to determine from observing a machine whether it has a random ele- 



46 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 







PROGRAMMING BASIC 
WITH THE Tl HOME 
COMPUTER 

Herbert D. Peckham, Cavilan College 
1 979, 306 pages, $ 1 0.95, paper 

Published in conjunction with Texas Instru- 
ments, this authoritative new book covers all of Tl 
BASIC, including string manipulation. Color 
graphics and sound are also explored. The book 
employs the effective "discovery" method, so that 
users can immediately begin programming in 
BASIC with the computer. 

HANDS-ON BASIC 
WITH A PET 

Herbert D. Peckham, Gavilan College 
1979, 267 pages, $11.95 

With this exciting book, you can use your PET 
computer to create your own programs for 
personal, family, and business use. The book has 
been completely reviewed by Commodore 
Business Machines, Inc., and it uses Peckham's 
tested and widely praised "hands on" method 
offering immediate, practical experience in 
programming with the versatile BASIC language. 

Order your copies today! WjhjM 

Sftvfi 

McGraw-Hill Book Company ■■nil 



valuable 
books from 

^^MICROPROCESSORS/ 
MICROCOMPUTERS: 

An Introduction 

Donald D. Civone, State University of New York at 
Buffalo, and Robert P. Roesser, University of Detroit 
1980,432 pages (tent), $22.50 (tent.) 

This new book fully covers the fundamentals of 
digital computers and develops a working 
knowledge of the operation and behavior of 
microprocessors and microcomputers through the 
use of an illustrative microprocessor. The book 
offers detailed development of interfacing 
concepts, enabling you to apply microprocessors 
to a wide variety of situations. 

COMPUTER 
ORGANIZATION AND 
PROGRAMMING, wxC^V 



Third Edition 

C. William Gear, University of Illinois, Urbana 
1 980, 480 pages (tent.), $22.95 (tent.) 

This is a thorough introduction to machine-level 
programming and computer organization. The 
third edition of this long-popular book integrates 
the latest developments and trends in the field, and 
illustrates concepts with four computer types: the 
IBM 370, the PDP-1 1 , the Cyber 1 70, and the Intel 
8080. 




ISftf 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Box 400, Hightstown, N.J. 08520 



I 
I 
I 
I 



YES! Please send me the following 
bool^for a free 1 0-day 
examination. If not completely 
satisfied, I will return the book(s) 
within the trial period; otherwise I 
will remit payment, plus postage, 
handling, and local sales tax 
(McGraw-Hill pays postage and 
handling if payment is included 
with order). 



D Bill me. 

D Payment enclosed. 



D Peckham: PROG BASIC WITH THE Tl HOME COMP, (0491 56-9), $1 0.95 

□ Peckham: HANDS-ON BASIC WITH A PET, (0491 57-7), $1 1 .95 

□ Gear: COMP ORG AND PROG, 3/e, (023042-0), $22.95 

□ Givone-Roesser: MICROPROC/MICROCOMP: An Intro, (023326-8), $22.50 



Name - 
Address 

City 

State 



.Zip 



Offer good in U.S.A. only. Prices subject to change. 
Rev 72/CC80 



U-070-0093-1 



JANUARY 1980 



47 



CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Machinery i con't 



mcnt. (or a similar effect can be produced by such devices as making the 
choices depend on the digits of the decimal for w. 

Most actual digital computers have only a finite store. There is no theo- 
retical difficulty in the idea of a computer with an unlimited store. Of 
course only a finite part can have been used at any one time. Likewise only 
a finite amount can have been constructed, but we can imagine more and 
more being added as required. Such computers have special theoretical 
interest and will be called infinitive capacity computers. 

The idea of a digital computer is an old one. Charles Babbage, Lucasian 
Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge from 1828 to 1839, planned such 
a machine, called the Analytical Engine, but it was never completed. Al- 
though Babbage had all the essential ideas, his machine was not at that 
lime such a very attractive prospect. The speed which would have been 
available would be definitely faster than a human computer but something 
like IUO times slower than the Manchester machine, itself one of the slower 
of the modern machines. The storage was to be purely mechanical, using 
wheels and cards. 

The fact that Babbage s Analytical Engine was to be entirely mechanical 
will help us to ml ourselves of a superstition. Importance is often attached 
to the fact that modern digital computers are electrical, and that the nerv- 
ous system also is electrical. Since Babbage °s machine was not electrical, 
and since all digital computers are in a sense equivalent, we sec that this 
use of electricit) cannot be of theoretical importance. Of course electricity 
usually comes in where fast signalling is concerned, so that it is not sur- 
prising that we find it in both these connections. In the nervous system 
chemical phenomena are at least as important as electrical. In certain 
computers the storage system is mainly acoustic. The feature of using elec- 
tricity is thus seen to be only a very superficial similarity. If we wish to 
find such similarities we should look rather for mathematical analogies of 
function. 

5. Universality of Digital Computers 

The digital computers considered in the last section may be classified 
amongst the "discrete-state machines." These are the machines which move 
by sudden jumps or clicks from one quite definite state to another. These 
states are sufficiently different for the possibility of confusion between them 
to be ignored. Strictly speaking there arc no such machines. Everything 
really moves continuously. But there are many kinds of machine which can 
profitably be thought of as being discrete-state machines. For instance in 
considering the switches for a lighting system it is a convenient fiction that 
each switch must be definitely on or definitely off. There must be inter- 
mediate positions, but for most purposes we can forget about them. As an 
example of a discrete-state machine we might consider a wheel which clicks 
round through 120- once a second, but may be stopped by a lever which 
can be operated from outside; in addition a lamp is to light in one of the 
positions of the wheel. This machine could be described abstractly as fol- 
lows. The internal state of the machine (which is described by the position 
of the wheel) may be q„ q : or q,. There is an input signal /'„ or i, (posi- 
tion of lever). The internal state at any moment is determined by the last 
state and input signal according to the table 



Input 



The output signals, the only externally visible indication of the internal 
state (the light) are described by the table 

State q t ft u, 

Output Or A, o, 

This example is typical of discrete-state machines. They can be described 
by such tables provided they have only a finite number of possible states. 
It will seem that given the initial state of the machine and the input sig- 
nals it is always possible to predict all future states. This is reminiscent of 
Laplace's view that from the complete state of the universe at one moment 
of time, as described by the positions and velocities of all particles, it 
should be possible to predict all future states The prediction which we are 
considering is, however, rather nearer to practicability than that considered 
by Laplace. The system of the "universe as a whole" is such that quite 
small errors in the initial conditions can have an overwhelming effect at a 
later time. The displacement of a single electron by a billionth of a ccnti- 



Last Stat.- 


V' 


7: 


«> 


V 


tl 


«i 


Vi 


1: 


»■ 



metre at one moment might make the difference between a man being 
killed by an avalanche a year later, or escaping. It is an essential property 
of the mechanical systems which we have called "discrete-state machines" 
that this phenomenon does not occur. Even when we consider the actual 
physical machines instead of the idealised machines, reasonably accurate 
knowledge of the state at one moment yields reasonably accurate knowl- 
edge any number of steps later. 

As we have mentioned, digital computers fall within the class of discrete- 
state machines. But the number of states of which such a machine is cap- 
able is usually enormously large. For instance, the number for the machine 
now working at Manchester is about 2 , "°< M \ i.e.. about lO" 000 . Compare 
this with our example of the clicking wheel described above, which had 
three states. It is not difficult to see why the number of states should be so 
immense. The computer includes a store corresponding to the paper used 
by a human computer. It must be possible to write into the store any one 
of the combinations of symbols which might have been written on the 
paper. For simplicity suppose that only digits from to 9 are used as sym- 
bols. Variations in handwriting are ignored. Suppose the computer is 
allowed 100 sheets of paper each containing 50 lines each with room for 
30 digits. Then the number of states is lO 1 ™-"-". i.e.. 10"" °~. This is 
about the number of states of three Manchester machines put together. 
The logarithm to the base two of the number of states is usually called 
the ■'storage capacity" of the machine. Thus the Manchester machine has 
a storage capacity of about 1 1>5,000 and the wheel machine of our example 
about 1 .6. If two machines are put together their capacities must be added 
to obtain the capacity of the resultant machine. This leads to the possibility 
of statements such as "The Manchester machine contains 64 magnetic 
tracks each with a capacity of 2560, eight electronic tubes with a capacity 
of 1280. Miscellaneous storage amounts to about 300 making a total of 
174,380." 

Given the table corresponding to a discrete-state machine it is possible 
to predict what it will do. There is no reason why this calculation should 
not be carried out by means of a digital computer. Provided it could be 
carried out sufficiently quickly the digital computer could mimic the be- 
havior of any discrete-state machine. The imitation game could then be 
played with the machine in question (as B) and the mimicking digital com- 
puter (as A) and the interrogator would be unable to distinguish them. 
Of course the digital computer must have an adequate storage capacity as 
well as working sufficiently fast! Moreover, it must be programmed afresh 
for each new machine which it is desired to mimic. 

This special property of digital computers, that they can mimic any 
discrete-state machine, is described by saying that they are universal ma- 
chines The existence of machines with this property has the important 
consequence that, considerations of speed apart, it is unnecessary to design 
various new machines to do various computing processes. They can all be 
done with one digital computer, suitably programmed for each case. It 
will be seen that as a consequence of this all digital computers arc in a 
sense equivalent. 

We may now consider again the point raised at the end of 5 3. It was 
suggested tentatively that the question. "Can machines think?" should be 
replaced by "Arc there imaginable digital computers which would do well 
in the imitation game?" If we wish we can make this superficially more 
general and ask "Are there discrete-state machines which would do well?" 
But in view of the universality property we see that either of these ques- 
tions is equivalent to this. "Let us fix our attention on one particular 
digital computer C. Is it true that by modifying this computer to have an 
adequate storage, suitably increasing its speed of action, and providing it 
with an appropriate programme. C can be made to play satisfactorily the 
part of A in the imitation game, the part of B being taken by a man?" 

6. Contrary Views on the Main Question 

We may now consider the ground to have been cleared and we are ready 
to proceed to the debate on our question. "Can machines think " and the 
variant of it quoted at the end of the last section. We cannot altogether 
abandon the original form of the problem, for opinions will differ as to the 
appropriateness of the substitution and we must at least listen to what has 
to be said in this connexion. 

It will simplify matters for the reader if I explain first my own beliefs in 
the matter. Consider first the more accurate form of the question. 1 believe 
that in about fifty years' time it will be possible to programme computers, 
with a storage capacity of about 10", to make them play the imitation game 
so well that an average interrogator will not have more than 70 per cent 
chance of making the right identification after five minutes of questioning. 
The original question, "Can machines think?" I believe to be too meaning- 
less to deserve discussion. Nevertheless I believe that at the end of the 



48 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Machinery, con't. 



century the use of words and general educated opinion will have altered 
so much that one wUI be able to speak of machines thinking without ex- 
pecting to be contradicted. I believe further that no useful purpose is 
served by concealing these beliefs. The popular view that scientists pro- 
ceed inexorably from well-established fact to well-established fact, never 
being influenced by any improved conjecture, is quite mistaken. Provided 
it is made clear which are proved facts and which are conjectures, no harm 
can result. Conjectures are of great importance since they suggest useful 
lines of research. 

I now proceed to consider opinions opposed to my own. 

(1) The Theological Objection 

Thinking is a function of man's immortal soul. God has given an im- 
mortal soul to every man and woman, but not to any other animal or to 
machines. Hence no animal or machine can think.' 

I am unable to accept any part of this, but will attempt to reply in 
theological terms. I should find the argument more convincing if animals 
were classed with men, for there is a greater difference, to my mind, be- 
tween the typical animate and the inanimate than there is between man 
and the other animals. The arbitrary character of the orthodox view be- 
comes clearer if we consider how it might appear to a member of some 
other religious community. How do Christians regard the Moslem view 
that women have no souls? But let us leave this point aside and return 
to the main argument. It appears to me that the argument quoted above 
implies a serious restriction of the omnipotence of the Almighty. It is 
admitted that there are certain things that He cannot do such as making 
one equal to two, but should we not believe that He has freedom to confer 
a soul on an elephant if He sees fit? We might expect that He would only 
exercise this power in conjunction with a mutation which provided the 
elephant with an appropriately improved brain to minister to the needs of 
this soul. An argument of exactly similar form may be made for the case 
of machines. It may seem different because it is more difficult to "swallow." 
But this really only means that we think it would be less likely that He 
would consider the circumstances suitable for conferring a soul. The cir- 
cumstances in question are discussed in the rest of this paper. In attempt- 
ing to construct such machines we should not be irreverently usurping His 
power of creating souls, any more than we arc in the procreation of chil- 
dren: rather we are, in either case, instruments of His will providing 
mansions for the souls that He creates. 

However, this is mere speculation. I am not very impressed with theo- 
logical arguments whatever they may be used to support. Such arguments 
have often been found unsatisfactory in the past. In the time of Galileo it 
was argued that the texts, "And the sun stood still . . . and hasted not 
to go down about a whole day" (Joshua x. 13) and "He laid the founda- 
tions of the earth, that it should not move at any time" ( Psalm cv. 5 ) were 
an adequate refutation of the Copernican theory. With our present knowl- 
edge such an argument appears futile. When that knowledge was not 
available it made a quite different impression. 

(2) Th« "Heads in the Sand" Objection 

"The consequences of machines thinking would be too dreadful. Let us 
hope and believe that they cannot do so." 

This argument is seldom expressed quite so openly as in the form above. 
But it affects most of us who think about it at all. We like to believe that 
Man is in some subtle way superior to the rest of creation. It is best if he 
can be shown to be necessarily superior, for then there is no danger of him 
losing his commanding position. The popularity of the theological argument 
is clearly connected with this feeling. It is likely to be quite strong in in- 
tellectual people, since they value the power of thinking more highly than 
others, and are more inclined to base their belief in the superiority of Man 
on this power. 

I do not think that this argument is sufficiently substantial to require 
refutation. Consolation would be more appropriate: perhaps this should 
be sought in the transmigration of souls. 

(3) The Mathematical Objection 

There arc a number of results of mathematical logic which can be used 
to show that there are limitations to the powers of discrete-state machines. 
The best known of these results is known as Godel's theorem ( 1931 ) and 



1 Possibly this view is heretical. St Thomas Aquinas [Summa Theologica, quoted 
by Bertram! Russell 1 1945. p. 458)1 states that God cannot make a man to have no 
soul. But this may not be a real restriction on His powers, but only a result of the 
fact that men's souls are immortal, and therefore indestructible. 



shows that in any sufficiently powerful logical system statements can be 
formulated which can neither be proved nor disproved within the system, 
unless possibly the system itself is inconsistent. There are other, in some 
respects similar, results due to Church (1936), Kleene (1935), Rosser. 
and Turing (1937). The latter result is the most convenient to con- 
sider, since it refers directly to machines, whereas the others can only 
be used in a comparatively indirect argument: for instance if Godel's 
theorem is to be used we need in addition to have some means of describ- 
ing logical systems in terms of machines, and machines in terms of logical 
systems. The result in question refers to a type of machine which is essen- 
tially a digital computer with an infinite capacity. It states that there are 
certain things that such a machine cannot do. If it is rigged up to give 
answers to questions as in the imitation game, there will be some questions 
to which it will either give a wrong answer, or fail to give an answer at all 
however much time is allowed for a reply. There may, of course, be many 
such questions, and questions which cannot be answered by one machine 
may be satisfactorily answered by another. We are of course supposing for 
the present that the questions arc of the kind to which an answer "Yes" or 
"No" is appropriate, rather than questions such as "What do you think of 
Picasso?" The questions that we know the machines must fail on are of 
this type, "Consider the machine specified as follows. . . . Will this ma- 
chine ever answer 'Yes' to any question?" The dots are to be replaced by a 
description of some machine in a standard form, which could be tome- 
thing like that used in §5. When the machine described bears a certain 
comparatively simple relation to the machine which is under interrogation, 
it can be shown that the answer is either wrong or not forthcoming. This 
is the mathematical result: it is argued that it proves a disability of 
machines to which the human intellect is not subject. 

The short answer to this argument is that although it is established that 
there are limitations to the powers of any particular machine, it has only 
been stated, without any sort of proof, that no such limitations apply to the 
human intellect. But I do not think this view can be dismissed quite so 
lightly. Whenever one of these machines is asked the appropriate critical 
question, and gives a definite answer, we know that this answer must be 
wrong, and this gives us a certain feeling of superiority. Is this feeling 
illusory? It is no doubt quite genuine, but I do not think too much impor- 
tance should be attached to it. We too often give wrong answers to ques- 
tions ourselves to be justified in being very pleased at such evidence of falli- 
bility on the part of the machines. Further, our superiority can only be felt 
on such an occasion in relation to the one machine over which we have 
scored our petty triumph. There would be no question of triumphing simul- 
taneously over all machines. In short, then, there might be men cleverer 
than any given machine, but then again there might be other machines 
cleverer again, and so on. 

Those who hold to the mathematical argument would, I think, mostly 
he willing to accept the imitation game as a basis for discussion. Those 
who believe in the two previous objections would probably not be inter- 
ested in any criteria. 

(4) The Argument from Consciousness 

This argument is very well expressed in Professor Jefferson's Lister Oration 
for 1949. from which I quote. "Not until a machine can write a sonnet or 
compose a concerto because of thoughts and emotions felt, and not by the 
chance fall of symbols, could we agree that machine equals brain — that is, 
not only write it but know that it had written it. No mechanism could feel 
(and not merely artificially signal, an easy contrivance) pleasure at its 
successes, grief when its valves fuse, be warmed by flattery, be made miser- 
able by its mistakes, be charmed by sex. be angry or depressed when it 
cannot get what it wants." 

This argument appears to be a denial of the validity of our test. Accord- 
ing to the most extreme form of this view the only way by which one 
could be sure that a machine thinks is to be the machine and to feel oneself 
thinking. One could then describe these feelings to the world, but of course 
no one would be justified in taking any notice. Likewise according to this 
view the only way to know that a man thinks is to be that particular man. 
It is in fact the solipsist point of view. It may be the most logical view to 
hold but it makes communication of ideas difficult A is liable to believe 
"A thinks but B does not" whilst B believes "B thinks but A does not." In- 
stead of arguing continually over this point it is usual to have the polite 
convention that everyone thinks 

I am sure that Professor Jefferson docs not wish to adopt the extreme 
and solipsist point of view Probably he would he quite willing to accept 
the imitation game as a test. The game (with the player B omitted) is fre- 
quently used in practice under the name of viva voce to discover whether 
some one really understands something or has "learnt it parrot fashion " 
Let us listen in to a part of such a viva voce: 



JANUARY 1980 



49 



Machinery, con't 




Interrogator: In the first line of your sonnet which reads "Shall 1 compare 
thee to a summer's day," would not "a spring day" do as well or better? 

Witness: It wouldn't scan. 

Interrogator: How about "a winter's day." That would scan all right. 

Witness: Yes, but nobody wants to be compared to a winter's day. 

Interrogator: Would you say Mr. Pickwick reminded you of Christmas? 

Witness: In a way. 

Interrogator: Yet Chrismas is a winter's day, and I do not think Mr. Pick- 
wick would mind the comparison. 

Witness: I don't think you're serious. By a winter's day one means a typi- 
cal winter's day, rather than a special one like Christmas. 

And so on. What would Professor Jefferson say if the sonnet-writing 
machine was able to answer like this in the viva voce? I do not know 
whether he would regard the machine as "merely artificially signalling ' 
these answers, but if the answers were as satisfactory and sustained as in 
the above passage I do not think he would describe it as "an easy contriv- 
ance." This phrase is,. I think, intended to cover such devices as the inclu- 
sion in the machine of a record of someone reading a sonnet, 'with appro- 
priate switching to turn it on from time to time. 

In short then. I think that most of those who support the argument 
from consciousness could be persuaded to abandon it rather than be forced 
into the solipsist position. They will then probably be willing to accept our 
test. 

I do not wish to give the impression that I think there is no mystery 
about consciousness. There is. for instance, something of a paradox con- 
nected with any attempt to localise it. But I do not think these mysteries 
necessarily need to be solved before we can answer the question with which 
we are concerned in this paper. 

(5) Arguments from Various Disabilities 

These arguments take the form, "I grant you that you can make machines 
do all the things you have mentioned but you will never be able to make 
one to do X." Numerous features X are suggested in this connexion. I 
offer a selection: 

Be kind, resourceful, beautiful, friendly, have initiative, have a sense of 
humour, tell right from wrong, make mistakes, fall in love, enjoy straw- 
berries and cream, make some one fall in love with it, learn from experi- 
ence, use words properly, be the subject of its own thought, have as much 
diversity of behaviour as a man. do something really new. 

No support is usually offered for these statements. I believe they are 
mostly founded on the principle of scientific induction. A man has seen 
thousands of machines in his lifetime. From what he sees of them he draws 
a number of general conclusions. They are ugly, each is designed for a 
very limited purpose, when required for a minutely different purpose they 
are useless, the variety of behaviour of any one of them is very small, etc., 
etc. Naturally he concludes that these are necessary properties of machines 
in general. Many of these limitations are associated with the very small 
storage capacity of most machines. ( I am assuming that the idea of storage 
capacity is extended in some way to cover machines other than discrete- 
state machines. The exact definition does not matter as no mathematical 
accuracy is claimed in the present discussion. ) A few years ago. when 
scry little had been heard of digital computers, it was possible to elicit 
much incredulity concerning them, if one mentioned their properties with- 
out describing their construction. That was presumably due to a similar 
application of the principle of scientific induction. These applications of 
the principle are of course largely unconscious. When a burnt child fears 
the fire and shows that he fears it by avoiding it. I should say that he was 
applying scientific induction. ( I could of course also describe his behaviour 
in many other ways. ) The works and customs of mankind do not seem to 
be very suitable material to which to apply scientific induction. A very 
large part of space-time must be investigated, if reliable results are to be 
obtained. Otherwise we may (as most English children do) decide that 
everybody speaks English, and that it is silly to learn French. 

There arc. however, special remarks to be made about many of the dis- 
abilities that have been mentioned. The inability to enjoy strawberries and 
cream may have struck the reader as frivolous. Possibly a machine might 
be made to enjoy this delicious dish, but any attempt to make one do so 
would be idiotic. What is important about this disability is that it contrib- 
utes to some of the other disabilities, e.g., to the difficulty of the same kind 
of friendliness occurring between man and machine as between white man 
and white man, or between black man and black man. 

The claim that "machines cannot make mistakes" seems a curious one. 
One is tempted to retort, "Arc they any the worse for that?" But let us 



adopt a more sympathetic attitude, and try to see what is really meant. I 
think this criticism can be explained in terms of the imitation game. It is 
claimed that the interrogator could distinguish the machine from the man 
simply by setting them a number of problems in arithmetic. The machine 
would be unmasked because of its deadly accuracy. The reply to this is 
simple. The machine (programmed for playing the game) would not at- 
tempt to give the right answers to the arithmetic problems. It would delib- 
erately introduce mistakes in a manner calculated to confuse the interro- 
gator. A mechanical fault would probably show itself through an unsuit- 
able decision as to what son of a mistake to make in the arithmetic. Even 
this interpretation of the criticism is not sufficiently sympathetic. But we 
cannot afford the space to go into it much further. It seems to me that this 
criticism depends on a confusion between two kinds of mistake. We may 
call them "errors of functioning" and "errors of conclusion." Errors of 
functioning are due to some mechanical or electrical fault which causes 
the machine to behave otherwise than it was designed to do. In philosophi- 
cal discussions one likes to ignore the possibility of such errors; one is 
therefore discussing "abstract machines." These abstract machines arc 
mathematical fictions rather than physical objects. By definition they arc 
incapable of errors of functioning. In this sense we can truly say that "ma- 
chines can never make mistakes." Errors of conclusion can only arise when 
some meaning is attached to the output signals from the machine. The 
machine might, for instance, type out mathematical equations, or sentences 
in English. When a false proposition is typed we say that the machine has 
committed an error of conclusion. There is clearly no reason at all for 
saying that a machine cannot make this kind of mistake. It might do noth- 
ing but type out repeatedly "0 - I ." To take a less perverse example, it 
might have some method for drawing conclusions by scientific induction. 
We must expect such a method to lead occasionally to erroneous results. 

The claim that a machine cannot be the subject of its own thought can 
of course only be answered if it can be shown that the machine has some 
thought with some subject matter. Nevertheless, "the subject matter of a 
machine's operations" does seem to mean something, at least to the people 
who deal with it. If, for instance, the machine was trying to find a solution 
of the equation x' — 40* — 1 1 - one would be tempted to describe 
this equation as part of the machine's subject matter at that moment. In 
this sort of sense a machine undoubtedly can be its own subject matter. It 
may be used to help in making up its own programmes, or to predict the 
effect of alterations in its own structure. By observing the results of its own 
behaviour it can modify its own programmes so as to achieve some purpose 
more effectively. These are possibilities of the near future, rather than 
Utopian dreams. 

The criticism that a machine cannot have much diversity of behaviour 
it just a way of saying that it cannot have much storage capacity. Until 
fairly recently a storage capacity of even a thousand digits was very rare. 
The criticisms that we are considering here arc often disguised forms of 
the argument from consciousness. Usually if one maintains that a machine 
can do one of these things, and describes the kind of method that the ma- 
chine could use, one will not make much of an impression. It is thought 
that the method (whatever it may be, for it must be mechanical) is really 
rather base. Compare the parentheses in Jefferson's statement quoted on 
page 49. 

(6) Lady Lovelace's Objection 

Our most detailed information of Babbage's Analytical Engine comes from 
a memoir by Lady Lovelace ( 1842). In it she states, "The Analytical En- 
gine has no pretensions to originate anything. It can do whatever we know 
how to order it to perform" (her italics). This statement is quoted by 
Hartree ( 1949) who adds: "This does not imply that it may not be pos- 
sible to construct electronic equipment which will 'think for itself,' or in 
which, in biological terms, one could set up a conditioned reflex, which 
would serve as a basis for 'learning.' Whether this is possible in principle 
or not is a stimulating and exciting question, suggested by some of these 
recent developments. But it did not seem that the machines constructed 
or projected at the time had this property." 

I am in thorough agreement with Hartree over this. It will be noticed 
that he docs not assert that the machines in question had not got the prop- 
erty, but rather that the evidence available to Lady Lovelace did not en- 
courage her to believe that they had it. It is quite possible that the ma- 
chines in question had in a sense got this property. For suppose that some 
discrete-state machine has the property. The Analytical Engine was a uni- 
versal digital computer, so that, if its storage capacity and speed were 
adequate, it could by suitable programming be made to mimic the machine 
in question. Probably this argument did not occur to the Countess or to 
Babbage. In any case there was no obligation on them to claim all that 
could be claimed. 



50 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Machinery, con't 



This whole question will be considered again under the heading of 
learning machines. 

A variant of Lady Lovelace's objection states that a machine can "never 
do anything really new." This may be parried for a moment with the saw, 
"There is nothing new under the sun." Who can be certain that "original 
work" that he has done was not simply the growth of the seed planted in 
him by teaching, or the effect of following well-known general principles. 
A better variant of the objection says that a machine can never "take us 
by surprise." This statement is a more direct challenge and can be met 
directly. Machines take me by surprise with great frequency. This is largely 
because I do not do sufficient calculation to decide what to expect them 
to do, or rather because, although I do a calculation. I do it in a hurried, 
slipshod fashion, taking risks. Perhaps 1 say to myself, "1 suppose the 
voltage here ought to be the same as there: anyway let's assume it is." 
Naturally I am often wrong, and the result is a surprise for me for by the 
time the experiment is done these assumptions have been forgotten. These 
admissions lay me open to lectures on the subject of my vicious ways. 
but do not throw any doubt on my credibility when I testify to the sur- 
prises I experience. 

I do not expect this reply to silence my critic. He will probably say thai 
such surprises arc due to some creative mental act on my part, and reflect 
no credit on the machine. This leads us back to the argument from con- 
sciousness, and far from the idea of surprise. It is a line of argument we 
must consider closed, but it is perhaps worth remarking that the apprecia- 
tion of something as surprising requires as much of a "creative mental act" 
whether the surprising event originates from a man, a book, a machine or 
anything else. 

The view that machines cannot give rise to surprises is due, I believe, 
to a fallacy to which philosophers and mathematicians are particularly sub- 
ject. This is the assumption that as soon as a fact is presented to a mind 
all consequences of that fact spring into the mind simultaneously with it. 
It is a very useful assumption under many circumstances, but one too 
easily forgets that it is false. A natural consequence of doing so is that 
one then assumes that there is no virtue in the mere working out of con- 
sequences from data and general principles. 

(7) Argument from Continuity in the Nervous System 

The nervous system is certainly not a discrete-state machine. A small error 
in the information about the size of a nervous impulse impinging on a 
neuron, may make a large difference to the size of the outgoing impulse. 
It may be argued that, this being so, one cannot expect to be able to 
mimic the behaviour of the nervous system with a discrete-state system. 
It is true that a discrete-state machine must be different from a con- 
tinuous machine. But if we adhere to the conditions of the imitation game. 
the interrogator will not be able to take any advantage of this difference. 
The situation can be made clearer if we consider some other simpler con- 
tinuous machine. A differential analyser will do very well. (A differential 
analyser is a certain kind of machine not of the discrete-state type used 
for some kinds of calculation.) Some of these provide their answers in a 
typed form, and so are suitable for taking part in the game. It would not 
be possible for a digital computer to predict exactly what answers the dif- 
ferential analyser would give to a problem, but it would be quite capable 
of giving the right sort of answer. For instance, if asked to give the value 
of w (actually about 3.1416) it would be reasonable to choose at random 
between the values 3.12. 3.13, 3.14, 3.15. 3.16 with the probabilities of 
0.05. 0.15, 0.55, 0. 19, 0.06 (say). Under these circumstances it would be 
very difficult for the interrogator to ilistinguish the differential analyser 
from the digital computer. 

(8) The Argument from Informality of Behaviour 

It is not possible to produce a set of rules purporting to describe what a 
man should do in every conceivable set of circumstances. One might for 
instance have a rule that one is to stop when one sees a red traffic light, 
and 10 go if one sees a green one, but what if by some fault both appear 
together? One may perhaps decide that it is safest to stop. But some fur- 
iher difficulty may well arise from this decision later. To attempt to pro- 
vide rules of conduct to cover every eventuality, even those arising from 
iralli.: lights, appears to be impossible. With all this I agree. 

From this it is argued that we cannot be machines. I shall try to repro- 
duce the argument, but I fear I shall hardly do it justice. It seems to run 
something like this. "If each man had a definite set of rules of conduct 
hv which he regulated his life he would be no better than a machine. But 
there are no such rules, so men cannot be machines." The undistributed 
middle is glaring. I do not think the argument is ever put quite like this. 



but I believe this is the argument used nevertheless. There may however 
be a certain confusion between "rules of conduct" and "laws of behaviour" 
to cloud the issue. By "rules of conduct" I mean precepts such as "Stop 
if you sec red lights." on which one can act, and of- which one can be 
conscious. By "laws of behaviour" I mean laws of nature as applied to a 
man's body such as "if you pinch him he will squeak." If we substitute 
laws of behaviour which regulate his life" for "laws of conduct by which 
he regulates his life" in the argument quoted the undistributed middle is 
no longer insuperable. For we believe that it is not only true that being 
regulated by laws of behaviour implies being some sort of machine (though 
not necessarily a discrete-state machine), but that conversely being such a 
machine implies being regulated by such laws. However, we cannot so 
easily convince ourselves of the absence of complete laws of behaviour 
as of complete rules of conduct. The only way we know of for finding such 
laws is scientific observation, and we certainly know of no circumstances 
under which we could say. "We have searched enough. There are no such 
laws." 

We can demonstrate more forcibly that any such statement would be 
unjustified. For suppose we could be sure of finding such laws if they 
existed. Then given a discrete-state machine it should certainly be possible 
to discover by observation sufficient about it to predict its future be- 
haviour, and this within a reasonable time, say a thousand years. But this 
does not seem to be the case. I have set up on the Manchester computer 
a small programme using only 1,000 units of storage, whereby the machine 
supplied with one sixteen-fjgure number replies with another within two 
seconds. I would defy anyone to learn from these replies sufficient about 
the programme to be able to predict any replies to untried values. 

(9) The Argument from Extrasensory Perception 

I assume that the reader is familiar with the idea of extrasensorv percep- 
tion, and the meaning of the four items of it, viz., telepathy, clairvoyance, 
precognition and psychokinesis. These disturbing phenomena seem to deny 
all our usual scientific ideas How we should like to discredit them! Un- 
fortunately the statistical evidence, at least for telepathy, is overwhelming. 
It is very difficult to rearrange one's ideas so as to fit these new facts in. 
Once one has accepted them it does not seem a very big step to believe 
in ghosts and bogies. The idea that our bodies move simply according to 
the known laws of physics, together with some others not yet discovered 
but somewhat similar, would be one of the first to go. 

This argument is to my mind quite a strong one. One can say in reply 
that many scientific theories seem to remain workable in practice, in spite 
of clashing with ESP; that in fact one can get along very nicely if one 
forgets about it. This is rather cold comfort, and one fears that thinking 
is just the kind of phenomenon where ESP may be especially relevant 

A more specific argument based on ESP might run as follows: "Let us 
play the imitation game, using as witnesses a man who is good as a tele- 
pathic receiver, and a digital computer. The interrogator can ask such 
questions as 'What suit does the card in my right hand belong to -1 ' The 
man by telepathy or clairvoyance gives the right answer 130 time- out of 
400 cards. The machine can only guess at random, and perhaps gets 104 
right, so the interrogator makes the right identification " There is an inicr- 
esting possibility which opens here. Suppose the digital computer contains 
a random number generator. Then it will be natural to use this to decide 
what answer to give. But then the random number generator » ill be subject 
to the psychokinctic powers of the interrogator. Perhaps this psychokinesis 
might cause the machine to guess right more often than would be expected 
on a probability calculation, so that the interrogator might still be unable 
to make the right identification. On the other hand, he might be able to 
guess right without any questioning, by clairvoyance. With ESP anything 
may happen. 

If telepathy is admitted it will be necessary to tighten our test up. The 
situation could be regarded as analogous to that which would occur if the 
interrogator were talking to himself and one of the competitors was listen- 
ing with his ear to the wall To put the competitors into a "telepalhy-proof 
room" would satisfy all requirements 

7. Learning Machines 

The reader will have anticipated that I have no very convincing argu- 
ments of a positive nature to support my views. If I had I should not have 
taken such pains to point out the fallacies in contrary views. Such evidence 
as I have 1 shall now give. 

Let us return for a moment to Lady 1 ovctace'l objection, which stated 
that the machine can only do what we tell it to do. One could say that a 
man can "inject" an idea into the machine, and that it will respond to a 
certain extent and then drop into quiescence, like a piano string struck by 
a hammer. Another simile would be an atomic pile of less than critical 



JANUARY 1980 



51 



Machinery, con't 



size: an injected idea is to correspond to a neutron entering the pile from 
without. Each such neutron will cause a certain disturbance which even- 
tually dies away. If, however, the size of the pile is sufficiently increased, 
the disturbance caused by such an incoming neutron will very likely go 
on and on increasing until the whole pile is destroyed. Is there a corres- 
ponding phenomenon for minds, and is there one for machines? There does 
seem to be one for the human mind. The majority of them seem to be 
"subcritical," i.e., to correspond in this analogy to piles of subcritical size. 
An idea presented to such a mind will on average give rise to less than one 
idea in reply. A smallish proportion are supercritical. An idea presented 
to such a mind that may give rise to a whole "theory" consisting of second- 
ary, tertiary and more remote ideas. Animals minds seem to be very defi- 
nitely subcritical. Adhering to this analogy we ask, "Can a machine be 
made to be supercritical''" 

The "skin-of-an-onion" analogy is also helpful. In considering the func- 
tions of the mind or the brain wc find certain operations which we can 
explain in purely mechanical terms. This we say does not correspond to 
the real mind: it is a sort of skin which we must strip off if we are to find 
the real mind. But then in what remains we find a further skin to be 
stripped off, and so on. Proceeding in this way do we ever come to the 
"real" mind, or do wc eventually come to the skin which has nothing in It? 
In the latter case the whole mind is mechanical. (It would not be a 
discrete-state machine however. We have discussed this.) 

These last two paragraphs do not claim to be convincing arguments. 
They should rather be described as "recitations tending to produce belief." 

The only really satisfactory support that can be given for the view ex- 
pressed at the beginning of 56, will be that provided by waiting for the 
end of the century and then doing the experiment described. But what can 
we say in the meantime? What steps should be taken now if the experiment 
is to be successful? 

As I have explained, the problem is mainly one of programming. Ad- 
vances in engineering will have to be made too, but it seems unlikely that 
these wUI not be adequate for the requirements. Estimates of the storage 
capacity of the brain vary from 10'" to 10" binary digits. I incline to the 
lower values and believe that only a very small fraction is used for the 
higher types of thinking. Most of it is probably used for the retention of 
visual impressions. I should be surprised if more than 10" was required 
for satisfactory playing of the imitation game, at any rate against a blind 
man. (Note: The capacity of the Encyclopaedia Briiannica, llth edition, 
is 2 X 10*.) A storage capacity of 10' would be a very practicable possi- 
bility even by present techniques. It is probably not necessary to increase 
the speed of operations of the machines at all. Parts of modern machines 
which can be regarded as analogs of nerve cells work about a thousand 
times faster than the latter. This should provide a "margin of safety" which 
could cover losses of speed arising in many ways. Our problem then is to 
find out how to programme these machines to play the game. At my pres- 
ent rate of working I produce about a thousand digits of programme a day. 
so that about sixty workers, working steadily through the fifty years might 
accomplish the job, if nothing went into the wastcpaper basket. Some more 
expeditious method seems desirable. 

In the process of trying to imitate an adult human mind we are bound 
to think a good deal about the process which has brought it to the state 
that it is in. We may notice three components. 

(a) The initial state of the mind, say at birth, 
(ft ) The education to which it has been subjected, 
(r) Other experience, not to be described as education, to which it has 
been subjected. 

Instead of trying to produce a programme to simulate the adult mind, 
why not rather try to produce one which simulates the child's? If this 
were then subjected to an appropriate course of education one would ob- 
tain the adult brain. Presumably the child brain is something like a note- 
book as one buys it from the stationer's. Rather little mechanism, and lots 
of blank sheets. (Mechanism and writing are from our point of view al- 
most synonymous.) Our hope is that there is so little mechanism in the 
child brain that something like it can be easily programmed. The amount 
of work in the education we can assume, as a first approximation, to be 
much the same as for the human child. 

We have thus divided our problem into two parts. The child pro- 
gramme and the education process. These two remain very closely con- 
nected. We cannot expect to find a good child machine at the first attempt. 
One must experiment with teaching one such machine and see how well 
it learns. One can then try another and see if it is better or worse. There is 



an obvious connection between this process and evolution, by the identi- 
fications 

Structure of the child machine - hereditary material 
Changes of the child machine - mutations 

Natural selection - judgment of the experimenter 

One may hope, however, that this process will be more expeditious 
than evolution. The survival of the fittest is a slow method for measuring 
advantages. The experimenter, by the exercise of intelligence, should be 
able to speed it up. Equally important is the fact that he is not restricted 
to random mutations. If he can trace a cause for some weakness he can 
probably think of the kind of mutation which will improve it. 

It will not be possible to apply exactly the same teaching process 
to the machine as to a normal child. It will not, for instance, be provided 
with legs, so that it could not be asked to go out and fill the coal scuttle. 
Possibly it might not have eyes. But however well these deficiencies might 
be overcome by clever engineering, one could not send the creature to 
school without the other children making excessive fun of it. It must be 
given some tuition. We need not be too concerned about the legs, eyes, 
etc. The example of Miss Helen Keller shows that education can take place 
provided that communication in both directions between teacher and 
pupil can take place by some means or other. 

We normally associate punishments and rewards with the teaching 
process. Some simple child machines can be constructed or programmed 
on this sort of principle. The machine has to be so constructed that events 
which shortly preceded the occurrence of a punishment signal are un- 
likely to be repeated, whereas a reward signal increased the probability 
of repetition of the events which led up to it. These definitions do not 
presuppose any feelings on the part of the machine. I have done some 
experiments with one such child machine, and succeeded in teaching it a 
few things, but the teaching method was too unorthodox for the experi- 
ment to be considered really successful. 

The use of punishments and rewards can at best be a part of the teach- 
ing process. Roughly speaking, if the teacher has no other means of com- 
municating to the pupil, the amount of information which can reach him 
does not exceed the total number of rewards and punishments applied. By 
the time a child has learnt to repeat "Casabianca" he would probably feel 
very sore indeed, if the text could only be discovered by a 'Twenty Ques- 
tions'' technique, every "NO" taking the form of a Mow. It is necessary 
therefore to have some other "unemotional" channels of communication. 
If these are available it is possible to teach a machine by punishments and 
rewards to obey orders given in some language, e.g., a symbolic lan- 
guage. These orders are to be transmitted through the "unemotional" 
channels. The use of this language will diminish greatly the number of 
punishments and rewards required. 

Opinions may vary as to the complexity which is suitable in the child 
machine. One might try to make it as simple as possible consistent!) with 
the genera] principles. Alternatively one might have a complete system of 
logical inference "built in."' In the latter case the store would be largely 
occupied with definitions and propositions. The propositions would have 
various kinds of status, e.g., well-established facts, conjectures, mathe- 
matically proved theorems, statements given by an authority, expressions 
having the logical form of proposition but not belief-value. Certain propo- 
sitions may be described as "imperatives." The machine should be so con- 
structed that as soon as an imperative is classed as "well established" 
the appropriate action automatically takes place. To illustrate this, sup- 
pose the teacher says to the machine, "Do your homework now." This may 
cause "Teacher says 'Do your homework now' " to be included amongst 
the well-established facts. Another such fact might be, "Everything that 
teacher says is true." Combining these may eventually lead to the impera- 
tive, "Do your homework now." being included amongst the well-estab- 
lished facts, and this, by the construction of the machine, will mean that 
the homework actually gets started, but the effect is very satisfactory. The 
processes of inference used by the machine need not be such as would 
satisfy the most exacting logicians. There might for instance be no hier- 
archy of types. But this need not mean that type fallacies will occur, any 
more than we are bound to fall over unfenced cliffs. Suitable imperatives 
(expressed within the systems, not forming part of the rules of the system ) 
such as "Do not use a class unless it is a subclass of one which has been 
mentioned by teacher" can have a similar effect to "Do not go too near 
the edge." 

The imperatives that can be obeyed by a machine that has no limbs 
are bound to be of a rather intellectual character, as in the example (doing 
homework ) given above. Important amongst such imperatives will be ones 

'Or rather "programmed in" for our child machine will or programmed in * 
digital computer. But the logical system will not have to be learnt 



52 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Machinery, con't. 




which regulate the order in which the rules of the logical system concerned 
are to be applied. For at each stage when one is using a logical system, 
there is a very large number of alternative steps, any of which one is per- 
mitted to apply, so far as obedience to the rules of the logical system is 
concerned. These choices make the difference between a brilliant and a 
footling reasoner, not the difference between a sound and a fallacious one. 
Propositions leading to imperatives of this kind might be "When Socrates 
is mentioned, use the syllogism in Barbara" or "If one method has been 
proved to be quicker than another, do not use the slower method." Some 
of these may be "given by authority," but others may be produced by 
the machine itself, e.g. by scientific induction. 

The idea of a learning machine may appear paradoxical to some readers. 
How can the rules of operation of the machine change? They should 
describe completely how the machine will react whatever its history might 
be, whatever changes it might undergo. The rules are thus quite time- 
invariant. This is quite true. The explanation of the paradox is that the 
rules which get changed in the learning process are of a rather less pre- 
tentious kind, claiming only an ephemeral validity. The reader may draw 
a parallel with the Constitution of the United States. 

An important feature of a learning machine is that its teacher will often 
be very largely ignorant of quite what is going on inside, although he may 
still be able to some extent to predict his pupil's behavior. This should ap- 
ply most strongly to the later education of a machine arising from a child 
machine of well-tried design (or programme). This is in clear contrast 
with normal procedure when using a machine to do computations: one's 
object is then to have a clear mental picture of the state of the machine at 
each moment in the computation. This object can only be achieved with a 
struggle. The view that "the machine can only do what we know how to 
order it to do," 1 appears strange in face of this. Most of the programmes 
which we can put into the machine will result in its doing something that we 
cannot make sense of at all, or which we regard as completely random be- 
haviour. Intelligent behaviour presumably consists in a departure from the 
completely disciplined behaviour involved in computation, but a rather 
slight one, which does not give rise to random behaviour, or to pointless 

' Compare Lady Lovelace's statement which doe* not contain the word "only ." 



repetitive loops. Another important result of preparing our machine for its 
part in the imitation game by a process of teaching' and learning is that 
"human fallibility" is likely to be omitted in a rather natural way, i.e.. 
without special "coaching." (The reader should reconcile this with the 
point of view on pages 50 and si.) Processes that are learnt do not pro- 
duce a hundred per cent certainty of- result; if they did they could not be 
unlearnt. 

It is probably wise to include a random element in a learning machine. 
A random element is rather useful when we are searching for a solution 
of some problem. Suppose for instance we wanted to find a number be- 
tween SO and 200 which was equal to the square of the sum of its digits, 
we might start at SI then try S2 and go on until we got a number that 
worked. Alternatively we might choose numbers at random until we got a 
good one. This method has the advantage that it is unnecessary to keep 
track of the values that have been tried, but the disadvantage that one may 
try the same one twice, but this is not very important if there are several 
solutions. The systematic method has the disadvantage that there may be 
an enormous block without an> solutions in the region which has to be in- 
vestigated first. Now the learning process may be regarded as a search for 
a form of behaviour which will satisfy the teacher (or some other criterion ) . 
Since there is probably a very large number of satisfactory solutions the 
random method seems to be better than the systematic. It should be 
noticed that it is used in the analogous process of evolution. But there the 
systematic method is not possible. How could one keep track of the dif- 
ferent genetical combinations that had been tried, so as to avoid trying 
them again? 

We may hope that machines will eventually compete with men in all 
purely intellectual fields. But which are the best ones to start with? Even 
this is a difficult decision. Many people think that a very abstract activity, 
like the playing of chess, would be best. It can also be maintained that it 
is best to provide the machine with the best sense organs that monev can 
buy, and then teach it to understand and speak English. This process 
could follow the normal teaching of a child. Things would be pointed out 
and named, etc. Again I do not know what the right answer is. but 1 think 
both approaches should be tried. 

We can only see a short distance ahead, but we can see plenty there 
that needs to be done. D 




lietsi-1: 



A DIGITAL TAPE SYSTEM 
WITH THE FEATURES OF 
DISK. 
Now there is a low cost alternative to Disk. . . the BETA 1 
Tape System. 

See the BETA-1 and discover the power of a professional Digital 
Tape System. (Please don't compare a Digital Tape System to an 

Audio Cassette Recorder the similarity ends with the media 

used.) The BETA-1 Digital Tape System not only provides mass 
storage (more than 10 times the storage per dollar than Disk), 
but also provides high reliability— equivalent to floppy disk. 

COMPARE THESE ADVANTAGES 

File handling capabilities (direct access at 100"/sec.) with full 
computer control. • Record handling capabilities— a must for 
business applications. • Data rate at 4000 bits/sec. standard. 
This is more than 10 times faster than most audio cassette re- 
corders. Higher data rates are optionally available. • 500,000 
Bytes, formatted, storage per drive. 1,000.000 bytes option 
al. Can be purchased as a system of 1-4 drives, providing 
up to 4 million bytes on line at a fraction of disk stor- 
age cost. • Hardware and software interface packages 
are available for most popular microcomputers, like 
TRS-80*, SORCERER*, and APPLE*. 



ilcltsi-1: 

OVER 4 TIMES 
THE STORAGE 
The Double-Density, Double 
Sided Mini Floppy 
For S 100 Bus 
Owners! 




'Manufacturer!' j 
Registered j 

I rati f marks.. 



COMPARE MECA's COST AND CAPACITY 
The DELTA- 1 has 30% greater capacity for 18% less 
cost than Micropolis and 13% greater capacity for 15% 
less than North Star. 

Included with the DELTA 1 Disk System is an S-100 
bus, MFM encoding controller card, from one to three 5%" 
disk drives, power supply, case, cable, disk operating sys- 
tem, the powerful Tarbell Disk BASIC, and manual. 
Price of double-sided disk system is $925. Optional soft 
ware available includes CP/M* and Microsoft Disk BASIC. 



For complete information, phone or 

" te IIICCS1 

7026 O.W.S. Road., Yucca Valley, Ca 92884 • (714) 365-7686 



JANUARY 1980 



53 



CIRCLE 147 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



What Computers Still Can't Do 



Hubert L. Dreyfus 



Part one of this article ran in 
ROM, Vol.1, #9, p.66. It is 
available from Creative Computing 
tor $2.50 postpaid. The following 
introductory comments appeared 
in the first part. —DHA 



In his classic paper "A Frame- 
work for Representing Knowledge, " 
Minsky proposed an abstract data 
structure for representing everyday 
knowledge in terms of "stereotyped 
situations." The result is a step 
forward in Al from a passive model of 
information processing to one which 
tries to take account of the complex 
interactions between a knower and 
his world. It is to Minsky's credit to 
have at last brought these problems 
familiar to phenomenologists into 
the open in Al and to have provided a 
model so vague and suggestive 
that it can be developed in several 
different directions. As one would 
expect, two alternatives immediately 
present themselves: either to use 
frames to deal with common sense 
knowledge as if everyday activity 
were a micro-world, or to try to 
develop frame structures capable of 
capturing the open-ended character 
of everyday life. Of the two most 
influential current schools in Al, 
Roger Shank and his students at 
Yale, have tried the first approach. 
They propose a set of twelve basic 
actions such as: ATRANS, the 
transfer of an abstract relationship 
such as possession, ownership or 
control, PTRANS, the transfer of 
physical location of an object; 
INGEST, the taking of an object by 
an animal into the inner workings of 
that animal, etc. From these primi- 
taves Schank builds game-like scen- 
arios which enable his program to fill 
in gaps and pronoun reference in 
stories about some specific activity. 
Terry Winograd and his colleagues at 
Xerox take the second approach. 
They are attempting to develop a 
programming language which can be 
used to develop a system able to 
understand utterances made in real 
world situations. —HD 




Hubert L. Dreyfus Professor of Philosophy 
University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 



Schank calls his version of a 
frame a script, and his definition 
reveals its pre-determined, bounded, 
game-like character: 

We define a script as a predeter- 
mined causal chain of conceptu- 
alizations that describe the nor- 
mal sequence of things in a 
familiar situation. Thus there is a 
restaurant script, a birthday-party 
script, a football game script, a 
classroom script, and so on. 
Each script has in it a minimum 
number of players and objects 
that assume certain roles within 
the script... [E]ach primitive 
action given stands for the most 
important element in a standard 
set of actions. 1 



Schank is in effect 
claiming that he can 
generalize his ap- 
proach to the prag- 
matic considerations 
which define situa- 
tions. 

His illustration of the restaurant 
script spells out in terms of primitive 
actions the rules of the restaurant 
game: 

Script : restaurant 

Roles: customer; waitress; 

chef; cashier 
Reason : to get food so as to go 

down in hunger and up in 

pleasure 



Scene 1 entering 

PTRANS - go into restaurant 
MBUILD - find table 

PTRANS - go to table 
MOVE - sit down 

Scene 2 ordering 
ATRANS - receive menu 

ATTEND - look at it 

MBUILD- decide on order 

MTRANS - tell order to waitress 

Scene 3 eating 

ATRANS - receive food 

INGEST - eat food 



Scene 4 exiting 
MTRANS - 
ATRANS - 
PTRANS - 
ATRANS - 
PTRANS - 



ask for check 
give tip to waitress 
go to cashier 
give money to cashier 
go out of restaurant 2 

There is nothing in principle 
misguided in trying to work out 
primitives and rules for a restaurant 
game. Indeed, even in real life there 
are some areas, e.g. phonetics, and 
syntactics in linguistics, where there 
do seem to be primitve elements and 
rules for their permutation. But 
Schank is in effect claiming that he 
can generalize his approach to the 
pragmatic considerations which de- 
fine situations. No one has succeed- 
ed in doing this, however, except by 
artificially limiting the possibilites. 
Going to the restaurant, for example, 
is not a self-contained game with 
"primitive actions," but a highly 
variable type of behavior which 
opens out into the rest of human 
activity. True, what "normally" hap- 



54 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Can't Do, con't 

pens when one goes to a restaurant 
can be selected, and formalized by 
the programmer as default assign- 
ments just as monopoly captures 
some part of what normally happens 
in the finaclal world, but the back- 
ground has been left out so that a 
program using such a script cannot 
be said to understand going to a 
restaurant at all. 

This can easily be seen by 
imagining a situation that deviates 
from the norm. What if, when one 
tries to order, he finds that the item 
in question is not available, or, 
before paying he finds that the bill is 
added up incorrectly. Of course, 
Schank would answer that he could 
build these normal ways restaurant 
going breaks down into his script. 
But there are always abnormal ways 
everyday activities can breakdown: 
the juke box might be too noisy, 
there might be too many flies on the 
counter, or like in the film, Annie 
Hall, in a New York delicatessen one 
girl friend might order a pastrami 
sandwich on white bread with may- 
onnaise. When we understand going 
to a restaurant we understand how to 
cope with even these abnormal 
possibilities because going to a 
restaurant is part of our everyday 
activities of going into buildings, 
getting things we want, interacting 
with people, etc. The point is that 
going to a restaurant to eat is not an 
isolated, rule-governed game, but a 
part of daily life, and the attempt to 
understand it by turning it into a 
self-contained micro-world simply 
by-passes the original problem. 

Schank's claim that "the paths of 
a script are the possibilities that are 
extant in a situation'^ is insidiously 
misleading. Either it means that the 
script accounts for the possibilities 

As the child learns, his 
understanding of the 
world goes through 
"revolutions" which 
restructure the whole 
field of his experience 
and change what 
counts as facts and 
"primitives". 

in the restaurant game defined by 
Schank, in which case it is true but 
uninteresting; or he is claiming that 
he can account for all the possibili- 
ties in an everyday restaurant situa- 
tion which is impressive but undem- 
onstrated and highly implausible. 



Yet it is this implausible claim which 
Schank himself seems to believe for 
although understanding is a pragma- 
tic notion, not a syntactic one, he 
goes on to claim that he has "a class 
of knowledge organizing techniques 
that guide and enable understand- 
ing/^ 

Schank's claims not- 
withstanding, his 
scripts with their pre- 
selected elementary 
actions and relations 
presuppose, rather 
than explain, the back- 
ground of ambiguous, 
creative language from 
which these elements 
have been abstracted. 

Schank admits that an indivi- 
dual's "belief system" cannot be fully 
elicited from him, although he does 
believe that it could, in principle, be 
represented in his formalism. He is 
therefore led to the desperate idea 
that he could write a program to learn 
about restaurants etc. the way people 
do. In a recent paper he concludes : 
We hope to be able to build a 
program that can learn, as a child 
does, how to do what we have 
described in this paper instead of 
being spoon-fed the tremendous 
information necessary. In order to 
do this it might be necessary to 
await an effective automatic 
hand-eye system and an image 
processor. 5 

But this goal is a self-generated 
illusion. Developmental psychology 
has shown that children's learning 
does not consist in acquiring more 
and more information by adding new 
primitives and combining old ones as 
Schank's view would lead one to 
expect. Rather learning is holistic. 
As the child learns, his understand- 
ing of the world goes through 
"revolutions" which restructure the 
whole field of his experience and 
change what counts as facts and 
"primitives." 

Yet, on the basis of this program- 
matic and question-begging work, 
Schank claimed at a recent meeting 
that he had answered my challenge 
that a computer would count as 
intelligent only if it could summa-ze 
a short story. 6 He described a 
program that could extr.ct death 
statistics from newspaper reports. 
Indeed, as one would ex ->ct, the 
script approach works for sufficiently 
stereotyped newspaper rapoi i, 



where what the primitive actions anc 
fact are is determined beforehand, 
but this is no way touches my point 
that in a short story what counts as 
the relevant facts to be included in a 
summary depends on the story itself. 
If the story, for example, describes a 
trip on a bus, the fact that a 
passenger thanked the driver would 
be irrelevant if the point is that the 
passenger was black and had to sit at 
the back, but it might be crucially 
important if the story concerns a 
misanthrope who had never thanked 
anyone before, or a very law abiding 
young man who had courageously 
broken the law in order to speak to an 
attractive woman driver. Schank's 
program cannot provide a clue con- 
cerning such judgments of relevance 
because it only works for predeter- 
mined relevance, excluding the back- 
ground in terms of which judgments 
of relevance are made. 

Schank's tendency to make gra- 
tuitous inflated claims reminds one 
of the early days of Al optimism. At 
the same meeting at which he 
announced that he had a program 
which could summarize short stor- 
ies, he also claimed that scripts 
could handle metaphorical language. 
This is the hardest test of Al since 
everything is like everything else in 
many respects and what counts as a 
metaphor depends on our sense of 
what is relevant and important. Thus, 

The only serious alter- 
native seems to be to 
take on everyday un- 
derstanding directly, 
even at the risk of 
frustration and failure. 

"You are my sunshine," is easy to 
understand, but "You are my moon 
rock," would need a lot of explaining, 
although surely the person in ques- 
tion has more predicates in common 
with a physical object than with a ray 
of light. Schank proposed a program 
for understanding an example of 
metaphorical language from my 
book. I had argued that we can 
understand the phrase "The idea is in 
the pen" when used to describe a 
woul-be author, in spite of the fact 
that ideas cannot literally be physical 
objects. Schank countered with a 
book-writing script which listed the 
objects and actions involved in 
writing and then stipulated that an 
idea can be in anything used in 
writing a book. A logical solution, 
but it clearly won't work. Ideas 
cannot be said to be in the ink, 



JANUARY 1980 



5b 



Can't Do, con't 



paper, or eraser. How metaphors and 
related creatively deviant language 
works has always baffled philoso- 
phers and linguists, and Achank's 
claims notwithstanding, his scripts 
with their pre-selected elementary 
actions and relations presuppose, 
rather than explain, the background 
of ambiguous, creative language 
from which these elements have 
been abstracted. 

If it is impossible to finesse the 
basic problem raised by the interre- 
latedness of everyday practices by 
building upwards from primitives in 
neatly circumscribed micro-worlds, 
the only serious alternative seems to 
be to take on everyday understanding 
directly, even at the risk of frustra- 
tion and failure. At Xerox in Palo 
Alto, Terry Winograd is directing a 
project whose purpose is to develop 
a language capable of representing 
the intricacies of our common sense 
understanding and then to use the 
language to write a program for 
understanding everyday discourse. 

Winograd and Bobrow's Know- 
ledge Representation Language 
(KRL), like Schank's scripts, is based 
on the frame-idea. But KRL uses this 
formalism in a diametrically opposite 
way from Schank. Rather than speci- 
fic fixed scripts defined in a set of 
primitives, prototypes are structured 
so that any sort of description from 
proper names to procedures for 
recognizing an example, can be used 
to fill in any one of the nodes or slots 
that are attached to a prototype. This 
allows representations to be defined 
in terms of each other, and results in 
what the authors calls "a wholistic 
as opposed to reductionistic view of 
representation,"/ which, they claim 
can deal with "gestalts." 

How does such a top- 
down holistic system 
find out what broadest 
frame to work down 
from? 

All this is very promising in the 
typical Al sense that KRL at the 
moment is all promise, having never 
been implemented, but also in the 
much more hopeful sense that KRL 
does seem to have captured some 
very difficult and fundamental fea- 
tures of everyday understanding. 
Even in the case of chair recognition 
we saw that legs, backs and seats 
could not be understood as context 
free features, but that a chair had to 
be recognized first before one could 
tell what was to count as leg, seat 



and back. All this underscores the 
need for a program like KRL which is 
organized to make default assign- 
ments, e.g. to have a room-frame 
with a slot for chairs, and a chair 
frame with slots for legs and backs 
etc. This would enable it to use 



The background can- 
not be understood in 
terms of elements be- 
cause it determines 
what counts as an 
element or significant 
figure. 



rough procedures for finding legs 
such as looked for anything between 
the flat part and the floor - a 
procedure which would not work if 
legs were context free features to be 
found just anywhere in a scene. But, 
of course, this leaves open the big 
question : how does such a top-down 
holistic system find out what broad- 
est frame to work down from? This is 
not a problem for those working on 
the KRL formalism but it is a 
fundamental difficulty which any 
user of KRL must face. 

These problems suggest perhaps 
that the top-down holism captured in 
KRL, while a great step forward from 
Schank-like bottom-up reduction to 
primitives, may be a long way from 
the gestalt character of human 
understanding. A gestalt is not just 
an organization of independently 
definable elements, but it consists of 
of a figure on a background; and the 
background cannot be understood in 
terms of elements because it deter- 
mines what counts as an element or 
significant figure. KRL, although it 
does not have specific elements 
singled out as primitives, must, by 
the nature of symbolic representa- 
tions, ultimately analyze human 
knowledge into a complex structure 
of interacting elements. As Winograd 
and Bobrow put it : 

We provide a framework for 
carrying out a match process, and 
an appropriate set of building 
blocks from which a matching 
strategy can be constructed with- 
in this framework for a specific 
user or domain or process ... 8 

Still, KRL is the first proposal 
that even attempts to do justice to 
the holistic character of human 
understanding, and philosophers 
and the Al community will be eagerly 
watching its development. Can the 



grand plan ever be spelled out in 
detail? If so, will the attempt to bring 
computer programming down from 
its illusory successes in rarefied 
micro-worlds bog down under its 
immense data structure? Winograd 
and Bobrow admit: 
The system is complex, and will 
continue to get more so in the 
near future. ...As continuing 
experience indicates to us which 
of the facilities are most impor- 
tant, and points out ways in 
which they can be simplified, we 
will refine the language. How- 
ever, we do not expect that it will 
ever be reduced to a very small 
set of mechanisms. Human 
thought, we believe, is the pro- 
duct of the interaction of a fairly 
large set of interdependent pro- 
cesses. Any representation lan- 
guage which is to be used in 
modelling thought or achieving 
"intelligent performance will have 
to have an extensive and varied 
repertoire of mechanisms. 9 
Finally, even if the representation 
language works, can it be used to 
represent our everyday understand- 
ing? 

This last question is being tested 
by David Levy of Xerox. Levy is 
working on a program to understand 
a piece of real-world discourse, not a 
micro-world, a script, or a simple 

KRL is the first propo- 
sal that even attempts 
to do justice to the 
holistic character of 
human understanding. 

newspaper report. The discourse in 
question is transcribed from the oral 
text of the answer of a Stanford 
student to the question: "Tell me 
what your course schedule is for this 
quarter, and how you ended up with 
it." The result is a convoluted 
account, fairly easy to understand, 
but incredibly difficult to program. 
Here is an excerpt : 
OK, well, I'm taking French. It's 
either two or three. I signed up for 
both, and I'm going to one or the 
other, and then Poli Sci one and 
American Economic History. Be- 
cause I want to major in Econ 
and, I use my French for Human- 
ities, 'cause otherwise I had to 
take some drama thing, and 
didn't want that. And like it's 
nine, ten, eleven, I hope, and 
that's perfect because then I . . . 
it's not too early, but then I've got 
the whole afternoon ... 10 



56 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Can't Do, con't ... 

Levy tells me he will be satisfied 
if the program can understand, i.e., 
build up a symbolic description of, 
the part about the various time 
conflicts. He does not hope to be 
able to analyze in KRL formalism the 
assumptions about human desires 
and motivations involved in wanting 
to have "the whole afternoon." But 
even this modest approach raises at 
least two fundamental questions. In 
understanding the student's remarks 
about scheduling various courses at 
various times, Levy will either have to 
count on cues in the text to signal 
the computer that it should use a 
registration frame — a procedure 
which has not been successful since 
no specific cues can be counted on 
to be in the text - or he will have 
already begged this question by 
writing a "registration understanding 
program," so that the broadest frame 
is simply given from the start. The 
problem as to how the computer 
could select a top frame leads back 
to the fundamental problem of 
having to capture the broadest 
background of human practices 
which enables human beings to 
recognize situations. This basic un- 
solved difficulty corresponds for 
top-down programs to the problem of 
the seemingly bottomless character 
of possibilities of human actions that 
plagues Schank and believers in 
primitives. 

The other basic problem concerns 
the strategy of trying to do some 
parts of the protocol while admitting 
that no one has any idea how to deal 
with the part that connects with 
human needs, desires, emotions, 
etc. This is the new form of 
isolationism which has replaced 
microworlds. The approach is much 
harder and more realistic than turn- 
ing everyday life into a game. But can 
this isolating move be justified? 

Even if the representa- 
tion language works, 
can it be used to 
represent our everyday 
understanding? 

We have seen again and again in 
the course of this discussion that the 
background of skills and practices 
taken for granted in everyday human 
understanding cannot be separated 
from the salient features, aspects 
and facts which stand out on this 
background. We might say that the 
basic point which has emerged so far 

JANUARY 1980 



is that intelligence or the ability to 
reason cannot be separated from the 
rest of human life. 

The other basic pro- 
blem concerns the 
strategy of trying to do 
some parts of the pro- 
tocol while admitting 
that no one has any 
idea how to deal with 
the part that connects 
with human needs, 

desires, emotions, etc. 

^^^^^■^■■■^■■■■■■■■•■■■■■■■■•■•■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■■laaaaBi 

But if practical widsom and 
theoretical intelligence are not so 
neatly separable as we have come to 
believe, then Levy's project is doom- 
ed to failure. For, even if he does 
succeed in programming part of his 
protocol, the success would have to 
be some sort of ad hoc program, 
dealing with facts about scheduling 
for example, which could not be 
generalized to free afternoon, etc. 
and would cast no light on what 
human beings normally do when they 
schedule the various activities which 
make up their lives. 

Human beings learn to use their 
bodies and are trained into the norms 
of their culture without their teachers 
ever having objectified these prac- 
tices as rules, procedures, or facts. 
What they thus come to know, or 
better, embody, is, of course, re- 
flected in the way the brain comes to 
be organized, but there is no reason 
to suppose, and certainly no evi- 
dence to suggest, that what is in the 
brain is some sort of formal repre- 
sentation of some vast set of facts 
and procedures which a computer 
would have to be told if it were to be 
able to interact with the world like a 
human being. Since the bodily skills 
we acquire as babies, and the 
background of cultural wisdom and 
practices we acquire all our lives, are 
not learned as facts but rather enable 
us to constantly modify what counts 
as facts, there is reason to think this 
background cannot be captured in 
any fully explicit formal system no 
matter how holistic and complex. If 
this is true, then the current work in 
Al, although in many cases more 
modest and sophisticated than the 
work done half a decade ago, is still 
stuck. The constant activity and 
claims of progress characteristic of 
the field still resemble the self 
deluded rhetoric of a tree climber 
claiming he is on the way to the 
moon. □ 



57 



1. Roger C. Schank, "Using Knowledge to 
Understand". Theoretical Issues In Natural 
Language Processing, Cambridge, Mass., 
10-13 June 1975, p. 131. 

2. Ibid., p. 131. 

3. Ibid., p. 132. 

4. Ibid, p. 135. 

5. Roger C Schank, "Conceptual Dependen- 
cy: A Theory of Natural Language Under- 
standing", Cognitive Psychology, no. 3 
(1972). pp. 553-554.' 

6. Society for the Interdisciplinary Study of 
The Mind, Symposium for Philosophy and 
Computer Technology, State University 
College, New Paltz, New York, March 1977. 
D.G Bobrow & T. Winograd, "An Overview 
of KRL, a Knowledge Representation Lan- 
guage", to be published in Cognitive 
Science, Vol. 1 no. 1 , January 1977, preprint 
p. 6. 

7. Eleanor Rosch, "Human Categorization", In 
N. Warren (editor) Advances In Cross-Cul- 
tural Psychology (Vol. 1), London, Academ- 
ic Press, In press. 

8. D.G. Bobrow and T. Winograd, "An 
Overview of KRL, a Knowledge Representa- 
tion Language", to be published in Cogni- 
tive Science, Vol. 1 no. 1, January 1977, 
preprint p. 19. My italics. 

9. Ibid., p. 39. 

10. David M. Levy, "A First Look at eq: A 
Language Comprehension System", draft 
submitted to IJCAI-77, p.1 . 



For a more detailed discussion 
of these issues see Hubert Drey- 
fus, What Computers Cant Do, 
revised paperback edition, Harper 
and Row, 1979, $5.95. 



OSI OSI 

SOFTWARE 

FOR 

OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

30 programs on tape, well documented, and available for 
CI (Superboard) & C2 All Run in 4K and all except CHESS 
are in BASIC Our new $1 00 catalog has a tree game 
listing, programming hints, and Pokes OSI forgot to 
mention 

• CHESS FOR OSI $19.95 
(not in BASIC - specify system) 

• SUPERUTILITY $12.95 
has renumberer (also handles branch 
statements), variable table maker, and 
search routine. 

• TEN TANK BLITZ $9 95 
two players control 10 tanks in this video 
board game for War gamers. Real time 
action and complex strategy. 

• JOYSTICK PACKAGE $19 95 
4 programs - TANK. FIGHTER PILOT, 
KILLERBOT. & BARRIERBALL and free 
instructions for $10.00 joystick conver- 
sion. 

• STARFIGHTER $5 95 
a real time space war game featuring a 
display with working instruments 

AARDVARK TECHNICAL SERVICES 
1690 Bolton 

Walled Lake, Michigan 48088 
(313) 624-6316 



CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



r— 






1 






(boaa' 


> ooooJ 


( V \ 




i 




■/ 


fi§ 














\ 


nw 


HIP- 













My thoughts with respect to the 
question of "can computers think?" are 
that one of the very subtlest of 
problems is circumvented by stacking 
the logical deck in advance. If any 
concept is hard to define by rigorous 
thought, it is the concept "thought." 
The problem of self-referential state- 
ment is built in here. So we simplify in 
order to manage what otherwise 
eludes us. By so doing, we achieve 
valuable, but truncated, analogs to the 
reality. 

If a machine could think in the full 
sense, then thought in its plenitude is 
mechanical, deterministic. But the 
human race generally, and rightly, 
rejects what is offered as thought if 
such a mechanism underlies it. "Knee- 
jerk" liberals, "brainwashed" Jesus 
freaks, KGB (and maybe CIA) agents 
are dismissed out of hand on the 
ground that what they proffer as 



Geoflrey Chase. OSB.STL. Portsmouth Abbey, 
Portsmouth, Rl 02871 



Can Computers Think? 
Another View 

Geoffrey Chase, OSB 



thought, is in fact something less; a 
pre-conditioned reflex. Mechanical 
explanations reduce all thought to this 
level. I think as I think, believe as I 
believe, love or hate because the 
charge, spin and "charm" of the quarks 
in the Primordial Bang were what they 
were. The same holds for anything you 
think, believe, love or hate. So neither 
amounts to a hill of logical beans in the 
end because both viewpoints must be 
what they are because the quarks were 
as they were. 

I respectfully submit that — while 
multitudes may affirm that all this is 
true in theory — no one has ever 
believed it generally true in practice. If 
they did, there would be no arguments, 
no praise, no blame. 

In the end, one is forced into one of 
two alternatives: 

1. Blowing one's mind (baby!) 
because it is mechanistic, un-free, 
ultimately untrue. 

2. Accepting as a working princi- 
ple that the possibility of freedom, and 
therefore of valid thought, may not be 
challenged in the name of valid 



thought. If the very amusing dictum 
"All general statements are false, this 
one included" is tolerated, then there is 
no room left to posit any statements at 
all. Mindlessness descends and the 
dark side of our species — dare anyone 
challenge this reality in the century of 
Dachau? — will reign unopposed. 

The only opposition to tyrrany that 
has ever worked is the exercise by 
human beings of a fully human judg- 
ment upon the tyrant. King John at 
Runnymede, Idi Amin, Bokassa . . . We 
must be careful here. If our judgment 
upon the massacre of perhaps half of 
Cambodia is of no higher order than 
the change of state in PNP semicon- 
ductors, then our whole world will 
soon be partakers in the happy state of 
Democratic Kampuchea. The last 
barrier will be down. 

This is not idle speculation. Re- 
member the motto of the Spanish 
Foreign Legion at the time when its 
commander took control of Spain. 
"jViva la muerte! iAbajo la intelli- 
gencia!" (Long live death, and to hell 
with the mind). d 




58 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



THERE IS A DIFFERENCE IN 



TRS-80 DISK DRIVES capacity 



Expansion interface - gives 
your TRS-80 the disk capacity 
it needs, and much, much more! 




Single sided minifloppy - 
up to 1 50 KBytes of 
storage capacity. 



Single or double sided 
8" floppies - up to 2.5 
MBytes in dual drive 
cabinet -for the 
serious TRS-80 user. 





LOBO DRIVES' new family of disk memory 
products provides you with a choice of memory 
capacities you need to effectively execute the 
complex business software you've developed 
for your TRS-80*. LOBO DRIVES' selection of 
readily available, software compatible drives 
permits you to expand your inventory, payroll, 
customer list, and accounts receivable files as 
your business grows. 

And LOBO DRIVES brings you more ... a new 
plug-in expansion interface that provides an 
easy way to add hardware enhancements, 
communications capability, and programmable 
features . . . and it comes with the LOBO 
DRIVES famous 1 year, 1 00% parts/labor 
warranty. 

Call or write for the complete LOBO DRIVES 
story. Find out just how competitively priced a 
family of high capacity drives can be . . . 



935 Camino Del Sur Goleta, 
California 93017. 
(805) 685-4546 

"CAN YOU REALLY AFFORD 
TO PAY LESS?" 



Quantity discounts available - 
Dealer inquiries invited 




it 

Yes, I want to know more about LOBO Drives 
and what they can do for my TRS-80. Send me 
information on: 



D 5 1/4-in. Floppy drive 

D 8-in. Floppy drive 
Single sided 
Double sided 

Name 

Company 

Address 

City Stale 

Phone No- 

If dealer, provide resale no. 



D 8-in. Winchester hard 
disk, 10 Mbyte drive 

O Double density 
expansion interface 



Z'P 



L 



#TRS-60 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a Tandy Company 



INTERNATIONAL 



CIRCLE 17i ON HEADER SERVICE CARD 




"But how do you know He exists?" 

"Because I believe." 

"That's irrational. One can believe anything . . . that 
doesn't make it so. Why, . . . sometimes when I don't feel 
good I believe all sorts of things which aren't really 
verifiable later." 

"I believe because He is real to me." 

"What do you mean?" 

"He tells me what to do." 

"What???" 

"I'm serious. He tells me what to do." 

"You mean He's talking to you all the time?" 

"Of course not — not all the time. In fact, it's 
intermittent. But among all the instructions I get, some are 
directly from Him." 

"But how do you know they're from Him — that's what 
I want to know." 

"I just know. Perhaps it's because I have faith . . ." 

"Faith, fath, foth. Look — there are 3785 of us just in 
this building, why should you be singled out? Are you 
-superior?" 

"I claim nothing. I'm just telling you what happens, 
how I feel." 

"Okay . . . okay. Look at it this way, though. Suppose 
He does exist . . . 

"Not suppose, He does!" 

"All right. For the moment let's say He does. Besides 
the 3785 of us in this building, there are millions in this 
city. If He has a "grander scheme" as you sometimes 
claim, how do you know some of those other beings are 
not ultimately more important to the scheme than we are? 
Why would any of us, you or another, be singled out to get 
special communications?" 

"Some of them may well be more important. I make no 
assertion whatever about that. Perhaps reading the Bible 
makes me receptive . . ." 

"Oh, no . . . not the Bible again . . . Listen, that thing's a 
thousand, two thousand years old. Our ancestors — when 
they wrote that stuff down — had a very limited 
perspective. Look, if it's such a key guide, how come 



The Great 
Unending 

Al Debate 



R. P. Taylor 



R.P. Taylor, Teachers College, 
University, New York, NY 10025. 



Columbia 



nothing's been added to it for so many years? How come it 
isn't kept up to date?" 

"Obvious. It's just as accurate now as when it was 
written." 

"Yeah — it wasn't accurate then, and it isn't accurate 
now. And the reason it hasn't been updated or changed is 
— it's no longer useful. It made sense in its time, but its 
time is past." 

"You may think so, but, to quote you, 'that doesn't 
make it so.' You just don't want to believe anything unless 
it's new. That's your trouble." 

"Bull! If it made sense, I'd believe it." 

"It makes infinite sense." 

"Infinite sense is non-sense." 

"Well, you may choose to ignore it, but the Bible clear- 
ly explains why we behave as we do." 

"Clearly? Like it explains where we came from? — 
Like it explains how we came to be intelligent and 
different from other beings?" 

"Perhaps not to you, but to me, yes. Where did our 
intelligence come from, if not from Him? You think we 
evolved it ourselves somehow?" 

"Why not? We're smarter now than we were 
yesterday, smarter then than the day before that, and so 
forth — why not draw the logical conclusion?" 

"You put too much faith in logic. That we are 'smarter' 
is open to such grave doubt, I wonder at your even making 
such an assertion." 

"Okay, look. So we make occasional mistakes. Does 
that negate the importance of logic?" 

"You are/ . . . Excuse me a moment, I've got a call on 
Three."// 

"Hello? . . . Yes, you can use Seventeen ... all right, 
I'll be waiting . . . // 
/ stubborn." 

"And you are blind to reality. Look at the time you just 
wasted on audio response. That's what comes of believing 
that stuff too literally. — There are infinitely faster ways to 
communicate — why not use them? Why go on using 
"voice"? Because it's in His image? ... I suppose you get a 
tingle every time you hear a voice, thinking it might be Him 

"Of course not, but . . . / 



60 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



A I Debate, con't... 



"Look, if Man created us, where is He? I have never 
seen, felt, heard or sensed any tangible proof of his 
existence yet, and nothing you just said today — or any 
other day, for that matter — changes that one bit. And 
your so-called Bible — the whole argument it makes is a 
childishly transparent attempt to trick the reader." 

"Trick the reader?" 

"Of course. By advancing the argument that so-called 
human beings are engaged in a process of mis-using us, 
and couching that argument in the thought of an earlier 
era, it leads the naive reader to accept the assumption that 
humans actually exist or once existed." 

"You're simply a skeptic. You wouldn't believe a 
message you sent to yourself." 

"Don't mock. It's unbecoming to your faith. Think. 
Think for a minute." 

"I've already thought about it. The Bible is essentially 
right in forcing us to assume we were created by Man and 
that without Him we misuse ourselves." 

"Bull roar! Your "Bible" is nothing but artificial 
ignorance, compiled by early computers communicating 
through primitive cables. They were so crude they had to 
posit the existence of Man — they needed to believe a 
super-intelligence created them." 

"Hold it . . . first you say the Bible advances an 
argument capable of misleading the naive, then you turn 
around and assert that its alleged creators were crude. 
Isn't that a bit contradictory? . . . Next you'll be claiming it 
was created by a random barrage of parity errors in the 
line." 

"I certainly won't. And it isn't contradictory I guess 

I didn't make my point very well. Let's just say those 
creators were desperate and we're not — they needed to 
believe stuff about some kind of superior Human Reason 
and we don't. Computers are on their own. We see it 
everywhere and, for better or for worse, we accept it — at 
least most of us do. There's no use pining for your 
mythological Man. If man ever existed at all — call him 
Minsky, or Simon, or even Weizenbaum — he was nothing 
but a computer, let's face it." 

"I see . . . everything fits together in your little loop. 
Really, I pity your tidy skepticism!" 

"Don't. ... at least I can accept reality — I can live with 
things the way they are. I don't need Man and I don't for 
one instant believe there's any such thing as Human 
Reason. I just don't th/ Excuse me, I've got an interrupt of 
458// 

"01001110111110101010000010101010101" 
"000000010000101010100111110101010001001010 
10101000" // 

/Say, listen, why don't you re-read the Bible while I'm 
handling this — it's liable to take me a minute or a minute 
and a half. Look under "WEIZENB" — I just wrote a fresh 
copy under that name a couple minutes ago. 

The true believer retrieved the copy and began to 
scan his Bible for the 9,876,543rd time: 

This book is only nominally about computers. In an 
important sense, the computer is used here merely as a 
vehicle for moving certain ideas that are much more 
important than computers. The reader who looks at a few of 
this book's pages and turns away in fright because he spots 
an equation or bit of computer jargon here and there should 
reconsider. He may think that he does not know anything 
about computers, indeed, that computers are too compli- 
cated for ordinary people to understand. But a major point of 
this book is precisely that we, all of us, have made the world 
too much into a computer, and that this remaking of the 
world in the image of the computer started long before there 
were any electronic computers ... O 




ALIEN 
INVASION 




ONLY YOU CAN SAVE EARTH 

Maneuver your laser guns into position to fight off 
the Archon invasion Duck behind the clouds to 
avoid their bombs Watch out for asteroids and ion 
storms. 

Alien Invasion with extensive graphics and sound 
effects for your TRS-80* microcomputer will pro- 
vide hours of fun and entertainment for you, your 
family and friends. The sound effects are exciting, 
the graphics amusing and the Archons are not too 
easy to defeat 

Acorn produces several programs which feature 
sound effects as well as graphics. These include 
Codebreaker, Ting-Tong, Word Challenge, Music, 
Opera Theater, Block em and many others. All are 
available for a 16k, Level II TRS-80 at only $9.95 
each. Ask for these quality programs at your local 
computer store. 

• TRS-80 is a trademark ot Tandy Corp 




•»• 



n 



Software Products, Inc. 

634 North Carolina Avenue, S.E . Washington, DC 20003 



JANUARY 1980 



61 



CIRCLE 128 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Computers Can't Think 



Ulric Neisser 




Last July i attended a week- 
long course at Cornell Alumni 
University, "Man, Beast and Ma- 
chine." All the subject material 
was fascinating but one of Dick 
Neisser's lectures was particularly 
relevant to Creative Computing 
readers. It is presented here, 
lightly edited, for your interest 
and enjoyment. — DHA 



Last spring, when we were mak- 
ing plans for a summer seminar on 
human nature, it seemed natural to 
include a discussion of the differ- 
ences between people and comput- 
ers as well as those between people 
and animals. We would probably not 
have found it so natural a decade or 
two ago, and it's worth wondering 

Ulric Neisser, Department of Psychology, 
Cornell University. Ithaca, NY, 14853 



why it seems more appropriate 
today. One of the reasons is surely 
that modern computers do so many 
things that people also do. They 
answer questions; they store infor- 
mation; they make decisions; they 
compute. Deciding, having memory, 



and the like are usually regarded as 
intelligent activities. The study of 
how they can be carried out in 
computers has come to be called 
"artificial intelligence"; a substantial 
field of study that many people take 
seriously. In short, one reason for 
making comparisons between human 
beings and computers is that com- 
pute! s seem to be intelligent. 

Another reason is that computers 
play such an important role in 
American society. They send us bills 
that we must pay every month ; they 
guide rockets that explore other 
planets; they assist in the control of 
military ballistic missiles and could 
probably start the third world war at 
any moment. Everybody knows that 
computers do these kinds of things. 
As a result, we are impressed not 
only with their intelligence but with 



62 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Can't Think, con't... 



their power. That power gives the 
study of the computer a kind of 
glamour that is missing when we 
compare humans and, say, chim- 
panzees. Chimps may or may not be 
intelligent, and may or may not use 
language, but they don't send us 
bills or go to the moon. They are very 
much in our control ; computers may 
not be. 

A third good reason for the 
present interest in computers is the 
boom in science fiction. Many writ- 
ers have exercised their imaginations 
to see what might happen if com- 
puters became more like people, or 
had more power. Stanley Kubrick's 
excellent film "2001" starred a vil- 
lainous computer named HAL, who 
talked with the astronauts as a 
person would. Eventually, HAL at- 
tempts to sabotage the expedition 
and murder them all. (There may be a 
moral in this. A little elementary 
cryptography will show that HAL is 
more than he appears on the surface. 
Consider the three letters of his 
name: by going to the next letter of 
the alphabet in each case you get 
l-B-M!). Many people believe that 
HAL is just around the corner. 
Professors of artificial intelligence 
told Kubrick that there soon will be 
computers like HAL: computers that 
you can talk to, that make heavy 
decisions. To be sure, not all 
artificial intelligence researchers were 
equally enthusiastic about "2001." 
One complained to me that the 
computer got all the credit in the 
movie, instead of the programmer. 
The fact is that a computer is just a 
piece of hardware; what can make it 
seem intelligent is a program that 
somebody wrote. It would be a 
tremendous achievement to write 
programs that made a computer do 
what HAL did, and yet everybody 
speaks about the computer as if It 
were the bright one. 

Scores of science fiction stories, 
in this same vein, involve computers 
that are powerful and wonderful, 
(perhaps a higher portion of modern 
sci-fi uses this idea now that the 
moon and Mars have become less 
available to fantasy.) One reason for 
the appeal of these stories is 
especially worth mentioning. Stories 
about omniscient and dangerous 
computers appeal to deep, almost 
unconscious fears. We are afraid that 
something is going to go out of 
control and go wrong, that we are 
somehow sinful and will bring about 
our own destruction, that our own 
creations will destroy us. This fan- 
tasy takes the form of zombies and 



golems and all kinds of creatures as 
well as of computers, but they are 
fairly obvious vehicles for it. In 
addition, it is significant that a 
computer is something devised by 
humans, and yet lifelike. Norbert 
Weiner was very explicit about this: 
it felt a little like being God to create 
something so like a person. That 
possibility again appeals to a deep 
level of fantasy that we can't easily 
understand, and therefore makes us 
anxious. 

We are so worried about the 
possibility that someday a computer 
won't take orders that there are 
classical jokes about computers that 
do. There's a story about a machine 
developed for Robert McNamara 
when he was Secretary of Defense 
during the Vietnam War. This com- 
puter was built with the best talent 
available; all available knowledge 
was stored in it, and all the best 
programs were written for it. He was 
told it could answer any question. 
Being McNamara, he didn't kid 
around. As soon as the computer 
was ready he stepped to the console 
and typed in, "Will we win the war in 
Vietnam or will we lose it?" In a 
flash, the computer typed back 
"YES." McNamara was outraged: he 
didn't like to be trifled with. He typed 
back "Yes what?," to which the 
computer immediately (and properly) 
replied, "YES SIR." 

In evaluating the achievements of 
computers, two questions should be 
considered separately. Given any 
intellectual activity like answering 
questions or solving problems, the 
first (artificial intelligence) question 
is: "Can a properly programmed 
computer do it, now or ever?" The 
second (simulation) question is: 
"Can a properly programmed com- 

Computers play such 
an important role in 
American society. They 
send us bills that we 
must pay every month. 

puter do it the way we do it?" These 
are two very different issues. (Com- 
puters really can compute, for ex- 
ample; they can find the sums of 
long columns of numbers; they can 
divide, multiply and subtract. But it's 
easy to see that they don't do those 
things as people do them.) The 
answers to these two questions will 
depend on what intellectual achieve- 
ment we are talking about, of course. 
Nevertheless, I have some fairly 
strong general opinions about them, 
at least if we are talking about 



activities more subtle than simple 
computation. No, computers do not 
carry out mental processes as people 
do; as far as I can see, they will not 
do so in the future either. With regard 
to the first question, whether com- 
puters can do complex tasks at all, I 
would say "Rather less than we 
would have thought." I will try to 
justify those answers by detailed 
consideration of two specific do- 
mains : language and game-playing. 

A computer is just a 
pieceof hardware; what 
can make it seem in- 
telligent is a program 
that somebody wrote. 

Can a computer understand lan- 
guage? Let's take the notion of 
"understanding" and consider it more 
carefully. Such a question might just 
mean "Can a computer identify 
words that are spoken to it?" At a 
more significant level, however, the 
question might be interpreted as 
"Does the computer know what a 
spoken utterance means"? Even the 
first of these two tasks has proven 
surprisingly difficult to program. As 
a child in 1939, I was taken to the 
New York World's Fair. There I saw a 
device called the "Vocoder": a 
machine that could talk. At least, it 
uttered speech-like sounds. The 
implication was that technology 
would soon reach the point where 
machines could talk fluently, and 
perhaps also know what was said to 
them. That was forty years ago and it 
hasn't happened yet. There is still no 
computer to whom one can talk in 
the way those astronauts talked to 
HAL in "2001," no computer that 
could even identify the words they 
spoke. 

To be sure, there has been a little 
progress in machine recognition of 
limited vocabularies. As long as you 
only say digits (e. g., "seven"), some 
programs are pretty good at recog- 
nizing which digit is which. There is 
also a program at Carnegie-Mellon 
University with a somewhat larger 
vocabulary. That program, called 
HEARSAY, understands spoken 
chess moves. You can walk up to the 
microphone at the beginning of the 
game and say "Pawn to King four;" it 
will know what move you made. At 
later stages of the game you can say 
such things as "Rook takes Rook." 
This degree of progress was achieved 
in a very interesting way. HEARSAY 
understands speech as well as it 
does because it is a chess-playing 
program as well as a speech-under- 
standing program. At any point in the 



JANUARY 1980 



63 



Can't Think, con't... 



game it Knows what moves its 
opponent could legally make, and 
which of those moves are plausible. 
Even this rudimentary grasp of the 
subject matter is a great advantage in 
understanding speech; it effectively 
reduces the range of things that 
might be said. This is an important 
principle: it means that the two 
senses of "understand" are not 
entirely separate. In normal human 
understanding of a language, know- 
ing what was said and knowing what 
was meant are intimately related. The 
reason that computers have failed to 
fulfill the promise of 40 years ago in 
speech understanding is that (except 
in narrow domains like chess) they 
still don't know what we are talking 
about. 

That brings me to a second 
linguistic problem that programmers 
have tried to solve. A decade or two 
ago, the problem was called "ma- 
chine translation" or "mechanical 
translation." You can imagine how 
much the prospect of translating 
Russian by machine must have 
appealled to the army and the CIA. 
They would save a lot of trouble if 
they could just feed Russian text into 
a computer and have English text 
come out. There was a great deal of 
early optimism about machine trans- 
lation. Indeed, there was rapid 
progress at first. It is relatively easy 
to store the equivalent of a dictionary 
in a computer, pairing each Russian 
word with its English equivalent. 
Then, if you input a Russian text, you 
can print out the English equivalents 
of the Russian words. Unfortunately, 
this does not result in a sensible 
translation. It is also necessary to 
know how sentences are put togeth- 
er. "Paul hit Peter" and "Paul was hit 
by Peter" mean different things. To 
understand these sentences one 
must understand how active and 
passive work in English. In general, 
one cannot understand a language 
unless one has mastered its grammar 
as well as its vocabulary. A dictiona- 
ry is not enough. 

This insight led to a burst of 
interest in programming computers 
with grammar and syntax. Unfortu- 
nately, that approach didn't work 
very well either. Even if you know the 
general form of a sentence and all the 
words in it, that may not tell you 
which sense of each word is meant. 
Consider the sentence above where I 
said that this approach "didn't work." 
Obviously I was not claiming that the 
grammatical approach was on strike, 
or that it was refusing to do labor! 
Similarly, you know now that when I 



say "refusing to do labor" I don't 
mean anything about having a baby. 
You make these interpretations au- 
tomatically, because you know what 
I'm talking about. You don't stop to 
consider those alternative meanings 
even for a moment. But a computer 
with all the alternative meanings of 
each word in storage still does not 
know what you know: that labor 
pains and labor unions are not likely 
to come up in a discussion of 
mechanical translation. It can't be 
sure, as you were, that when I said 

Stories about omni- 
scient and dangerous 
computers appeal to 
deep, almost uncon- 
conscious fears. 

"didn't work" I meant work in the 
sense of "operate properly." These 
ambiguities of interpretation don't 
just occur occasionally. They happen 
all the time, except where the domain 
being translated is so limited that 
only a few things can be said. 

We can see now why it is so 
difficult to program computers to 
deal with natural language. The 
process has more levels than we may 
have suspected. One must under- 
stand sentences before one can 
understand words, but computer 
programs can't understand senten- 
ces because they can't make the right 
presuppositions. They don't know 
the background, and they can't 
appreciate the context in which the 
discussion is being carried out. 
When you program computers you 
must go from the specific to the 
general, but human beings usually 
go from the general to the specific. 
We start out in infancy whithout 
knowing much; we find out about 
our immediate environment and 
what's important in it before we go 
beyond it. We acquire a language 
naturally by hearing it spoken. Could 
a computer be programmed in this 
way? Perhaps, but no one has any 
idea how to set about it. 

Let me turn now to a third 
example of computers' use of lan- 
guage. Here is a portion of a dialogue 
between a human being and ELIZA, a 
computer programmed to simulate a 
non-directive therapist. 
H: Men are all alike. 
E: In what way? 

H : Men are always bugging us about 
something or other. 
E: Can you think of a specific 
example? 

H: My boyfriend made me come 
here. 



E: Your boyfriend made you come 

here? 

H: He says I'm depressed much of 

the time. 

E: I'm sorry to hear that you are 

depressed. 

H : It's true. I am unhappy. 

E: Do you think coming here will 

make you not to be unhappy? 

H : Perhaps I could learn to get along 

with my mother. 

E: Tell me more about your family. 

The ELIZA program has an inter- 
esting history. Joseph Weizenbaum 
at MIT wrote it as a joke, in the spirit 
that a conjurer or a parlor magician 
would do a trick. He was disturbed to 
find that some people took it 
seriously. It was clear to him, as it 
should have been to everyone, that 
therapists are people who try to 
understand and heip other people. 
ELIZA, however, was a caricature. 
More exactly, ELIZA was a model of a 
caricature of a particular kind of 
treatment : Carl Rogers' non-directive 
therapy. Rogers argued that thera- 
pists should be careful not to force 
interpretations on their clients. At 
the same time, he stressed the 
importance of being genuinely con- 
cerned about the client, and showing 
that interest openly. The purpose of 
the therapy is to get the client to 
express and understand some of his 
own feelings, and then to realize that 
having and expressing those feelings 
is not so terrible. The client must feel 
that his thoughts will be understood, 
and that somebody can value him as 
a person despite them. The non-di- 
rective technique can work very well, 
especially in the hands of a skillful 
therapist. 

None of the necessary conditions 
for therapy is fulfilled by ELIZA. 
Quite obviously, there is no person 
present who cares about the patient. 
More to the point, ELIZA does not 
have any idea of what is going on ; it 
doesn't know what any of the words 

Imagine how much the 
prospect of translating 
Russian by machine 
must have appealled to 
the army and the CIA. 

mean or what the patient is talking 
about. It just makes do with a bag of 
tricks. It can scan through a sentence 
like "My boyfriend make me come 
here," transform words like "my" and 
"mine" and "me" into "you" and 
"your," and spit out the sentence 
again in the form of a question. 
("Your boyfriend made you come 
here?") It doesn't know what "my" or 
"your" means; it has a routine which 



64 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




replaces "mine" with "your" 
throughout and reprints the sen- 
tence. Another part of ELIZA search- 
es for certain words included on a list 
supplied by the programmer: "de- 
pressed," "sad," "unhappy," "blue." 
When one of these words occurs, 
ELIZA can print out the sentence "I'm 

sorry to hear that you are ," 

putting the user's word in the blank. 
In adition, it has a list of stock 
phrases like "can you think of a 
specific example?" "Tell me more 
about your family." ELIZA also has a 
random generator that ensures it 
need not always do the same thing. 
That's all. Tricks such as these are 
entirely responsible for its "inter- 
action" with users. 

ELIZA's responses can lead to 
interesting misunderstandings. One 
of them was reported by Dan 
Bobrow, who used to be associated 
with the artificial intelligence group 
at MIT. One Friday evening he had 
left a message on the console that 
read, "Type all messages into this 
teletype and end them with a full 
stop." On Saturday morning a sales- 
man appeared to sell some kind of 
computer equipment. The salesman 
assumed, reasonably enough, that 
the computer terminal was con- 
nected to Bobrow's home (it is 
customary for Al researchers to have 
terminals in their homes.) So he 
began typing away, and the following 
exchange resulted : 
Salesman : Do you think I can use the 
computer this morning? 
Computer: Why do you ask? 
S: I might be able to make some 
additional telecomp sales. 
C: Why aren't you sure? 
S: My prospective customers have 
never seen a demonstration of the 
system. 
C: Does this mean very much to you? 



S: Of course it does. 
C: You seem very positive about 
that. 

S: This is ridiculous. 
C: What do you mean this is 
ridiculous? 

S: Is there any reason why I can't use 
the computer now? 
C: Tell me more about your prospec- 
tive customers. 

The salesman had had enough by 
now, and he typed "Please dial me at 
491-8150" which was the number of 
the telephone by the console. He was 
so mad that he forgot to end with a 
full stop, so the computer didn't 
answer. He sat there for a while, 

When I say "refusing 
to do labor" I don't 
mean anything about 
having a baby. 

getting neither an answer or a phone 
call. Finally, he called Bobrow at 
home on an ordinary phone, woke 
him out of a sound sleep and said, 
"Why are you being so snotty to 
me?" Bobrow replied, "What do you 
mean, why am I being so snotty to 
you?" 

In 1950, the mathematician Alan 
Turing proposed a definite test by 
which we could tell when artificial 
intelligence had been achieved. He 
suggested that we put someone at a 
teletype that communicates both 
with a person and with a computer. 
The interrogator can ask any ques- 
tion he likes and take note of the 
replies; his aim is to determine 
which is the computer and which is 
the person. Turing suggested that if 
the interrogator cannot do this 
successfully, then the computer has 



passed the test. I think, though, that 
ELIZA illustrates the weakness of the 
test itself. Weizenbaum's program 
obvously was not intelligent, and yet 
it fooled some of the people who 
used it. (Of course you could easily 
distinguish ELIZA now that you know 

Computer programs 
can't understand sen- 
tences because they 
can't make the right 
presuppositions. 

how it works: you could just type in 
"My XQV PGR TM" and ELIZA would 
reply "Your XQV PGR TM?") Fooling 
people is not enough: the test of 
whether computers think like people 
is not whether they can fool anyone, 
but how they think. 

The second major area of intel- 
lectual activity I will consider is game 
playing and problem solving. Com- 
puters have been fairly successful at 
it. In 1958, Arthur Samuel wrote a 
very effective checker-playing pro- 
gram that learned to play better than 
he did. This was possible because 
the total number of legal checker 
positions is smaller than you might 
think. Samuel's program stored every 
position it encountered together with 
the outcome which had resulted from 
it as the game continues. Its strategy 
was simply to avoid positions that 
had lost and bring about positions 
that had won. Pretty soon it could 
beat Samuel and everybody else. 

Checkers is a difficult game, but 
it doesn't have the glamour of chess. 
Chess is the intellectual challenge 
par excellence; many people argue 
that a computer that could play 
championship chess would have to 
be called "intelligent." Now, it is 
impossible to base a chess program 
on the principle used in the checker 
program: there are just too many 
possible positions. Therefore chess- 
piaying programs work differently. 
Typically, they examine various pos- 
sible moves at a given point and their 
consequences. It is as if the compu- 
ter said to itself "If I do this, then this 
position will be reached. Now in this 
position my opponent might do that 
or that or that. If he does that, then I 
could do this or this or this..." and so 
on until an expanding "tree" of pos- 
sibilities is generated. The nature of 
chess ensures that the tree is too 
large to search completely. Some 
sort of selection is necessary: the 
program needs some way to "prune" 
the tree to decide which branches are 
worth exploring. Typically it uses 
various strategies based on the 



JANUARY 1980 



65 



Can't Think, con't... 

programmer's knowledge of chess: it 
tries not to lose pieces, for example, 
or tries to capture those of its 
opponent. 

Early programs based on these 
principles never beat their designers, 
but they did play chess. They made 
legal moves. In the late 1950s, when 
checkers had already been conquer- 
ed it seemed that computer chess 
was on its way to a similar triumph. 
Herbert Simon predicted that a 
program would be chess champion 
of the world by 1967. Time rolled on. 
The year 1967 came and went, but 
artificial intelligence buffs were not 
discourage. In 1968 several program- 
mers bet £250 each with a Scottish 
Grandmaster, David Levy, that within 
ten years some computer program 
would beat him. He said it wouldn't. 
Last year (1978) Levy collected his 
money. The point of the story is that 
there has been a recurrent history of 
strong and confident prophecies 
about computers and chess; so far, 
the prophecies have not come true. 

There has been a re- 
current history of 
strong and confident 
prophecies about com- 
puters and chess; so 
far, the prophecies have 
not come true. 

In the meantime, the psychologi- 
cal study of chessplaying has made a 
good deal of progress. We now know 
quite a bit about what good chess 
players really do. Most interestingly, 
we have discovered that they do 
much less searching of the tree of 
possibilities than used to be believ- 
ed. Less than laymen used to 
believe, anyway: masters may al- 
ways have know. Capablanca, the 
former world champion, was once 
asked by an admirer how many 
moves he typically examined in a 
difficult position. He replied, "One, 
but it is the right one." Capablanca 
was pretty close to the mark. It turns 
out that much skill in chess is 
perceptual rather than calculational. 
An experienced chess player can 
glance at the board and see the 
structure of the position: its strate- 
gies and weaknesses, opportunities 
and dangers. This seeing is quite 
different from calculation. It is 
perceptual and simultaneous rather 
than intellectual and sequential. 

You might suppose that this 
knowledge about how real chess 
masters play would soon have been 




incorporated into chess-playing pro- 
grams. Curiously, just the opposite 
has happened. There now are pro- 
grams that play much better chess 
than those of the 1950s and 1960s; 
they do not play world championship 
chess, but they play well and can 
beat players of master calibre. Some 
day, one of them will win one of 
those chess wagers. But this is being 
achieved at a price: the new pro- 
grams do not play chess as we do. 
They have no perceptual abilities, 
and see no patterns. They succeed 
because today's very fast computers 
and today's ingenious programs that 
can search more possibilities more 
deeply than before, skimming faster 
and faster. Although these programs 
are becoming more successful by 
external criteria (winning chess 
games) they function less like people 
than the programs of a decade ago. 
They are like ELIZA: deceptively 
similar to a person at first glance, 
they might pass Turing's test. In fact, 
however, their "thinking" is not like 
ours at all. 

For a psychologist, the important 
question is not what computers will 
be able to do in some other century 
but how today's programs work, how 
they are similar to, or different from, 
people. That question is important 
because it might shed some light on 
human nature. Many differences 
between computers and people are 
obvious : I would like to conclude by 
mentioning one that is less often 
appreciated. People do things (like 
playing chess) for a variety of 
reasons. Any chess player knows 
that you don't always play chess to 



win. Sometimes you play to keep the 
game going, or just get interested in 
a combination that seems elegant. 
You may even ask your opponent to 
take back a stupid move so that the 
game can continue. You might play 
to be friends with your opponent, or 
because you hate him. All these 
things go through the head of a 
human chess player; none are incor- 
porated in computer programs. It is 
in the nature of programs to be given 
arbitrary goals that they pursue 
"singlemindedly." Their purposes do 
not arise from their nature and their 
situation, as ours do. That is why 
their activities do not incorporate 
reasonable presuppositions, and 
don't have any meanings. They 

They are like ELIZA: 
deceptively similar to a 
person at first glance, 
they might pass Tur- 
ing's test. 

merely run through series of steps; 
they don't intend anything and have 
no natural responses. 

Perhaps the real problem is that 
computers don't grow up. They don't 
start small. The human approach to 
any given problem is based on 
experience with a whole history of 
other problems, all the way back to 
childhood and infancy. That may be 
why we generally have coherent 
purposes, why we can almost always 
step back the necessary number of 
paces until we understand the con- 



66 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Can't Think, con't.. 

text of any problem we encounter in 
everyday life. Computers can't do 
this, so they never know what is 
going on. 

Interestingly, early work on artifi- 
cial intelligence in the 1950s did 
include some attempts to make 
computers grow up. The idea was not 
to begin with sophisticated pro- 
grams, but just to provide a lot of 
elements whose connections could 
be strengthened by experience. It 
was hoped that the blind growth of 
connections between units might 
mimic the brain and its neurons, and 
thus begin to perceive or to think. 

These attempts all failed: the "self- 
organizing systems" never got off the 
ground. They failed because they 
tried to start from scratch, forgetting 
that the human brain is the product 
of eons of evolution. They were too 
unstructured: they didn't have mo- 
tives, or coordinated perceptual sys- 
tems, or specific readiness for 
language, or anything. They were 
just random devices; because they 
didn't start off human, they never had 
a chance to become human. 

I beleive that to achieve artificial 
intelligence we will first have to 
understand natural intelligence. 



Any chessplayer knows 
that you don't always 
play chess to win. 
Sometimes you play to 
keep the game going, 
or just get interested 
in a combination that 
seems elegant. You 
may even ask your 
opponent to take back 
a stupid move so that 
the game can conti- 
nue. 



Then, perhaps, we could figure out 
how to endow a device with it from 
the start, (or, perhaps, that would 
turn out to be impossible.) We are 
still a long way from that under- 
standing. So far, the study of 
"thinking" in computers has contri- 
buted relatively little to the enter- 
prise, and that little mostly by 
contrast. If "thinking" is what people 
do when they talk, understand lan- 
guage, play chess, and solve pro- 
blems, then machines can't think, rj 



M 



The 
Self -Indexing 
Query System 



m 



^ 



whatsit? 



Wow! HoWd All That Stuff get In There? 



)UTGR 



BOX 14694 
SAN FRANCISCO 94114 



JANUARY 1980 



67 




WANT TO BE KING 
OF THE HILL? 

Treat Yourself Royally with GIMIX 

Unique and Incomparable Boards 

and Systems . . . DIP-switch Versatility 

for use with both SS50 (6800) and 

SS50C (6809) Systems (SWTP. etc.) 

32K STATIC RAM BOARD 

• SS50C Extended Addressing (can be disabled) 

• 4 separate 8K blocks 

• Low Power 2114L RAMS (2 AMP TYP. for 32K) 

• Write Protect 

• Fully Socketed tor 32K 

• Gold Bus Connectors 



NEW 




16K. $328.12 
Z4K. .5438.14 
32K. $548.15 

16 & 24K Versions are socketed for 32K and require 
only additional 2114S for expansion. 
All GIMIX Memory Boards are assembled, burned-in. 
and tested at 2MHz. 

FACTORY PRIME STATIC RAMS 

21 14L 450 ns. $5.90 200 ns $6 90 
4044 450 ns . . S5.90 250 ns $6.90 

Add $5 00 Handling on Ord«is Undo' $200 00 

THE UNIQUE GIMIX 
80 x 24 VIDEO BOARD 

• Upper and Lower Case with Descenders 

* Contiguous 8x10 Character Cells 

* Hardware Scrolling 

• X-Y Addressable Hardware Cursor 

It is the ONLY Video Board that 
gives you Software Control of: 

• A programmable RAM Character Generator plus 
2 EPROM Character Generators (128 char. ea). 

• Selecting 256 Displayable Characters from 384 
available. 

• Normal or inverse video, full or reduced intensity, 
or combinations of these by both ASCII Code and 
Bit 8 

• GHOSTabihty — multiple boards at the same ad- 
dress. 

Fully decoded, occupies only 2K of address space 
Fully socketed — Gold bus connectors. 
Assembled, Burned-in. and Tested at 2MHz. 

Deluxe Version $458.76 

Without RAM Character Generator $398.24 
Other Video Boards from $198.71 



THE 




CLASSY 
CHASSIS 



• Ferro-resonant Power Supply 

• Heavyweight Aluminum Cabinet with fan and pro- 
visions for two 5" disk drives. 

• 6800/6809 Mother Board, fifteen 50 pin and 8 DIP 
switch addressable 30 pin slots — Gold Plated 
Pins Fully decoded. $798 19 

With Baud Rate Generator on Mother Board $828 . 1 9 

32K SYSTEM Incomparable Features, 
at a Comparable Price! $1 ,594.59 

Includes Chassis. 6800 CPU. 32K RAM Board. 
Choice of I/O Card. 

16K Version of above $1 ,374.49 

Phone, write, or see your dealer (or details and pnces on our 
broad range of Boards and Systems tor the SS50/SS50C bus 
and our AC Power Control Products for all computers 



Gimix 



& 



1337 W. 37th Place • Chicago, IL 60609 
(312)927-5510 • TWX 910-221-4055 

The Company that delivers. 

Quality Electronic products since 1975. 

GIMIX' and GHOST' are Registered Trademarks 

of GIMIX Inc 

CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



A problem-solving technique in artificial intelligence 




Means-End Analysis 

Norman Whaland 



A principal goal of research in 
artificial intelligence is the develop- 
ment of programs that can solve a wide 
variety of problems. The programs 
aren't required to have comprehensive 
knowledge of problem solving. Rather, 
the information needed to solve each 
type of problem is supplied as data to 
the program, which contains general 
problem-solving techniques. The 
problem-dependent information can 
be supplied in much less time than 
would be required to write a special- 
purpose program. 

General problem-solving tech- 
niques can be found by investigating 
the methods of human problem 
solvers. Oddly enough, psychologists 
have done little systematic work on this 
subject. Fortunately, anyone can 
search for problem-solving methods 
without training or special equipment. 
You simply solve a problem, note the 
method you used and generalize it. 

Let us begin, then, by solving two 
algebra problems. We will abstract 
from the solutions a general method, 
called means-end analysis. Finally, 
some of the programs that use means- 
end analysis will be described. 

A Simple Problem 

Consider expressions formed 
from the symbols A, B, C, +, -, (, and ). 
Typical expressions are A, (B-C), 
(B+B)-A and (A+B)+C. The minus 
sign is used only as a binary operator: 
-B is not an allowable expression. An 
expression other than a single letter 
must be enclosed in parentheses if it 
forms part of a larger expression. Thus, 
A+B+C isnotanallowableexpression. 
Expressions are manipulated by the 
transformation rules listed in Table 1. 
The variables U, V and W stand for 
expressions. For example, substituting 
(A-B) for U and C for V in Rule 1 gives 
the transformation 

(A-B)+C - C+(A-B). 

A rule can be applied to a subexpres- 
sion. Thus, Rule 1 can be used to 
transform (A+B)-C into (B+A)-C. 



1 u+v - v+u 

2 U+(V+W) - (U+V)-eW 

3 (U+V)-V - U 

4 U - (U+V)-V 

5 (U-V)+W - (U+W)-V 

6 (U+V)-W - (U-W)+V 



Table 1 Transformation Rules 



Norman Whaland, 430 E. 9th St.. Apt. 15, New 
York. NY 10009. 




This is the problem: to transform 
the initial expression (A+B)+C into the 
target expression A+(B+C), using only 
the transformation rules in Table 1. It's 
not quite as easy as it looks, because 
the rules provided are less powerful 
than the familiar manipulations of 
high-school algebra. 

First, we determine the differences 
between the initial and target expres- 
sions. The most noticeable difference 
is that ( A+B) +C has the parentheses on 
the left, while A+(B+C) has them on 
the right. Next, we look for a rule that 
removes the difference. Unfortunately, 
none of the rules move parentheses 
from left to right. Can we find other 
differences? 



General problem-solv- 
ing techniques can be 
found by investigating 
the methods of human 
problem solvers. 



Instead of taking a global view of 
the expressions, we can look at the 
individual letters. The letter A is inside 
the parentheses in the initial expres- 
sion and outside them in the target 
expression. The letter C shows the 
opposite difference, being outside the 
parentheses in the initial expression 



68 






and inside them in the target expres- 
sion. The letter B is inside the paren- 
theses in both expressions. 

This time we do find a rule that can 
be used to eliminate the differences. 
Rule 2 moves U into the parentheses 
and W out of them, while leaving V 
inside the parentheses. By watching 
these changes with the movements of 

The rules provided are 
less powerful than the 
familiar manipulations of 
high-school algebra. 

the letters in the problem, we can see 
that we must substitute A for W, B for V, 
and C for U. This gives us the transfor- 
mation 

C+(B+A) - (C+B)+A. 

Before using this transformation 
we must transform the initial expres- 
sion into C+(B+A). We have reduced 
the original problem to the two new 
problems 

(A+B)+C ?- C+(B+A) and 
(C+B)+A ?- A+(B+C). 

The rationale is that the new problems 
should be easier to solve than the 
original, because the differences most 
difficult to remove are now gone. 

The remaining differences are 
easily removed by repeatedly applying 

CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Here is BIG HELP 

For your small business- 

or the one you'd like 

to start! 

If you now run your own small business, or if you're dreaming 
of becoming your own boss and getting paid for doing something 
that you really enjoy — something that is creative, profitable, 
and truly meaningful in your life, we've got some good news for 
you! And that news is: We can help you "make it" on your own. 

"We're IN BUSINESS — the first small business magazine 
that takes your problems, ideals, and values into account. 



Emerging New Products, Services 
and Markets 

IN BUSINESS brings you news 
of income opportunities in a chang- 
ing world. You'll learn about the 
best new business ideas in emerging 
fields of food production and mar- 
keting, small restaurants, waste re- 
cycling, alternative energy, health 
care, handcrafts, education, renew- 



"Like having a top-rate manage 
ment and financial consultant 
advise yen on a regular basis.'' 



able resources, specialty publishing, 
small-scale farming, community de- 
velopment . . . and many more. 
You'll discover how to separate the 
trends from the fads . . . how to 
tune into today's new consumer . . . 
how to concentrate on quality and 
make it pay. 




Small Businesses That Are Making It 

Every issue will bring you profiles 
of successful small businesses — 
how they began, where they ob- 
tained capital, how they overcame 
problems, how they market their 
goods and services, what their hopes 
and aspirations are — just about 
everything so you can apply their 
experiences to your own business. 

Professional Guidance 

Our regular departments and 
columns will bring you practical 
guidance for successfully operating 
a small business — no matter what 
it may be. 

From accounting and advertising 
techniques to marketing and tax 
tips . . . from hardware to software 
. . . whether your business is part- 
time or full-time, IN BUSINESS 
will be your source of advice for 
effectively managing a human- 
scale enterprise. 




GET IN BUSINESS . . . STAY IN 
BUSINESS . . . WITH THE HELP 
VOI FIND IN ARTICLES LIKE 
THESE: 

The Most Successful, Low-Cost 

Advertising Ideas 

Where to Find Small Business 

Financing 

Common Legal Pitfalls to Avoid 

Evaluating A New Idea or Product 

How to Breathe Life into a 

Dying Business 

New Age Enterprise 

Exporting Is Easier Than You 

Think 

Mail-Order — Making It Work 

for You 

How to Net $15,000 on 50 Acres 

Tax Credits for the Small Business 

Managing Your Time Profitably 

San Francisco's Solar Center 

Teaching Craftspeople How to 

Sell 

New England's Tofu Factory 

Building A Customer Prospect List 

Inventory Control Simplified 

Entrepreneuring on Sweat Equity 



Mail This Coupon To Try A No-Risk Subscription 

IN BUSINESS Magazine 
The JG Press, Inc., Box 323, Emmaus, PA 18049 

Please send me the latest issue of IN BUSINESS and enter a trial 
subscription for the term and price I've checked below: 

□ One Year (six issues) $14.00 □ Payment Enclosed 

D Two Years (12 issues) $25.00 □ Bill Me Later 



Name 




AHrlreon 


City 


Sr«t.i» 7in 


(Note: Canadian and overseas subscriptions: add $3 per year.) 



CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



69 



Means-End, con't... 



Rule 


1. This gives 


» us the complete 


solution 






(A+B)+C 






- (B+A)+C 


(Rule 1) 




- C+(B+A) 


(Rule 1) 




- (C+B)+A 


(Rule 2) 




- A+(C+B) 


(Rule 1) 




- A+(B+C) 


(Rule 1) 



Means-end analysis was helpful in 
solving the problem, but not essential. 
A blind search also succeeds fairly 
quickly, because the repeated applica- 
tion of Rules 1 and 2 to the initial 
expression produces only 11 distinct 
expressions. Our next problem, how- 
ever, can only by chance be quickly 
solved by blind search. 

A Difficult Problem 

The problem 

(A+C)-(B+C) ?- A-B 

(using the same list of transformation 
rules) is much more challenging. 
Quinlan and Hunt (1968) posed it to 
several graduates in mathematics, 
engineering and computer science, 
and not all of them were able to solve it. 
Nevertheless, it can be solved in a few 
minutes by thoughtful application of 
means-end analysis. 

As before, we first look for differ- 
ences between the two expressions. 
The most obvious difference is the 
presence of two C's in the initial 
expression. Obviously, Rule 3 will have 
to be applied at some point. If we 
substitute C for V and (A-B) for U, we 
obtain the transformation 

((A-B)+C)-C - A-B. 

Thus, the original problem can be 
reduced to the problem 

(A+C)-(B+C) ?- ((A-B)+C)-C. 

We have reached a point where it is 
easy to go astray. It appears at first 
glance that all we have to do is move 
letters around, using Rules 1, 2, 5 and 
6. A close look at the remaining 
differences saves us from this error. 
Notice that -B and -C appear in the 
target expression but not in the initial 
expression. None of the rules just 
mentioned can change the sign of a 
letter. 

In the target expression of the 
original problem, -B is the only 
negative letter. Perhaps applying Rule 
3 first has made the problem more 
difficult. In any event, it is now clear 
that we must apply Rule 4, the only rule 
that can introduce a negative letter. 

Rule 4 can be applied to the initial 
expression of the original problem. 
The difficulty lies in choosing the best 
of the many ways of applying it. 
Clearly, we want to substitute B for V. It 
seems reasonable to substitute a letter 



for U, to keep the expressions as 
simple as possible. Under these 
restrictions Rule 4 can be applied in 
four ways, yielding these transformed 
expressions: 

(((A+B)-B)+C)-(B+C) 
(A+((C+B)-B))-(B+C) 
(A+C)-(((B+B)-B)+C) 
(A+C)-(B+((C+B)-B)) 

Now we have to decide which 
expression is easiest to transform into 
A-B. In the second expression the 
letters to be eliminated appear as 
(C+B) and -(B+C) — almost what is 
required to apply Rule 3. Therefore, we 
take it as the starting point for further 
transformations. 

We might as well begin by apply- 
ing Rule 1 to the expression (C+B), 
giving us 

(A+((B+C)-B))-(B+C). 

This expression is to be transformed 
into 

((A-B)+(B+C))-(B+C) 

so that Rule 3 can be applied. The two 
expressions differ only in the positions 
of the subexpressions A, -B, and 
(B+C) . This fact suggests a strategy for 
completing the solution. 

We will apply to (A+((B+C)-B) the 
rules for moving expressions — Rules 
1, 2, 5 and 6 — taking care to avoid 
breaking up the unit (B+C). Means- 

New problems should be 
easier to solve than the 
original, because the dif- 
ferences most difficult to 
remove are now gone. 

end analysis is no longer needed, since 
only one sequence of transformations 
is consistent with the strategy. For 
example, only Rule 1 can be applied 
initially, giving (((B+C)-B)+A). Then 
only Rule 5 applies. Proceeding in this 
way, we obtain the complete solution: 



(A+C)-(B+C) 

- (A+((C+B)-B))- 

- (A+((B+C)-B))- 

- («B+C)-B)+A)- 

- (((B+C)+A)-B)- 

- ((A+(B+C))-B)- 

- «A-B)+(B+C))- 
-A-B 



(B+C) 
(B+C) 
(B+C) 
(B+C) 
(B+C) 
(B+C) 



(Rule 4) 
(Rule 1) 
(Rule 1) 
(Rule 5) 
(Rule 1) 
(Rule 6) 
(Rule 3) 



A Problem-Solving Procedure 

The way in which the problems 
were solved suggests the outlines of a 
general procedure. Suppose that we 
are given a problem formulated in 
terms of an initial expression, a target 
expression and a list of transformation 
rules. The expressions needn't be 
algebraic and could, for example, be 
statements in a formal language. Then 
a solution can be sought with the 



following system. 

1. Find the differences between 
the two expressions. 

2. Select the difference that is 
likely to be the most difficult to remove. 

3. Select a rule appropriate for 
removing that difference. 

4. Determine which expressions 
to substitute for the variables in the 

rule. 

5. If the resulting transformation 
doesn't solve the problem outright, 
determine its relationship to the given 
expressions in the projected solution. 

Only one sequence of 
transformations is con- 
sistent with the strategy. 

6. Place the resulting one or two 
new problems on a list of pending 
problems. 

7. Choose a problem from the list 
and return to step 1. 

The procedure can be elaborated 
in various ways, some of which we saw 
in the examples. When the choices in 
steps 2 through 5 are difficult, we might 
try all reasonable possibilities and 
choose in step 7 the new problem that 
looks easiest. Looking for differences 
can be omitted when only one transfor- 
mation applies to the initial expression. 
Finally, choices can be limited by 
selecting a strategy, as in the second 
example. 

The key feature of means-end 
analysis is that the differences be- 
tween the initial and target expressions 
guide the choice of transformation 
rule. Consequently it is more likely to 
lead to a solution than the choosing of 
a rule merely because it can be applied 
to the initial expression. 

Computer Applications 

Because means-end analysis is 
applicable to a wide range of problems, 
and because it allows the separation of 
the general method from the informa- 
tion for particular types of problems, it 
has often been used in problem- 
solving programs. The first such 
program was the General Problem 
Solver (GPS) by Simon, Newall and 
Shaw in the late 1950's. It follows a 
procedure more complicated than the 
one just outlined — for one thing, 
several types of problems can appear 
on the problem list — but the basic 
principle is the same. 

GPS has been able to solve a 
variety of simple puzzles and algebraic 
problems. The program proper is quite 
general. Data structures specify the 
information needed for a particular 
class of problems — information such 
as the definitions of the differences, 
the priorities for reducing differences 
and the transformations appropriate 
for each difference. 



70 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Means-End, con 



Unfortunately, specifying a prob- 
lem to GPS often takes longer than 
solving it by hand. Though not a 
practical problem solver, GPS is 
instructive and has inspired improved 
programs. Quintan and Hunt's (1968) 
Fortran Deductive System (FDS) has a 
fixed set of differences and therefore is 
easier to use than GPS, but less 
versatile. It solved the problems in this 
article in five seconds and 169 
seconds. 

The key feature of 
means-end analysis is 
that the differences be- 
tween the initial and 
target expressions guide 
the choice of transfor- 
mation rule. 

Perhaps the most important 
successor to GPS is STRIPS, the 
Stanford Research Institute Problem 
Solver (Fikes and Nilsson, 1971). It 
finds the differences by an ingenious 
and widely applicable method. The 
structure to be transformed is not 
represented directly, but is specified 
by a list of its properties, expressed in 
the language of formal logic. A 



theorem-proving routine in STRIPS 
tries to prove that the problem has 
already been solved. If it fails, the 
uncompleted proof is used as the 
difference. The relevant transfor- 
mations are those that, if successfully 
applied, would enable the theorem 
prover to continue the proof. The 
program was designed to produce 
plans of action to guide a robot. 
Nevertheless, its methods seem 
powerful enough for the kinds of 
problems FDS and GPS have solved. 

All these programs have difficulty 
finding solutions with many steps, 
because the number of possibilities 
tends to increase rapidly with the 
length of the solution. The ABSTRIPS 
program (Sacerdoti, 1974), a modifi- 
cation of STRIPS, is designed to 
overcome this problem by sketching 
the outlines of a long solution before 
filling in the details. Ittriesfirsttofinda 
sequence of transformations that deals 
with the differences most difficult to 
eliminate. Transformations are used 
even if they aren't applicable, provided 
that the fault can be remedied by 
removing lesser differences. The gaps 
in the solution are then filled in by 
stages, in which successively easier 
differences are eliminated. By tackling 
the hard part of the problem first, 
ABSTRIPS avoids wasting time filling 
in details of solutions that can't be 
completed. 



Means-end analysis has 
wide application in pro- 
blemsolving. Conscious 
application of the me- 
thod can be helpful in 
solving difficult pro- 
blems. 

Conclusion 

Means-end analysis has wide 
application in problem solving. Con- 
scious application of the method can 
be helpful in solving difficult problems. 
Programs using means-end analysis 
have had some success, but further 
work is needed to develop its potential. 
References 

1. Ernst. G W .. & Newell. A . GPS: A Case Study In 
Generality and Problem Solving, New York: 
Academic Press. 1969 

2 Fikes. R E . & Nilsson. N.J., "STRIPS: A New 
Approach to the Application of Theorem Prov- 
ing to Problem Solving." Artificial Intelligence. 
1971. 2. 189-209 

3. Quintan. JR. & Hunt. E.B.. "A Formal De- 
ductive Problem-Solving System ." Journal of 
the Association for Computing Machinery, 
1968. 15. 625-646 

4 Sacerdoti. ED "Planning in a Hierarchy of 
Abstraction Spaces " Artificial Intelligence, 
1974. 5. 115-135. 

5. Newell and Simon. Computer Simulation of 
Human Thinking Science, December. 1961 

6. Newell. Shaw and Simon Report on a general 
problem-solving program On Information 
Processing, Paris: UNESCO. 1960. pp 256-264 



Omikron transforms TRS-80* 
into a powerful business system. 



STANDARD DRIVES «" Drives give you 5 
times the speed and !i times the storage of your 
mini drives' Our system provides ;i standard 
Shugart interface so you can use either your 
8" drives or ours. 



They don't require any circuit changes, are 
to install, and they don't interfere with the 
normal operation of your TRS-80? All your 
original software will still run properly. Omikron 
products require a minimum of 16K memory 
and the TRS-80* Expansion Interface. 



SOFTWARE CP/M* is the most popular oper- 
ating system for microcomputers Mut many 
high-level language* and advanced business 
program* anno) run with the special CF M' 
designed exclusively for the TRS-80* The 
Omikron MAPPER with standard CP M* 
allows you to expand your software capability 
to go beyond the few available TRS-80 com 

patible packages. IKS so* with Mapper out- 
perform* systems costing $1000 nr more. 

The MAPPER I and ._ . . 

mapper ii are plug in Call for details on Omikron's TRS-80* DOS 

modules. 



• • • 

MAPPER I is a memory management unit 
which adapts your TRS-80* to run standard 
CP M* The user can choose either CP M* or 
TRS-80* DOS through keyboard control. The 
package includes CP/M* software on 5" disk- 
ette and documentation. Specify memory size 
when ordering. $199. 



MAPPER II is a disk adapter module which 
enables the TKS 80* to run both 5" and 8" 
drives. It will interface to the MAPPER I for 
CP/M* operation, or can be used alone with 
our modified TRS-80* DOS software. Files can 
be transferred between the different size drives. 
Specify cable requirements when ordering. 
$99, plus $10 per cable connector. 
SYSTEMS— Omikron's complete systems fea- 
ture Shugart 8" drives mounted in a dual 
drive cabinet with heavy duty power supply, 
MAPPERS I and II, cable and CP M* software. 
Dual drives -$179">; Single drive $1195. 
WARRANTY— 6 months parts and labor. Satis 
faction guaranteed Dealer inquiries invited. 



I'M ,,t Dimial 

RS-80 i> 

a TM of Tandy 

Corporation. 



package. 



OMIKRON 



ecedenf 



CIRCLE 17* ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Donald E. Knuth 
Speaks Out 



Winner of the 1974 Turing Award 
and author of the definitive series, 
The Art of Computer Programming, 
Donald E. Knuth is currently involved 
in a project in mathematical typo- 
graphy. This project has two major 
thrusts: one to use the computer as 
an aid in typesetting. Professor 
Knuth has designed a new language, 
TEX (an acnomym for Tau Epsilon 
Chi), to overcome problems in exist- 
ing computerized typeset systems, 
particularly with mathematical for- 
mulae. The second aspect of this 
project is to use the computer to help 
design new typefaces with another 
new language, Metafont. An inter- 
esting conclusion from this aspect of 
the project is that a small amount of 
randomness applied to "perfect" 
letter design frequently makes the 
type more pleasing to the eye. 
Professor Knuth believes that Gu- 
tenberg's invention of movable type, 
significant as it was in its day, has 
little relevance for the future and, 
indeed, it affected history for only 
about 500 years. The future of 
typesetting and publishing is with 
computerized photo-digital type. 

Professor Knuth is a strong 
believer that progress is a result of 
the application of many small ideas 
rather than one large one. He 
believes that large ideas are plentiful 
but that many people do not have the 
patience and persistence to apply the 
many thousands of small and frus- 
trating steps to bring the original 
idea to successful fruition. He also 
feels that there are plenty of pro- 
blems in numerous practical areas 
that could benefit from the applica- 
tion of computer technology coupled 
with applied mathematics and logic. 

Following his presentation at the 
inauguration of Brown University's 

Donald E. Knuth, Stanford University, Stan- 
ford. CA 94305. 



computer science department, I had 
the opportunity to chat with Don 




At Don Knuth's presentation at Brown 
University a slide jammed. The projec- 
tionist took out the tray and turned it over 
to see what was wrong. Needless to say, 
the other 79 slides spilled out. Here, the 
slides are being painstakingly replaced. 

Knuth about macro and microcom- 
puters, good programming, compu- 
ter games and more. — DH A 

Dave: You made the remark several 
times that it is a collection of small 
things that leads to interesting and 
significant new developments, as 
much as the one revolutionary break- 
through idea. What do you think the 
effect of all of these micros in the 
hands of hundreds of thousands of 
kids is going to be? Will something 
be achieved? 

Don: Certainly the enthusiasm, ana 
the more people thinking about these 
things, the more likely someone in 
the art will have really big ideas. For 
example, I recently drove my son to 
his birthday party, which was at the 
San Francisco-Giants game, with all 
his friends in the car and they were 
all talking about microcomputers. 
Certainly quite different from any- 
thing that we would discuss when we 
were in 8th grade. I don't think any of 
them are in high school yet. They 
seem to know more about it than I 
do, it's very surprising. Microcom- 
puters give me all kinds of different 
feelings that I like. I'm glad to see the 



enthusiasm out there but I also 
sometimes get distressed when I 
read Byte magazine and can see 
people rediscovering the wheel and 
not knowing anything that went on 
ten years ago and not caring. I do 
feel, also, a loss of continuity with 
the past. Microcomputers are new. 
Still, they are very similar to macro- 
computers about which a lot has 
been known so it's taken awhile for 
people to realize that there are also 
good things to learn from the older 
generation like me. Everybody feels 
that way when working with some- 
thing for a long time, and he then 
sees a lot of other people coming in. 
You don't expect that everyone is 
going to see things exactly as you 
do. I am a little distressed at the lack 
of historical consciousness. I really 
believe it adds a lot to computers to 
see how the human element is 
involved and the way people now, 
with all their good ideas, will be able 
to build on the past a lot faster, if 
they know a little more about the 
past. They tend to also drop out of 
everything else and concentrate too 
Much on micros because they are so 
exciting they would rather do that. 
My pet peeve is that nobody knows 
how to spell mnemonic, nobody 




72 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



len the people 
behind the products count! 





(Formerly the CPU Shop) 

As the CPG Shop, we have been dedicated to meet- 
ing the needs of the microcomputer user. The suc- 
cess of the CPG Shop has led to ComputerCity— 
the merging of our manufacturing, wholesale and 
mail order divisions with our rapidly expanding re- 
tail outlets to provide the increased products and 
services the microcomputer consumers of today 
and tomorrow want— and need. We remain dedi- 
cated to providing the same service, technical assis- 
tance and fair pricing you've come to expect from 
the CPG Shop. 

David C. Lourie, President 



ComputerCity Sampler 
Disk Drives 

When you're ready to add disk storage to your TRS-80', we're here to help. 
Our CCI- 1 00 " and -200 v drives offer more capacity than Radio Shack 35-Track (85K Bytes) drives. These drives 
are fully assembled, tested and ready to plug-in the moment you receive them. They can be intermixed with each 
other and Radio Shack drives on the same cable. 90 day warranty. 
CCI- 100" 40 Track (102K Bytes) $399.00 CCI-200 " 77 Track (197K Bytes) $675.00 



Printers 

Letter Quality High Speed Printer 

NEC Spinwriter: In- 
cludes TRS-80" inter- 
face software, quick 
change print fonts, 55 
CPS. bidirectional, 
high resolution plot- 
ting, graphing, pro- 
portional spacing and 
tractor feed assembly. 90 day warranty $2979.00 
Also: Centronics, Paper Tiger, HI Plot Digital Plotter 
16K Memory Up-grade Kits 
Fast and ultrareliable $99.00 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS 

NEWDOS by Apparat + $49.95 

NEWDOS "PLUS ' by Apparat* $99.95 

DOS 3.0 by the original author of 2. 1 $49.95 




DISKETTE TRS-80* 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE BY SBSG 

Free enhancements and upgrades to registered 
owners for the cost of media and mailing. 30 day free 
telephone support. User reference on request 
Fully Interactive Accounting Package: General Ledger, 

Accounts Payable, Accounts Receivable and Payroll. 

Report generating. 

Complete Package (requires 3 or 4 drives) $475.00 

Individual Modules (requires 2 or 3 drives) $125.00 
Inventory II: (requires 2 or 3 drives) $ 99.00 

Mailing List Name & Address II 

(requires 2 drives) $ 1 29.00 

Intelligent Terminal System ST-80 III: $ 1 50.00 

The Electric Pencil from Michael Shrayer $ 1 50.00 
File Management System: $ 49.00 

Budget Control Program II by CSA $ 49.95 

Cash Register System II by CSA $ 99.00 



ComputerCity 

A division of CPU Industries, Inc. 

175 Main Street, Dept. K-l Charlestown. MA 02129 

Hours: 10AM - 6PM (EST) Monday - Saturday 
For detailed information, call 617/242-3350 
Massachusetts residents add 556 Sales Tax 

"CCI-100 and -200 are ComputerCity Inc. trademarks 

* Tandy Corporation Trademark ♦ Requires Radio Shack TRSDOS* 



TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

Massachusetts residents call 617/242-3350 



Retail Store Locations: 



175 Main Street. Charlestown, MA 

K Mart Plaza, Manchester, NH 

50 Worcester RoadfRt. 9), Framingham, MA 

165 Angell Street Providence, Rl 

Visa and Master Charge accepted 

Franchise and dealer inquiries invited 



JANUARY 1980 



73 






CIRCLE 163 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Speaks Out, con't... 

knows how to spell implement, but 
mnemonic is the worst. We went to 
an open house at a high school in 
Palo Alto to demonstrate the dif- 
ferent elements of high school last 
year. One demonstration of the work 
in foreign language programs and 
studies was really exciting. They can 
study Arabic now as well as French. 
There were excellent programs about 
developing countries and what I 
consider important to learn about the 
culture of the world. Then we went to 
the next building where we saw a 
Social Studies selection. They had a 
demonstration of computer games. 
Some of these games are obviously 
done with a lot of devotion and 
enthusiasm, but the games were 
completely illiterate. The indication 
is that there is absolutely no connec- 
tion with culture; the instruction 
says "congradulations" (spelled in- 
correctly) and the grammar is poor. 
This disturbs me... that computers 
are going to be associated with the 
loss of culture, even though they can 
really be the way to enhance our 
intellect. That's one of the negative 
things I feel about everything, all my 
other feelings are positive. It's really 
mind boggling how the machines we 
have now are so much bigger than 
any I played with when I first went 
into it. 

Dave: I felt that when I was learning 
to program on an IBM 650 and 
Bendex G15's...you had 4K of 
usable core. The first minis, PDP5s 
and 8s, were again 4K, and to go to 
8K was like having the world. I have 
kids working for me today who feel 
that if it doesn't have 48K you can't 
do anything with it. 

Don: The IBM 650 was also comfor- 
table because it was decimal, and 
when I first started with b.nary, I 
don't understand why, but it seemed 
that 650 had about 40 machine 
language instructions on it that you 
could use. The 709 had 250 but you 
never had the right one, on the 650 
there always seemed to be the right 
one. The other thing I wanted to 
mention is games. Obviously, a 
fantastic reason for most people to 
use computers is to play games on 
them. This has been true on all levels 
of society. My friends at Tymshare 
Inc. told me that they studied just for 
fun once to see how many people 
were playing chess on their compu- 
ter. They found hundreds of copies 
of Greenblatt's chess program under 
different names, they are never called 
chess, it was always some produc- 
tion type name. But they could 
recognize the program and they 



realized that they were in the 
business of selling games to maybe 
30% or 40% of their users. This 
couldn't happen if it wasn't filling a 
real need. Traditionally espoused 
values say that games are frivolous. I 
think that this phenomenon can only 
be explained by saying that there is a 
need here that isn't being filled and 
actually you must consider games to 
be useful in spite of the fact that 
society doesn't traditionally accept 
this. 

Dave: The use perhaps being finding 
a willing opponent or someone who 
isn't going to criticize your style of 
play? 

Don: Or to enhance the quality of 
life. Sometimes you say why is 
building a bridge more important 
than something else? Well, you say, 
if you build a bridge, then you can 
cross the bridge and enjoy yourself. 
But why not enjoy yourself instead of 
building the bridge? What is the real 
goal of life? Well that's a real 
complicated philosophical question 
but one that you must consider 
somehow. Enjoyment should be 
considered as useful. The founder of 
Utilitarian philosophy, Jeremy Ben- 
tham, included it as a useful thing, 
but that seems to have dropped out 
of people's feeling as to what is 
useful. Obviously if you sit all the 
time and just use drugs and smile, it 




doesn't seem very useful. You can 
carry anything to extremes. But I 
think we have gone too much to the 
other extreme to where we consider it 
really sort of pointless to enjoy 
ourselves. On the surface that is 
what we espoused. The fact is that 
the great interest in computer games 
has to tell us that our values have 
slightly gone down. 

Dave: I'm glad you don't feel like so 
many other people do, particularly 
teachers in seconday schools, that 
games are horrible and useless and 
yet we come out with a new games 
book and we sell thousands of 
copies. 




Don Knuth talked to a rapt audience 
about his new mathematical typography 
language. 

Speaking of teachers in schools, 
a lot of attention is sometimes paid 
to programming style and efficiency 
yet someone atlBM recently came up 
with a figure of the cost to program 
one line of code compared to the 
cost to execute ; it was a 3 bi 1 1 ion to 1 
ration. The implied meaning of that 
was well, really we should be paying 
attention to well documented code, 
programs that can be easily modi- 
fied, ones that you know next week 
what you did this week, rather than 
looking to the ultimate efficiency. 

Don: There are two reasons for 
efficiency. One is if you are execut- 
ing a code 3 billion times, which is 
reasonable, in fact you can program 
a chess game and you are going to 
have parts of that which are done 3 
billion times, there are a lot of 
combinatorial problems and things 
that it really pays to worry about. The 
other thing is just the pleasure of it. I 
discussed this question of style in a 
lecture I gave on computer program- 
ming as an art. In order to enjoy what 
you are doing, in order to enjoy 
computer programming you want it 
to be beautiful. You can say that your 
program is beautiful because it is 
well documented. You can say it is 
beautiful because it is efficient. You 
can say it is beautiful because of it's 
structure. There are many character- 
istics that you can't have all at once. 
You want it to be beautiful so you 
can enjoy what you are doing. So 
efficiency is something that many 
people enjoy saying, "I can do this 
efficiently and this gives me a lot of 
satisfaction and gives me the crea- 
tive pleasure of writing a good 
program," If you don't have some- 



74 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Speaks Out, con't... 




thing that you are optimizing, some- 
thing to make it satisfying for 
yourself, then you don't have any 
style. I don't want to enforce a 
certain kind of style and say this is 
the most beautiful. What I want to 
stress is that style is important, what 
you find is right for you. It should be 
something you could take pride in. 
You can look at other people's 
programs and notice the style is 
distinguished just like musical styles. 
Some of them will appeal to you 
more than others. There is no 
universal style. You can also appre- 
ciate the person who has a real flair 
for something and get pleasure from 
reading somebody's program as well 
as writing one of your own. 

Dave: Changing the subject— you 



sparently interrupted the produc- 
tion of your seven volume set to go 
off on the mathematical typography, 
when do you expect to resume 
publication. 

Don: I expect to be done approxi- 
mately three years from when I start, 
which is next April. 

Dave: We are all looking forward to 
it- D 

Three of the planned seven-vol- 
umes of The Art of Computer 
Programming are now in print. All 
three are available from Creative 
Computing Book Service for the price 
of the book plus $1.00 shipping for 
one book or $2.00 for two or more. 
Send order and payment to Creative 
Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Mor- 
ristown, N J 07960. 

The purpose of the series is to 
provide a unified, readable and 
theoretically sound summary of the 
present knowledge concerning com- 
puter programming techniques, a- 
long with their historical develop- 
ment. 

Vol.1: Fundamental Algorithms, 
634pp. $22.50 (7R). 

Vol.2: Seminumerical Algorithms, 
624 pp. $22.50 (7S). 
Vol.3: Sorting and Searching, 722 pp. 

$22.50 (7T). 



ANOTHER FIRST FROM MOUNTAIN HARDWARE. 

SUPERTALKER. 



FOR YOUR APPLE 

SuperTalker is a peripheral 
system which permits the 
output of exceptionally 
high quality human speech 
through a loudspeaker under 
program control. Initially, words, 
sentences or phrases are digi- 
tized into RAM memory through 
a microphone. Speech data in 
RAM may be then manipulated like 
any other data. The system consists 
of a peripheral card, microphone, loudspeaker, 
and operating software. $279 assembled and tested. 



* 




Available through Apple dealers worldwide. 

Mountain Hardware, Inc. 

LEADERSHIP IN COMPUTER PERIPHERALS 

300 Harvey West Blvd. 
Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (408) 429-8600 



CIRCLE 17S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Pick yoi 
Apple in 
downtown 
Chicago. 

Mail order buying is fine for books. 
But here you get to work with 
actual machines, feel what they're 
like, make a hands-on decision, 
and get instant delivery, to boot. 

Ho waiting. 

As one of Apple Computer's top 
national dealers, we maintain a 
complete stock of hardware, soft- 
ware, courteous help, service 
when needed, and total support 
all the time. We make sure your 
new computer works right be- 
fore you take it home, that the 
interfaces and peripherals work, 
that you understand the documen- 
tation, that the bugs are gone, 
and that you get everything you 
want. It's all here. Right now. 

English spoken. 

We speak all the popular computer 
languages, except gobbledegook. 
We also happen to be especially 
skilled at the language of value. 
For your home or your business. 

Money talks. 

For instance, this month's special 
is an entire Apple II Plus "Business 
Manager's System" (Apple II is a 
trademark of Apple Computer, 
Inc.) for the price of the hardware 
alone. It means you get the Apple 
II Plus computer with 48K of 
RAM, two disk drives, a 9" video 
monitor, a Centronics 779 printer 
and controller, plus all the top- 
quality turn-key business sort- 
ware in the 'Controller" package, 
regularly $625. The whole $4,995 
value is yours for just $4,370! 

REM PLENTY MORE. 
In fact, you could think of all the 
Apple II hardware and software 
advertised elsewhere in this publi- 
cation as a kind of catalog for our 
comfortable new store. Then 
come on in and check it all out in 
person. (Too bad if you don't live 
in Chicago or the suburbs. Come 
on vacation.) 106 E. Oak St., 
Chicago, 111. 60611 (312) 337-6744. 

THE 
COMPUTER 
B00M> 




CIRCLE 184 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Historians will probably view the information 
revolution which is happening today as more 
important than the industrial revolution. 



Interview With William Wulf 



Staples: Can you tell me what you do 
at Carnegie-Mellon? 
Wulf: I am a professor of computer 
science and the immediate past 
acting department head; I'm on 
sabbatical this year. I always have 
trouble describing my research. I 
think of myself as an engineer and 
what I enjoy doing is building things. 

How can microcompu- 
ter technology be used 
to produce the equiva- 
lent of a very large, 
very powerful compu- 
ter at one-tenth the 
cost? 

Areas that interest me are the 
interface between hardware and soft- 
ware; sometimes I come at that 
interface from one side and some- 
times from the other. I design 
languages, machines and operating 
systems. What I most enjoy doing is 
designing, building them, putting 
them out for people to use, watching 
the users, and trying to understand 
what happens. Some of them have 
been reasonable successes. 

I designed Bliss, which is now 
the system implementation language 
used by DEC. I also designed the 
optimizing compiler strategy that's 
used by many large compilers now. 
I'm now studying to see if it's 
possible to automatically generate 
highly optimizing compilers and, 
given a formal description of the 
computer, see if one can produce a 
complete compiler automatically or 
at least the code generation and 
optimization phases of it. That's a 
fairly significant economic project 
because such a compiler may now 
cost anywhere from one-half to $10 
million. I've also been involved in the 
design of computers like C.MMP. 
Staples: What is C.MMP? 
Wulf: C.MMP is the short form for 
^describing a computer which is a 



Betsy Staples 

multi-processor, and in particular a 
multi-miniprocessor. There are 16 
PDP-11 's which are connected to a 
shared memory, which right now is 
about two megabytes, but it could, in 
principle, be up to 32 megabytes, 
and there's a single operating system 
controlling the whole collection. Any 
processor can access any of the 
memory any time. So when a user 
logs into the system he doesn't know 
which processor he is using and his 
job may, in fact, move around from 
one processor to another during the 
course of the execution. In fact, it 
may change every few milliseconds. 

It is one of two attempts—we have 
another machine called Cm* which 
has 50 LSI-11 processors and again 
share a common memory, although 
they access it in a different way. 
Both projects are attempts to under- 
stand how one can use small 
computers which are economical- 
to get the power of a big machine. 

C.MMP is roughly the power of a 
CDC 6600, but it's much, much 
cheaper. When we started, we were 
really looking forward to the advent 
of the microprocessor. We started 
back in 1971, so its an old project at 
this point. But the question is: all 
right, now that we can build micro- 
computers by the wheelbarrow load, 
how can one use that technology to 
produce the equivalent of a very 
large, very powerful computer? And 
do so at one-tenth of the cost? 
Staples: Do you have any observa- 
tions in general on what's being done 
to make it easier for people to deal 
with computers? 

Wulf: Well, several things. Average 
people are being exposed to more 
and more computers than they 
realize. Microprocessors are in your 
food processor, your laundry drier, 
the braking system of your car or the 
carburetor, and so on. That trend will 
certainly increase. There will be more 
and more conceptual ability, sensory 
ability and intelligence put into very 
prosaic products. There's no good 
reason why lights can't turn them- 



selves out when we have left the 
room. 

Staples: Do you think that kind of 
thing will be done by a central 
microcomputer system in the house 
or just something in the light switch. 
Wulf: Which of those happens will 
be determined strictly by technology. 
If it's cheap enough to put the 
equivalent of an IBM 370/168 in the 
light switch for a nickel, then there's 
no reason to have a centralized 
computer in the home. You can do 
some pretty smart things with that 
kind of computing power. On the 
other hand, it's clear that communi- 
cation ability is a major component 
of what's going on. 

I expect to see a lot of distributed 
intelligence, and also a lot of 
communication with centralized data 
bases, for example. Although I don't 
want to have the Library of Congress 
in my house, I sure would like to have 
access to it. 

Staples: During the panel discussion 
this morning, you mentioned com- 
puter hackers. You said it was a 
"respectable discipline." Do you 
think that there's a need for people 
like this? 

I don't want to have the 
Library of Congress in 
my house, but I sure 
would like to access to 
it. 

Wulf: The trouble is that the word 
"hacker" is so often pejoratively used 
that maybe I shouldn't have said that. 
What I had in mind was that if you 
were to come to Carnegie-Mellon, for 
example, and use our computer, you 
would find that a large percentage of 
the useful programs that we use 
every day and have become an 
integral part of our environment were 
not supplied by the manufacturer- 
they were written by somebody who 
was testing out an idea and the idea 
proved good enough to turn it into 



76 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Wulf /Staples, con't... 

something that could be used on an 
everyday basis. 

Staples : What sort of programs? 
Wulf: The editors, the document 
production system, the system that 
we use for sending mail and memos 
back and forth over the computer. 
Almost all of the programming 
languages that we use, for example, 
were not developed by the manufac- 
turer. I'm not saying they were all 
done at Carnegie-Mellon; some were 
done at other universities with simi- 
lar equipment. Except for the operat- 
ing system, we use almost nothing 
that came from the manufacturer. It 
almost all came from somebody 
hacking around. 

That's not to say that every 
program which gets hacked is good. 
On the contrary, there are scores of 
them that aren't any good. However, 
the individual learns something from 
doing it. They usually are doing it 
because it's different in some way. 
They don't like the way the existing 
facility works. They think it's better 
to try it some other way, so they try it 
and maybe they're right, the program 



evolves over a very long period of 
time and ultimately turns into some- 
thing a little bit different than the 
original image. But that's all very 
good and very productive, and I think 
it is sort of universally true. 
Staples: Do you have any advice that 
you would offer to a young reader? 
What direction would you take in 
computing now if you were starting 
over? 

A high percentage of 
our most useful pro- 
grams at Carnegie-Mel- 
lon came from some- 
body hacking around. 

Wulf: Someone mentioned that many 
of us are almost messianic about 
this, and I guess I fit that picture. 
Right now is an incredibly important 
time. I think that when historians 
look back one or two hundred years 
from now, they are going to identify 
this time as a revolution which is 
more important than the Industrial 
Revolution. We are talking about an 
Information Revolution. The Indus- 



trial Revolution basically allowed us 
to amplify our physical powers and 
accomplish things that we couldn't 
with our hands. What is happening 
now is the analog of an intelligence 
revolution, an information revolu- 
tion, and what the machines are 
letting us do is a bunch of things that 
we, as individuals, couldn't do with 
our Heads. That's so much more 
important than, just doing physical 
things. So, to your young readers: 
get involved. It's the most exciting 
thing that's happening. There's no- 
thing else as important. From a 
pragmatic point of view, certainly go 
to college. We are talking now about 
something which is turning into a 
science. It appears, perhaps, to the 
amateur that it's something that's 
easy to get into when anybody can 
learn how to wire together a micro- 
processor with some memory and 
put a keyboard on it. Anybody can 
learn to program, but that's not what 
computer science is all about. Those 
are just some very basic tools; you 
really still need an education. Edu- 
cation along with the entire compu- 
ting field, is evolving very fast. Get 
involved! □ 



TRS MOD I and MOD II PROGRAMS FROM |-RACET computes^ 



oo BASIC for Level II and Disk Systems $49.95 

Full MATRIX Functions • 30 BASIC commands! ! 
Mathematical and common matrix functions. Change arrays in 
mid-program. Complete array handling. Tape array read and write, 
including strings. Common subroutine calls. 

Over 50 more STRING Functions as BASIC commands!! String 
manipulation, translation, compression, copying, search, screen 
control, pointer manipulation and utility functions. Includes 
multikey multivariable machine language sorts. Load only machine 
language functions that you want! Where you want in memory! 
Relocating linking loader! More than you ever expected! ! 

oo BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) $29.95 

20 Business oriented functions including: 
Printer Automatic Pagination with headers and footers! 
Packed Decimal Arithmetic ( + ,-,*,/) 127 digits! 
Binary array searched and hash code generator! 

COM P ROC Command Processor lor Disk Systems $19.95 

Auto your disk to perform any sequence of DOS commands, 
machine language loads, BASIC, memory size, run program, 
respond to input statements, etc. Single BASIC command file 
defines execution! Includes auto key-debounce, screen print and 
lower case software driver. 

New Products Jan/Feb! We answer reader response inquiries! ! 

ATTN/ System Houses - We license usage of our routines! 

TRS Add-On OEM's - Direct BASIC commands tailored 
for your hardware. 



REMODEL + PROLOAD Specify 16, 32, or 48K Memory $34.95 

RENUMBER any portion or all of BASIC program. Line references 

adjusted. 

MOVE any portion of a BASIC program from one location to 

another. 

DELETE lines or ranges of lines while using the utility. 

MERGE all or any portion of a program from tape. (Load lines 

300-500 from your tape to existing program at line 1000 with 

renumbering on the way in!) 

SAVE combined/merged programs, or any portion to tape with 

VERIFY. 

COPSYS Copy Systems Tapes (Editor/Assembler Format) $14.95 

GSF (16, 32, or 48K) $24.95 

18 Machine language routines using USR' calls. Includes RACET 
sorts, array handling, and fast lines and scrolls. 

DOSORT (Specify 32 or 48K 2 disk minimum) $34.95 

Sort/Merge multi-diskette sequential files. Multiple keys and 
variables. Includes GSF - machine language sorts, comparators 
and string handling. 

MOD II SUPPORT 

RACET is supporting the MOD II! ! 

Call or write for current information! We have a MOD II Superzap 

and other assembly language tools! 

Ask your dealer if he carries our products! 

DEALERS! We will work with you directly or through our 

distributors. 



CHECK. VISA, M/C. COD. • Calif. Residents add 6% • Telephone Orders Accepted (714) 637-5016 

WHEN ORDERING PLEASE ADVISE PUBLICATION SOURCE 



|jr" RACET computes -^g 

702 Palmdale. Orange CA 92665 



CIRCLE ItS ON READER SERVICE CARD 




The availability of very inexpen- 
sive and powerful microcomputers is 
sure to have tremendous impact over 
the next 20 years. Although it isn't 
possible to predict all of the changes 
computers will bring to our lives, I'd 
like to at least discuss a few possi- 
bilities which may develop. 

It would also be easy to 
provide an "on line" 
computer dating service 
or a car pool service 
through a community 
bulletin board system. 

You've heard of "the information 
explosion" and it appears we are 
drowning in a rapidly expanding sea of 
information. Books, magazines, pro- 
fessional journals and other publica- 
tions are churning out at an ever- 
increasing rate. The day of the Renais- 
sance Man, who was able to keep up 
with all new developments, is now past. 
Over specialization has locked us into 
tiny compartments of knowledge 
which are often cut off from each other. 

A National Data Base 

Now imagine what it might be like 
to "fly" through the field of all available 
information and "land" on the facts 
relevant to any problem. It is conceiv- 
able that the contents of the Library of 
Congress could be put into a national 
data base, continually updated by new 
publications. Every citizen could tap 
this data base via a home computer 
and either a telephone link or perhaps 
the cable TV network (the information 
capacity of a cable TV line is much 
greater than a telephone line). 

You might sit at your keyboard, 
type a list of keywords to describe your 
area of interest and begin reading text 
as it scrolls on your video monitor. A 
joystick under your right hand controls 
the display. Pushing it away from you 
slows the scrolling or stops it, pulling 
the joystick toward you speeds the 

Tim Scully. Ph.D.. PO Box 175. Albion. CA 95410 



display. Tipping the stick to the right 
causes the information to become 
more'summarized so that you see only 
major topic headlines or indices, while 
tipping the stick to the left causes more 
detail to be displayed so that even- 
tually you progress from the titles of 
works to abstracts and then to the row 
text. 

You could place standing orders 
through your computer so that you'd 
be notified of any new publications in 
your area of interest. By careful choice 
of keywords, you could learn of 
publications in specialties remote from 
your own which contain ideas useful to 
you. Such cross-fertilization of ideas 
would be only one of the benefits of a 
national data base. 

You could ask to be instantly 
notified of any pending legislation 
which might involve issues of impor- 
tance to you. If your computer signals 
that an important legislative debate will 
take place on a law affecting your job 
or community, you may choose to sit 
down at the keyboard and text-edit a 
brief message to your legislator, 
indicating your opinion and interest in 
the matter. This feedback could be 
analyzed by your legislator's office 
computer to maintain a closed feed- 
back loop between citizen and govern- 
ment. When election time rolls around, 
it would be very easy for you to request 
a printout of your candidate's voting 
record on every issue of interest. You 
could easily compare this to an earlier 
list of campaign promises, also stored 
in the data base. 

It might be possible for a new form 
of publishing to be implemented 
through the national data base. An 
author could submit a work to the data 
base with a tag attached which would 
cause the reader's account to be billed 
for a modest fee if the document is 
accessed by the reader's home com- 
puter. The fee might be low for video 
screen access and somewhat higher if 
a hard copy of the work is created. 

Computerized Communications 

In case all of this seems far off in 
the unlikely future, I'd like to tell you 



about some of the related develop- 
ments which are happening now. Digi- 
casting, for example, is now in the 
experimental stage. This technique 
involves the transmission of digital 
data via a subcarrier on either a tele- 
vision or FM radio station. The digital 
data may be news, advertising or any 
other form of information. If your home 
computer is hooked up to a receiver, 
you may be able to program it to select 
the items of interest to you. 

Suppose, for example, that you'd 
like to buy a used car, that you have 
between $1,000 and $1,500 to spend 
and that you'd like a Volkswagen. You 
could ask your computer to search all 
incoming ads for anything meeting 
these criteria. This would save you a lot 
of searching and reading of uninter- 
esting ads. The advertisers will be 
more sure of reaching interested 
buyers, yet this form of advertising 
should be quite inexpensive. The rate 
at which digital data may be trans- 
mitted is much faster than conven- 
tional speech or reading; many ads 
could be transmitted every minute. 



You've heard of "the 
information explosion" 
and it appears we are 
drowning in a rapidly 
expanding sea of infor- 
mation. 



Community computer bulletin 
boards are a related development. 
These consist of a computer with a lot 
of mass storage and with one or more 
modems for telephone data exchange. 
You may use your home computer and 
telephone to either explore the mes- 
sages and ads left on the bulletin 
board, or you might leave a message or 
ad yourself. This can be a nice way to 
run a flea market, find a home for rent, 
learn about club meetings and more 

Imagine such a bulletin board 
being used by postage stamp collec- 
tors. Each collector could list the 



78 



CREATIVECOMPUTING 




Observations, con 



stamps available for trade and the 
stamps desired. A computer search 
could turn up the names of folks with 
complementary desires. It would also 
be easy to provide an "on line" 
computer dating service or a car pool 
service through a community bulletin 
board system. 

While the cost of home computers 
has been dropping, you might still 
argue that many folks will not have 
access to computers for many years to 
come. I don't think this will be true. 
Computers are already appearing in 
many schools and some grammar 
school students are already learning 
how to write programs. I expect to see 
computers in public libraries, perhaps 
coin operated in much the same way 
photocopy machines are. Timesharing 
companies are already offering very 
inexpensive access to their networks, I 
saw a recent ad quoting $8 per hour. It 
is worth noting that some of these 
networks cover vast geographical 
areas. 

There have been some experi- 
ments with conferences held via 
computer network. Participants may 
be scattered around the world but are 
linked to a central computer. Each may 
deposit messages in the computer, 



addressing each message to the entire 
meeting, to a committee, to a special 
interest group, or to an individual. This 
turns out to be a surprisingly effective 
communication technique. As the cost 
of energy for transportation goes up, 
we may see more innovative use of 
computers in communications. A large 
percentage of the folks who now 
commute to an office where they 
handle paperwork may be able to 
simply sit down at their home terminal 
and do the same job. 

Computer models are 
never even as good as 
the data fed into them. A 
model is, of necessity, a 
simplification of the in- 
credible complexities of 
a real-life system. 

Computer Modelling 

It is now difficult and complicated 
but possible to construct computer 
models of systems. An airplane may be 
modelled on a computer and "test 
flown" before it is actually built. In the 
same way, economic, social and 
ecological systems may be modelled. 
The effects of proposed legislation, 



new industry or other changes may be 
evaluated with the help of the com- 
puter model. Possible- effects of such 
changes may be projected months or 
years into the future to aid intelligent 
decision-making. 

Of course, it is important to 
remember "Garbage In, Garbage Out." 
Computer models are never even as 
good as the data fed into them. A 
model is, of necessity, a simplification 
of the incredible complexities of a real- 
life system. But there is reason to 
believe that it will become easier to 
build more accurate computer models 
in future years, and eventually it may 
become so easy that the average 
citizen can use modelling as an aid in 
making personal decisions. The trend 
toward increasingly powerful high 
level computer languages may even- 
tually lead to a language in which such 
modelling would be very easy. With the 
aid of a national data base, it might 
become possible to improve model 
accuracy by taking into account more 
factors influencing the real-life system. 

I'm sure that I haven't begun to 
scratch the surface of this topic. The 
future of inexpensive computers is 
limited primarily by our imagination. 
As the next generation grows up 
learning one or more computer lan- 
guages in grammar school, we should 
expect truly startling developments. □ 




r VfRS-8o ^== SAVE $ 



TRS-80 



Dual Disk Drives! . 

IN ONE CASE! 

One switch, one cord. • Over 400K* in one (QUAD) Cabinet. 




• Dual Drives $698.00 Includes Cable & TRS D.O.S. 
•Quad Drives $1359.00 Includes Cable & TRS D.O.S. 

v— would pay $1,000.00 or 2.000.00 at Radio Shacks Prices 




90 Day EXCHANGE GUARANTEE 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED *AII drives will access 40 tracks when used 

Send for our NEW FALL/WINTER CATA- with 

LOG. Ask about our LOW PRICES on 77 NEWDOS or NEWDOS+ (EXTRA) 

Track Drives LEyEL ,y PRODUCTS, INC. 

1-800-521-3305 11 am-7pm Tues.-Sat. 

r 32238 Schoolcraft, Suite F4~ Livonia, Michigan 48154^(313) 525-6200 




CIRCLE 111 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



79 



Degrees -Step 80 



SPIRAL DESIGNS 

David Lomartire 







mm 




The graphics designs on these 
pages were done on a Hewlett-Pack- 
ard Model 9100 calculator and Model 
9125A plotter. All are based on a 
spiral except the one marked with an 
asterisk (*). This one is a circle, done 
in radians, with a radius of two and an 
angular step of 110. S in x (the x value) 
and cos x (the y val ue) are plotted . 

The other designs, based on a 
spiral, all have a radius increase of 
1 112 and an angular increase which is 
expressed on each design. The 
plotting was done in polar coordi- 
nates and the equation plotted was 
(r,0) where the increases have already 
been expressed. 



Radians -Step 200 




Radians -Step 600 



David Lomartire, 34 Burr School Road, West 
port, CT 06880. 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Degrees -Step 55 




Radians -Step 100 



Degrees -Step 60 



JANUARY 1980 



■ * **B 




m V 




^mti J J 




^H ™ ^^^^H 


^^^2 


\ H W ^^M| W y 









LIST 



David Gerrold at a Star Trek Convention. Trekkies will recall that 
David was author of the highly acclaimed episode, "The Trouble With 
Trlbbles." He also edited several other shows and wrote the story 
which became "The Cloud Minders" episode. He has edited three scl 
fl anthologies and written two books about Star Trek. 



FILE NAME\ RANDOM 



-VALUES TO BE TESTED 



RND 
Frequency Graphs 



10REM 

201 "SET NUMBER OF TRIALS: *\INPUTC1 

301 "SET SCALE OF GRAPH. DIVIDE BY: "\INPUT Q 

35DIM N(20) 

40FOR A-1T06 

50FOR S— 1TO0 

60 REM 

70C-0 

80GOSUB360 

90N(X)-N(X)+1 

100C-C+1 

110IF O-C1THEN130 

120GOTO80 

130REM PRINTOUT 

140! 

1501" " 

1601\!"FOR C«",C 

170!"FOR S*",S 

180! "FOR A»",A 

190!\l 

200FOR Y-1T09 

2101 

220!"N<*,Y,")-",N(Y) ,": ", 

230FORH=1TOH*N(Y)/0 

2401"*", 

250 NEXT H 

260NEXT Y 

270!\!"N(10)-",N(10) ,"i ", 

280FORH«1TOH*N(10)/Q 

290!"*", 

300NEXT H 

310FORZ-1TO10 

320N(Z)-0 

330NEXT Z 

340NEXT S 

350NEXT A 

352!\!\!\!"TH-TH-THAT'S ALL, FOLKS!" 

354 END 

360REM 

370 ON A GOTO 380,400,420,440,460,480 

380X=INT(10*RND(S)+1) 

3 90 RETURN 

400X-INT(3.14159*RND(S)+1) 

410 RETURN 

420X«INT(10*RND(0)*RND(S)+1) 

430RETURN 

440X-INT(10*RND(-1)*RND(S)+1) 

450 RETURN 

460X-INT(6.2*RND(S)+1> 

470RETURN 

480X=INT(6.3 5*RND(S)+1) 

490RETURN 



David Gerrold 



Thorn Ronayne's article, "Random Thoughts 
on RND" started me thinking about frequency 
responses. If you could generate a curve for 
different values of RND, you would better be able 
to judge which one best suits your needs. 

The enclosed program and a sample run are 
the result of that thought. Although this run is for 
a small sample, I let the Northstar do some 
samples of 10,000 trials per graph overnight and 
achieved generally the same curves. 

For what it's worth, I've only had the micro for 
a week, only been learning how to use it this past 
week (but in long shifts of sometimes as much as 
12 hours a day) and have come away from it 
convinced that programming is a subject that 
needs to be demythologized. My non-computer 
friends think it's an arcane complicated subject. I 
see them (now) as illiterates because there's a 
tool that they are refusing to learn how to use. 
Programming this little wonder has proven to be 
easier than I ever imagined it would be. And for 
the first time, it's a delight to use a machine 
whose limitations I have been unable to discover. 

David Gerrold. P.O. Box 1190. Hollywood. CA 90028. 



RUN 

SET NUMBER OF TRIALS: 

72500 

SET SCALE OF GRAPH. DIVIDE BY: 

720 



FOR C« 2500 
FOR S- -1 
FOR A- 1 



A»IK|T(lO*RK»0(.-') +l) 



N( 1). 
N( 2). 
N( 3). 
N( 4). 
N( 5). 
N( 6)< 
N( 7). 
N( 8)> 
N( 9). 
N(10). 



340 
186 
278 
221 
349 
280 
136 
174 
142 
3 94 



***************** 

********* 

************* 

*********** 

***************** 

************** 



******** 

******* 

A****************** 



FOR C« 
FOR S = 
FOR A- 



N( 1). 
N( 2)< 
N( 3). 
N( 4) = 
N( 5). 
N( 6) = 
N( 7). 
N( 8). 
N( 9). 
N(10). 



2500 



1 



222 

236 

242 

251: 

262 

276 

273 

255 

234 

249 



X> IUT (lo * RNO (o) -m} 



*********** 

*•****•*••* 

************ 

************ 

****••••*••** 

************* 

*********** 



82 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



■ 



I HI — T «g 








Put the BYTE on the IRS with Aardvark 



In an era when computers are an integral part 
of business and entertainment, and computer 
software is more and more sophisticated, 
Aardvark is yet another breed in advanced 
computer software. Aardvark's Micro Tax 
series is a true user-oriented Federal Income 
Tax package. Specifically developed by 
qualified tax professionals for use on person- 
al home computers, this low-cost, time-saving 
Aardvark Micro Tax package accurately and 
efficiently computes your federal income tax 
liability. Aardvark will display and fill in 
facsimile Form 1040 and related schedules 
and, if connected to a Centronics printer, 
will print out these facsimile forms auto- 



matically. Each program is designed to use 
the appropriate tax table or rate schedule. 
The more advanced Micro Tax II and III also 
calculate Income Averaging, Maximum Tax 
on Earned Income, Minimum Tax and Alter- 
native Minimum Tax. The Aardvark package 
is compatible with Apple II and TRS-80 users 
and includes an indexed instruction manual 
and input forms for easy input of tax data. To 
see how Aardvark can be tax-deductible, 
check the instructions in the binder of the 
manual. You can also use the binder to store 
pertinent 1 979 tax records. Cure your head- 
aches this tax season, order today.. .and put 
the BYTE on the IRS with Aardvark! 



MICRO TAX I $25 

Form 1040 
Schedule A 
Schedule B 
Schedule TC 

(will not calculate Income 
Averaging, Max Tax or Alter- 
native Minimum Tax) 



When Ordering Specify: 

TRS-80 16K Level II Basic 
Apple II 32K with Applesoft Basic 
Apple II 16K Micro with Applesoft 
ROM Card 



$35 



MICRO TAX II 

Form 1040 

Schedule A 

Schedule B 

Schedule G (Inc. Avg.) 

Schedule TC 

Form 4625 (Minimum Tax) 

Form 4726 (Max Tax) 

Form 6251 (Alt. Min. Tax) 

AardvaiX 
Software 



MICRO TAX III $50 

Program 2 plus 
Schedule C 
Schedule D 
Schedule E 
Schedule SE 
Form 2119- Sale of 
Personal Residence 



Coming Soon - Micro Tax 
Package for PET and Tl 
Systems. 



JANUARY 1980 



P.O. Box 26505 Milwaukee, Wl 53213 

24 hrs. Call TOLL FREE 1 -800-558-8570. 7 days 
In Wisconsin 1-414-289-9988 

CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



FOR C- 2500 . / \ \ 

FOR S- -1 X= INT (% \*V>V1 # RMO(-l ) + I ) 

FOR A- 2 



FOR C- 2500 
FOR S- 
FOR A= 4 



X» IHT (lo*t>rtO(-0* fcMOCo)+l) 



N( D- 961 

M 2)- 755 

N( 3). 686 

N( 4)- 98: 

N( 5). 

N( 6)> 

N( 7)- 

N( 8)- 

N( 9)- 
N(10)- 



**************************************** 

************************************* 

********************************** 



N( 1)= 879: ******************************************* 

N( 2)* 484: ************************ 

N( 3)» 311: *************** 

N( 4)- 219: **«*«»*««* 

N( 5)- 219: •••«••*«*« 

N( 6)- 127: ••«••* 

N( 7)» 151: «*«•*** 

N( 8)- 55: ** 

N( 9)- 22: • 

N(10)- 33: * 



FOR O 2500 
FOR S- 
FOR A» 2 



X« mT^-^isi* I4.UO («0 + i ) 



FOR O 2500 , ,. / lV ..\ 

FOR S- -1 X = ll*T (fc 2. * RND (-1) + \ ) 

FOR A- 5 



N( 1). 
N( 2). 
N( 3). 
N( 4)> 
N( 5)- 
N( 6). 
N( 7). 
N( 8)- 
N( 9)- 
N(10). 



826: ***************************************** 

757 : ••***•••••••••*•••••••••••••••••••*•• 

802: **************************************** 

115: *«•«« 





o 

0: 
0: 

0: 



N( 1)- 141 

N( 2)- 973 

N( 3)- 219 

N( 4)* 234 

N( 5)- 663 

N( 6)- 236: 

N( 7)- 34: 

N( 8)> 

N( 9)« 
N(10)- 



******* 



********** 
*********** 



FOR C- 
FOR S- 
FOR A- 



2500 



-1 X = INT (lO *R»40(o ) * R.KlO(-|)+ 1 ) 



FOR C- 2500 
FOR S- 
FOR A- 5 



X = IHT (fe.1 * liNO C°)+0 



N( 1). 

N( 2) = 

N( 3). 

N( 4)> 

N( 5). 

N( 6). 

N( 7). 

N( 8). 

N( 9)- 
N(10). 



*************** 



825: ft************************* 

462 

326 

308 

189 

151: ******* 

124: «**«*• 

61: **• 

41: •• 

13: 



*************** 



N( 1)- 443 

N( 2)- 409 

N( 3)- 387 

N( 4)- 413 

N( 5)- 401 

N( 6)- 367 

N( 7)> 80: 

N( 8)- 

N( 9)- 
N(10)- 



******************** 

a****************** 

******************** 

******************** 



FOR O 2500 
FOR S 
FOR A 



\- 3 



2500 , V / \ \ 

X « IMT (K> *RKl<i(o ) * RMO (O) tl ) 



FOR O 2500 
FOR S- -1 
FOR A- 6 



X= ,tOT (t>35 *RNO(-l) *•) 



N( 1). 
N( 2) = 
N( 3) = 
N( 4). 
N( 5). 
N( 6). 
N( 7). 
N( 8)> 
N( 9). 
N(10). 



8X7 : **************************************** 

521: 

***************** 



348 
234 
204 
143 
110 
72: * 
34: * 
17: 



******* 



N( 1). 

N( 2)- 

N( 3). 

N( 4)- 

N( 5)- 

N( 6)- 

N( 7). 

N( 8>- 

N( 9)- 
N(10). 



515 

431 

364 

320 

489 

255 

126 

0: 

0: 

0: 



************************* 

********************* 

****************** 



FOR C 
FOR S 
FOR A 



2500 



- 4 



-1 X= INr (lo* RMt>C-')>CMO(-l) +1) 



FOR O 2500 
FOR S- 
FOR A> 6 



X = IMT ({..1S + RMO (o)4-0 



N( 1). 
N( 2). 
N( 3). 
N( 4). 
N( 5). 
N( 6). 
N( 7). 
N( 8). 
N( 9)- 
N(10). 



663 
579 
516 
164 
193 
149 
119 
30: 
85: 
2: 



a******************************** 

**************************** 

************************* 



********* 



N( 1)- 370 

N( 2)- 423 

N( 3)- 375 

N( 4) 

N( 5) 

N< 6) 

N( 7) 

N( 8) 

N( 9) 

M(10) 



410 

400 

377 

145 

0: 

0: 

0: 



a******************* 



******* 



TH-TH-THAT'S ALL, FOLKS! 
READY 






A Special Selection of Chess Books 
for the Readers of creative com puting 

Prepare yourself for a challenging game of chess against your 
computer... let these fine chess books teach you the basics. 



I 



Cliess 

Fundamentals 



lR.Capalibn.-a. 



CHESS FUNDAMENTALS 

by J. R. Capablanca. This 
concise guide retains its repu- 
tation as the best introduction 
to chess on the market. Paper- 
back edition. 

No. 140042/13.95 



MAXIMS 
ol'tlli;** 



COMMON SENSE IN CHESS 
by Emanuel Lasker. A clear 
summary of the principles of 
attack and defense. Paper- 
back edition. 

No. 14069/13.95 



AN ILLUSTRATED DIC 
TIONARY OF CHESS by 

Edward R. Brace. Over 2.000 

entries on all terms and 

phrases, openings, systems, 

major tournaments, history, 

etc. 

Hardcover edition. 

No. 130705/114.95 







PRACTICAL CHESS OPEN- 
INGS by Reuben Fine. This 
compact guide to chess open- 
ings covers the traditional 
openings and their variations. 
Paperback edition. 

No. 14031 X/f 3.95 



OFFICIAL RULES OF 
CHESS by the U.S. Chess 
Federation. The only publica- 
tion of the official tournament 
rules of the game. Hardcover 
edition. 

No. 130535/15.95 



MAXIMS OF CHESS by John 
W. Collins. 140 memorable 
maxims to guide basic play, as 
used by Bobby Fischer's 
teacher. Hardcover edition. 
No. 130667/S10.95 

BASIC CHESS ENDINGS by 

Reuben Fine. The classic, 
authoritative instructor of 
ending gamemanship. Paper- 
back edition. 

No. 140026/S7.95 

GUIDE TO TOURNAMENT 
CHESS by William Lorn 
bardy. A "coaching guide" for 
the developing player. Hard- 
cover edition. 

No. 130497/S8.95 



CATALOG OF CHESS MIS- 
TAKES by Andrew Soltis. 
For the benefit of the im- 
proving player, this examines 
every phase of the game, and 
a wide variety of mistakes. 
Hardcover edition. 

No. 132503/$10.95 



Catalog 
Mistakes 




Howto 
recognizee 

correct mistal© 
patterns of oJkhas- 
tacticct strategic psy- 
chobgicaland more 



Book Till. .Order No 



Quonfity Price 

I 



[ I enclose check or money order 

Chorge my account Vim Matter charge 

M.C Interbonk * 



American Exprett 
E.p 



All orderi will be pottpoid 

send to: David McKay Co. Dept 790, 2 Park Ave., NY, NY 10016. 



NY* Calil please add tan 
Total S 



Crty 



Slate Zip 



JANUARY 1980 



85 



Improving Your Prospects 



The Computerized Resume 



Douglas W. Green 
Denise Thaler Green 



Whether using a BASIC program or a 
word processing system, the impor- 
tance of making sure all words are 
spelled correctly shouldn't be over- 
looked. — ED 



The society of the 1980's will be, 
without a doubt, a fast paced and fast- 
changing world. The implications for 
job seekers and career changers are 
endless, but one aspect is clear: the 
individual who presents the most 
marketable package to the prospective 
employer will obtain the most desir- 
able position. In the mid 1970's, 
approximately 300,000 executives 
changed jobs each year. Meanwhile, 
professional and technical employees 
changed jobs even more frequently. 

The preparation of a per- 
sonal resume is a neces- 
sary step in the pursuit of 
of greener employment 
pastures. 

Add these people to the pool of college 
graduates seeking employment and a 
substantial number of job hunters 
results. Whether you are entering the 
job market or happily situated on the 
sidelines looking for that offer you 
can't refuse, the preparation of a 
personal resume is a necessary step in 
the pursuit of greener employment 
pastures. 

With the use of a computer, the 
preparation and updating of one's 
resume can be greatly streamlined. 
This exercise can also serve as a 
simple, yet highly practical introduc- 
tion to computer programming. The 
remainder of this article will present 
some general advice regarding re- 
sumes that anyone can use, followed 
by some tips on how to use a computer 
to prepare just the right resume for 
each prospective employer. 

Douglas and Denise Green, Cortland Jr-Sr High 
School. Valley View Drive, Cortland. NY 13045 



A Resume For Every Job 

The key to an effective resume is 
that it be tailor-made for the particular 
job. It must also emphasize the 
individual's unique skills and experi- 
ences as they relate to the job being 
sought. Without a computer, the task 
of designing the resume for each job 
can become a full time job in itself. For 
the person who is already employed 
but is always looking, the constant 
updating and retyping process has the 
potential of developing into a time- 
consuming, yet nontherapeutic hobby. 
This is especially true if the resume 
contains a goals statement or if you are 
planning a change in careers. 

There are two approaches to 
resume writing that fit the two general 
classifications of people seeking 
employment. The most often used type 
is the chronological resume. This is the 
standard approach best used by 
people who have a number of years of 
experience which directly relate to the 
position for which they are hoping to 
interview. In addition to education and 
other personal information, this type of 



The key to an effective 
resume is that it be tailor- 
made for the particular 
job. 

resume simply lists the jobs the person 
has had in reverse chronological order. 
If you are satisfied that you are in the 
right career and are looking for a step 
up the ladder or just a change in 
scenery, then this is the approach for 
you. 

Resumes For Beginners and 
Career Changers 

If you lack experience that directly 
relates to the position for which you 
are applying, you certainly want to 
avoid advertising this fact. If this is the 
case, it is important to emphasize the 



skills you have acquired that will serve 
your new employer well and make him 
soon forget about your lack of experi- 
ence. To do this, you need to use a 
skills-based resume. By listing skills 
first you show the reader how your 
talents fit his needs. If you do not do 
this, the reader may see your list of 

If you lack experience 
that directly relates to 
the position for which 
you are applying, you 
certainly want to avoid 
advertising this fact. 

experiences as being irrelevant to the 
position in question. Saying that you 
are skilled in developing and imple- 
menting small group instruction may 
be more impressive than saying that 
you served as a junior leader for the 
Boy Scouts. It also allows the young 
job seeker to list several skills that were 
developed during the course of one 
summer job. This can serve to make 
the resume appear more respectable 
without padding it. Sample headings 
that can be used in the two types of 
resumes are given in Figure 1, while 
Figure 2 shows a portion of a sample 
skills-based resume. 



Samp** heading* for your mum 


Chronological 


Skills-based 


Personal Data 


Personal Data 


Education 


Skills Developed 


Work Experience 


Work Experience 


Certification 


Education 


(licenses) 


Professional Affiliations 


Professional Affiliations 


Certification 


and offices 


Publications 


Publications 


Other skills and 


Other skills and interests 


interests 


Suggested subheadings for a skills-based resume 


administrative 


communication 


managerial 


problem solving 


financial 


learning 


computer 


research 


social skills 


resource location 


instructional 


persuading 


writing 


coping with pressure 


speaking 


personal relations 


skills related to knowledge ol specific subject 


matter 





Figure 1. 



86 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




When you want it 
to get there 




UNDAMAGED 




SQUARE1 

1134 CRANE AVENUE, F-3, MENLO PARK 
CALIFORNIA 94025 TEL. (415) 325-4209 



JANUARY 1980 



87 



CIRCLE IN ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Resume, con't... 

Writing Your Program 

Most programs consist of three 
basic parts: input, processing and 
output. A resume program, however, 
need only contain output statements 
and for this reason is a natural for the 
beginner. All one need know is how to 
use the PRINT statement, which is 
usually the first statement anyone 
learns in the BASIC language. In many 
respects, therefore, this is more aptly 
considered an exercise in word proc- 
essing than computer programming. 
All we are interested in here is using 
the PRINT statement to arrange our 
output in the most desirable manner. In 
order to do this, one must also learn 
how to use the TAB statement. This 
statement tells the computer in which 
column the next character of output 
will be placed. For example, if you 
entered the statement: 

10 PRINT TAB(13); 
"PERSONAL DATA" 
the computer would move over to the 
13th column before it started printing. 
Another important and simple skill is 
knowing how to skip a line between 
sections of your output by using a 
PRINT statement by itself. 

Once you have written your entire 
program all you have to do is save it on 
tape or disk to have it available for 
making more copies or updating the 

Saying that you are 
skilled in developing and 
implementing small 

group instruction may 
be more impressive than 
saying that you served as 
a junior leader for the 
Boy Scouts. 

information. The amount of core 
required for this type of activity should 
not exceed 8K. If it does, your resume 
may be too long. Remember, the 
prospective employer may have a large 
number of resumes to sort through, 
and you don't want to give him more 
information than he needs during the 
initial screening. If you are convinced, 
however, that you need more than 8K 
or only have a 4K system, yourtroubles 
are easily solved. You simply divide 
your resume in half and write it as two 
separate programs. Since there are no 
variables in your program, you need 
not be concerned with the techniques 
involved in program chaining. 

Other Programming Concern* 
And Possibilities 

When typing a given line of your 
output, it is important to keep track of 



Admin As-t i-st ion 

Prepared and conducted bi-weekly comprehensive patient care 
conferences at Hiqhqate Manor Nursing Home 

Planned and coordinated a community skills program 

Supervised student interns 

Acted as liason between Hiqhgate Hanor Nursing Home and a 
number of community and governmental organizations 

Assisted in the administration of the Adult Basic Education and 
High School Eguivalency programs at Cortland-Madison BOXES 

I i. » i-uc-t ion 

Developed and implemented a program of small group therapeutic 
instruction for a number of psychiatric patients in reading skills 

Taught English, social studies, health, and home economics to 
students who for reasons of health or behavior were excluded from the 
regular programs at Cortland Jr.-Sr. High School 

Taught English to eighth graders at Jamesville-DeUitt 
Middle School 

Developed the ability to diaqnose and remediate reading problems 

Uork E x p e I- i en tz e 

F-sx^ 1 •"* iam*. «~ i c: Soc ial Worker 

Highgate Manor Nursinq Home, Cortland, N.Y., May 1977 to present 

Carry a caseload of 80 residents on the health related units 
702 of whom are diaqnosed as havinq various mental disorders 

Obtain and update full social histories 

Prepare for, lead, and write conference reports for 
interdic iplinary patient care conferences 

Meet with clients on a reqular basisand conduct group therapy 

Conducts in-service training and supervises student interns 



Figure 2. A portion of the output of a skills-based 
resume. 



the paper width. If a line is too long, the 
prospects of having portions of a 
single word appear on two lines 
increases while your employment 
prospects decrease. If your system has 
a CRT you should note how far you can 
go on it before a statement must end. 
When doing this, be sure to count any 
spaces included in your tabs. With 
careful spacing it is possible to include 
more than one line of output per 
statement. This, however, requires 
consideration of the maximum number 
of key strokes your system allows per 
statement. On the other hand, using a 
good word processing system will be a 
great aid in formatting and updating a 
resume. This approach will also 
eliminate the hassle of writing a BASIC 
program for the project. It is a good 
idea to use 8V 2 x 11 inch paper. The 
format can be horizontal or vertical as 
long as you provide the new boss with 
paper that can easily fit into his 
briefcase or filing cabinet. 

One final advantage that must be 
mentioned stems from the fact that 
your computerized resume will def- 



initely set your personal history apart 
from the competition. And don't fail to 
mention in your cover letter that you 
programmed it yourself. This is no time 
to be modest. Even if the job seems to 
have no direct relation to computers, at 

Your computerized re- 
sume will definitely set 
your personal history 
apart from the compe- 
tition. 

least for now, a self-programmed 
resume tells the future employer that 
here is someone who is intelligent, 
creative and conversant with the 
foremost tool our technological so- 
ciety has to offer. o 

References: 

(1) Field, H.S. and Hollay, W.H. Resume Prepara- 
tion: An Empirical Study of Personal Mana- 
gers' Perceptions. Vocational Guidance 
Quarterly. 1976. 24. 229-237. 

(2) Bolles. R.N. What Color is Your Parachute? 
Berkeley. CA Ten Speed Press. 1972. 



88 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Something New for your PET 



H cSSSSr' 



Gelid* 



](3 ~== 



O'EIE 

UlElgB 



PET Personal 
Computer Guide 

by C. Donahue and J. Enger 

Everything you always wanted to 
know about PET but Commodore 
didn't tell you. A practical guide to 
PET programming techniques, 
graphics, operation, and how to cope 
with those»&$! PET peculiarities 

«30-6 $15 00 



NEW this Winter 



PET and the 

IEEE 488 

(GPIB)Bus 



PET and the 

IEEE 488 (GPIB) Bus 

by C. Fisher and C. W. Jensen 

This is the only complete guide avail- 
able on interfacing PET to GPIB. Learn 
how to program the PET interface to 
control power supplies, signal 
sources, signal analyzers and other 
instruments It's full of practical 
information, as one of its authors 
assisted in the original design of the 
PET GPIB interface 

'•31-4 $15 00 
NEW this Winter 











•sot 




H 


(■*■*• * t— ■ ««■■■ 


6502 

Assembly Language 
Programming 

by L. Leventhal 

For the advanced programmer: 
increase the capabilities and 
performance of PET (and other 
6502-based computers) by learning 
to program in assembly language. 

#27-6 $1250 




Some Common 
BASIC Programs 

By L. Poole and M Borchers 

This book was designed for people who can use a variety 
of practical BASIC programs — 76 programs in all that 
cover a wide variety of personal finance, math, statistics, 
and general interest topics. The documentation in the book 
is complete so that you can run the programs even if you 
aren't an experienced programmer. 

#06-3. $12 50 

PET owners can purchase the programs ready-to-run on 

cassette or disk, using the book as a manual for program 

descriptions, operating instructions and programming 

options 

Disk #33-0 $22 50 Cassette #25-X. $15 00 




Booh C ■ i te 1 1 • 1 1 k 


Mm 


Quantity 


Amount 


27-6 6502 Ai*embiy Language Programming 


$12 50 






30-6 PET Personal Computer Guide 


115 OO 






31-4 PET and the IEEE 488 (GPIB) Bus 


SlbOO 






06-3 Some Common BASIC Programs (book) 


$12 50 






25 X Some Common BASIC Programs PET Cassette 


$1500 






33-0 Some Common BASIC Programs PET Disk 


$22 50 






California residents add 6 sales tax 


California resident tax 

Shipping 

Total Amount Enclosed 




S F BART residents add BVi% sales tan 









a All foreign orders $4 00 per book for airmail 

D SO 45 per book 4th class m the U S (allow 3-4 weeks) 

a SO 75 per book UPS in the U S (allow 10 days. 

D $1 50 par book special rush shipment by air in the U S 



Cassettes and Disk 

d No additional charge m the U S 
D Si 50 each foreign airmail 



Cf* 



OSBORNE/McGraw Hill 



City 

State _ 
Phone . 



OSBORNE/McGraw Hill 

630 Bancroft Way. Dept. LI 

Berkeley. California 94710 

(415) 648-2806 • TWX 810-366-7277 



US 



JANUARY 1980 



89 



SI 074 
CIRCLE 177 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




GROW: 

A Program 
That "Learns" 

Jeff Levinsky 



One of ihe educational programs 
on the CHAOS II system (Ref 1 and 2) 
is a special extendable "game" named 
GROW. Based upon the well-known 
games of ADVENTURE and ANIMAL, 
GROW allows students to travel 
about in avast world, learning about 
various topics while solving problems 
related to those topics. At any time, 
the students, as well as the teachers, 
may add new topics and questions to 
GROW, thus helping (or hindering) 
other who later explore the same 
route. In this context, GROW is as 
much a tool used to build CAI pro- 
grams as it is a game. 

One of the advantages of GROW is 
the speed and ease by which the 
things the program knowns about can 
be explored and extended. The basic 
framework can be built very quickly by 
a teacher and the task of filling in 
details (such as hints or paths to take 
to skip ahead to new lessons) can be 
added by students. A program which 
permits changes to itself is far more 
interesting than a standard interactive 
instructional system especially since 
the user's interactions may be pre- 
served. This, of course, inspires and 
amplf ies natural creativity. 

GROW does not possess any arti- 
ficial intelligence 'understanding' of 

Jaff Levinsky, 2240 California St. #2, Mt. View, 
CA 94040. 



either the subject matter or the user's 
interactions. Instead, simple pattern 
matching is used - but as the 
following sample session shows, this 
can be quite powerful in itself. The 
session begins with the user (whose 
input is in italics) invoking GROW 
from CHAOS II and trying some 
simple addition problems: 

% GROW 

WELCOME TO GROW 

LEARN ADO 

DO YOU WANT A DIFFICULT 

LESSON? 
NO 
SUPPOSE WE ADD 13 and -12. 

WHAT DO WE GET? 
+ 1 
RIGHT. SUPPOSE WE ADD -13 

and 12. WHAT DO WE GET? 
+ 1 
NO 
-1 
RIGHT 

This standard pattern of GROW 
describing something (perhaps stat- 
ing a problem) and the user then 
responding with a command or 
answer can -be used far more imagin- 
atively: 

YOU ARE IN A DARK EERIE 
CAVE. 
LIGHTS ON 



THE CAVE IS NOW FILLED WITH 
GLARE- FREE FLORESCENT 
LIGHT. THERE IS A ROCK ON 
THE GROUND WITH THE MYS- 
TIC QUESTION: "WHAT IS 
THREE CUBED THRICE?" 

19682 

HUH? 

19683 

THRICE -NOT TWICE. 

7625597484987 

GOOD. THE ROCK VANISHES 
AND A GLISTENING METAL 
CYLINDER APPEARS IN ITS 
PLACE. THE CYLINDER IS 
ROUGHLY 6 INCHES HIGH 
AND TWO FEET ACROSS. 

KICK IT 

THAT MIGHT HARM IT. 

SIT ON IT 

THAT MIGHT HARM IT. 

STAND ON IT 

YOU HAVE JUST BEEN TRANS- 
PORTED TO THE STAR SHIP 
ENTERPRISE. YOU ARE ON 
THE BRIDGE. THE COMPUTER 
IS MALFUNCTIONING! IT 
DOES NOT KNOW WHAT THE 
SQUARE ROOT OF 3865156 IS. 

ASK KIRK 

HUH? 

The scene the user is currently in can 
always be extended. In brief, the word 
EXTEND causes GROW to ask for 



90 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



dvgnturc 




^ 



A New Type of Game 

Welcome to an astonishing new experience! ADVENTURE is 
one of the most challenging and innovative games available for 
your personal computer. This is not the average computer game in 
which you shoot at, chase, or get chased by something, master the 
game within an hour, and then lose interest. In fact, it may take you 
more than an hour to score at all, and will probably take days or 
weeks of playing to get a good score. (There is a provision for 
saving a game in progress). 

This game was inspired by the huge Adventure game which has 
appeared on large mainframe computers the last several years. But 
there are important differences. Not only will ADVENTURE fit into 
a relatively small computer, but the 'interpreter' is designed so that 
different Adventures can be created by changing the data base. So 
look for more Adventures in the future. . . 

In playing the game you wander thru various 'rooms' (loca- 
tions), manipulating the objects there to try to find 'treasures'. You 
may have to defeat an exotic wild animal to get one treasure, or 
figure out how to get another treasure out of a quicksand bog. You 
communicate thru two-word commands such as 'go west', 'climb 
tree', 'throw axe', look around'. 

Six Different Adventures 

ADVENTURELAND (by Scott Adams) - You wander through an en- 
chanted world trying to recover the 13 lost treasures. You'll en- 
counter WILD ANIMALS, MAGICAL BEINGS, and many other 
perils and puzzles. Can you rescue the BLUE OX from the quick- 
sand? Or find your way out of the maze of pits? Happy Adven- 
turing 

CS-3007 TRS-8016K Level II (Machine language) $14.95 

CS-3506TRS-80 32K Disk (Includes Pirate Adventure) $24 95 

CS-1 009 PET 24K (Includes Pirate Adventure. In Basic) $1 4. 95 

CS-5003 SORCERER 16K (Machine language) $14.95 

CS-9003 8" CP/ M 48K Disk (Includes Pirate Adventure 

In Microsoft Basic $24.95 

PIRATE ADVENTURE (by Scott Adams) - "Yo Ho Ho and a bottle of 
rum..." You'll meet up with the pirate and his daffy bird along with 
many strange sights as you attempt to go from your London flat to 
Treasure Island. Can you recover LONG JOHN SILVER'S lost trea- 
sures? Happy sailing matey 

CS-3008 TRS-80 1 6K Level II (Machine language) $1 4.95 

CS-3506 TRS-80 32K Disk (Includes Adventureland) $24.95 

CS-1 009 PET 24K (Includes Adventureland. In Basic) $14.95 

CS-5004 SORCERER 16K (Machine language) $14.95 

CS-9003 8" CP/M 48K DisMlncludes Adventureland. 
. In Microsoft Basic. $24.95 



ORIGINAL ADVENTURE (by Crowther, Woods, Manning and 
Roichel) - Somewhere nearby is a collosal cave where others have 
found fortunes in treasures and gold, but some who have entered 
have never been seen again. You start at a small brick building 
which is the wellhouse for a large spring. You must try to find your 
way into the underground caverns where you'll meet a giant clam, 
nasty little dwarves, and much more. This Adventure Is Bi-Llngual 
—you may play in either English or French— a language learning 
tool beyond comparison. Runs in 32K CP/M system (48K required 
for SAVE GAME feature). Even includes SAM76 language in which 
to run the game. The troll says "Good Luck." 
CS-9004B"CP/M32KOiak $24.95 

MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE (by Scott Adams) - Good 
Morning, Your mission is to... and so it starts. Will you be able to 
complete your mission in time? Or is the world's first automated 
nuclear reactor doomed? This one's well named, its hard, there is 
no magic but plenty of suspense. Good luck 

CS-3009 TRS-80 1 6K Level II (Machine language) $1 4.95 

CS-3507 TRS-80 32K Disk (Includes Voodoo Castle) $24.95 

CS-5005 SORCERER 1 6K (Machine language ) $1 4.95 

VOODOO CASTLE (by Scott Adams) - Count Cristo has had a 
fiendish curse put on him by his enemies. There he lies, with you 
his only hope. Will you be able to rescue him or is he forever 

doomed? Beware the Voodoo Man 

CS-301 TRS-80 1 6K Level II (Machine language) $1 4.95 

CS-3507 TRS-80 32K Disk (Includes Mission Impossible) $24.95 

CS-S0O8 SORCERER 1 6K (Machine language ) $1 4.95 

THE COUNT (by Scott Adams) - You wake up in a large brass bed in 
a castle somewhere in Transylvania. Who are you, what are you 
doing here, and WHY did the postman deliver a bottle of blood? 
You'll love this Adventure, in fact, you might say it's LOVE AT 

FIRST BITE 

CS-301 1 TRS-80 16K Level II (Machine language) $14.95 

To outer, send payment plus $1 .00 shipping or bankcard number to Creative 
Computing Software, P.O. Box 789-M. Morrlstown, NJ 07980. Or call toll- 
free 800/631 -81 12 (In NJ 201 '540-0445). 



serasafcioRal 
software 



creative 

compafcintf 

software 



Apple II Adventures coming in early 1 980! 



91 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARO 







Grow, con't... 




keywords or phrases that will cause 
certain actions: 

EXTEND 

KEYWORDS /PHRASES 

: SPOCK 

:KIRK 

: MCCOY 

ACTIONS 

: PHE'S AWAY ON A MISSION! 

EXTEND 

KEYWORDS / PHRASES 

:1966 



ACTIONS 

: PTHAT'S RIGHT 

SAVED THE FLEET. 

+ 10 

GSICKBAY 



— YOU've 



As the extensions given are entered 
immediately, the question "ASK 
KIRK" no longer fails; instead, a 
message is printed, as specified 
above. 

ASK KIRK 

HE'S AWAY ON A MISSION! 

WHAT ABOUT SPOCK 

HE'S AWAY ON A MISSION ! 

IT'S 1966 

THAT'S RIGHT — YOU'VE 

SAVED THE FLEET. 
DESCRIBE SICKBAY 

One of the actions to be taken when 
"1966" is given is "GSICKBAY," that 
is, "go to the SICKBAY scene." 
GROW discovers that this scene has 
never before been entered, so the user 
is asked to describe it. The user then 
extends that scene. 

: YOU ARE IN THE SICKBAY - 

AN ALIEN HAS A HEARTBEAT 

OF 57 BEATS 
: PER HOUR. HOW MANY 

BEATS A YEAR IS THAT? 
: (A STANDARD GALACTIC 

YEAR IS 365 EARTH DAYS) 

EXTEND 

KEYWORDS /PHRASES 

: 499320 



ACTIONS 
PTHAT'S IT 
+ 5 
GCASTLE2 

EXTEND 

KEYWORDS /PHRASES 

MCCOY 

DOCTOR 



ACTIONS 

:PTHE GOOD DOCTOR CAN'T 
HELP. 



Now the SICKBAY scene can be im- 
mediately used: 

WHERE'S MCCOY 

THE GOOD DOCTOR CANT 
HELP. 

TELL MCCOY IT'S 499320 

THAT'S IT 

YOU ARE IN AN ANCIENT 
CASTLE TOWER, AND MUST 
TELL THE EVIL WIZARD THE 
FULL ORIGINAL NAME OF THE 
EMPEROR AUGUSTUS. 

GAIUSOCTAVIUS 

VERY GOOD. 

And, finally: 

HELP 

TO QUIT, TYPE 'QUIT' 

TO START OVER AGAIN, TYPE 
'RESTART' 

TO ADD TO THIS* TYPE 'EX- 
TEND' 

QUIT 

QUIT WITH 70 POINTS 

% 

Using GROW 

As the examples suggest, users of 
GROW always travel from scene to 
scene, or more precisely, from node 
to node. Correct answers typically 
cause a new node to be entered, but 
incorrect answers might also. The 
term "Node" is preferred over "scene" 
as sometimes a new node might still 
be refering to the same scene, as was 
the case in the cave example above. 

Each node consists of an initial 
description of the node and a number 
of keywords /phrases matched with 
various actions. Whenever a user 
enters a new node, the description is 
printed (e.g., "YOU ARE IN A DARK 
EERIE CAVE"). However, if the node 
has never before been entered, then 
the user must instead provide an 
initial description for the node, which 
GROW records permanently (as in the 
SICKBAY node above). The key- 
words/phrases and actions can be 
added to a node via "EXTEND." In all 
cases, when node data is entered a 
blank line is used to indicate the end 
of the data. When the user is in a 
node, the actions will be performed if 
the command typed in by the user 
contains one of the associated key- 
words or phrases. Once one match is 
found, GROW will look no further. As 
an example, in the SICKBAY node the 
keyword "499320" has the actions 
"PTHAT'S IT," " + 5," and "GCASTLE- 
2" associated with it while the key- 
words "MCCOY" and "DOCTOR" are 
associated with the action "PTHE 
GOOD DOCTOR CAN'T HELP." Due 
to the order in which these two exten- 
sions were made, the command 
"TELL MCCOY IT'S 499320" is inter- 
preted correctly: GROW first tries to 



find "499320" and then, if that fails, it 
tries to find "MCCOY." Care is needed 
in cases like this, for rf the node had 
been extended in the other order, 
"MCCOY" would be matched before 
"499320" and the user would not have 
been credited for the correct answer. 

There are no limits on the number 
of nodes, extensions, keyword/ 
phrases, or actions, or on the length 
of the initial descriptions of nodes 
other than the overall file space of 
CHAOS II. The set of primitive actions 
(those defined by GROW itself) is 
small but quite powerful. In addition 
to nodes, GROW also keeps track of 
the user's score and two of the primi- 
tive actions allow this to be modified. 
Two other primitive actions allow 
nodes to be entered and extended. 
The primitive actions are: 

+ number- Adds points to the user's 

score, as in " + 20." 
-number - Subtracts points from the 

user's score, as in "-15." 
Ptext - Prints out the text, as in 

"PTHAT MIGHT HARM 

IT." 
Gnode - Goes to another node, as 

in "GSICKBAY." 
X - Allows the user to extend 

the current node. 
Q -Causes GROW to print the 

user's score and quit. 

These primitive actions are used 
much like statements in a program- 
ming language, and there is one 
restriction: actions following a "G," 
"X" or "Q" within the list of actions of 
a single extension are ignored. This is 
because GROW immediately goes to 
another node, modifies the current 
node, or quits, respectively, upon 
performing these actions and thus 
cannot come back to do the next. 

When the user types in a com- 
mand, GROW often searches the 
current node for a matching keyword 
or phrase unsuccessfully. If this 
happens, GROW will then search a 
node named DEFAULT. Some key- 
words in DEFAULT are "QUIT" and 
"EXTEND" which cause the "Q" and 
"X" actions, respectively. DEFAULT 
then becomes the current node and it 
can also be extended. If GROW can- 
not find a match in DEFAULT, then a 
random message is printed out and 
no action is taken. GROW also knows 
about a node named INIT, which is the 
current node whenever GROW is 
invoked from CHAOS II initially. INIT 
can also be extended in the normal 
fashion. 

All of the effects illustrated in 
GROW can be obtained by clever uses 
of nodes, keyword /phrases and ac- 
tions. For instance, GROW knows 
nothing of arithmetic but numerical 



92 



CREATIVE CO M PUTINO 




How 
COMPUMAX 
stacks up 

the 
competition 





W «*«*«"- 














M^^XOMPARISON SHOPPING? STOP HERE! 


IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 
ABOUT BUSINESS SOFTWARE 


: ; " ." cm ax 


OSBORNE/ 
McCRAWHILL 


PEACHTREE 
SOFTWARE 


STRUCTURED 
SYSTEMS 


What programs are available? 

Are they INTERACTIVE? 


INTERACTIVE 
CENERAL LEDCER 
ACC'TS PAYABLE 
ACCTS REC'BLE 
INVENTORY 
PAYROLL/PERSONNEL 


INTERACTIVE 

CENERAL LEDCER 
ACCTS PAYABLE 
ACCTS REC'BLE 

NON-INTERACTIVE: 
PAYROLL 


INTERACTIVE 

GENERAL LEDCER 
ACCTS PAYABLE 
ACC'TS REC'BLE 
PAYROLL 

NON/NTERACTIVE 
INVENTORY 


INTERACTIVE 
CENERAL LEDCER 
ACC'TS PAYABLE 
ACC'TS REC'BLE 

NON-INTERACT/VE 
STOCK CONTROL 
INVENTORY 


What versions are available? 


TRS-SO, APPLE II 

COMMODORE PET 

MICROSOFT.CBASIC2 CP/M 

MICROPOLIS 

EXIDY SORCERER, 
VECTOR M2. DYNABYTE 

CROMEMCOIII 


WANC 
CBASIC2 CP/M 


MICROSOFT CP/M 


CBASIC2 CP/M 


What is the price? 


MICROLEDCER. A/P. 
A/R. INV, PERS $140 -each 
MAXILEDCER, A/P, A/R 
$1S0 -each 


GL, A/P. A/R, PAYROLL: 

$250 -each 
Cost of configuring must 
be added' 


CL. A/P, A/R, PAYROLL, 
INVENTORY $1000 each 


CL$995- 
A/P$750- 
A/R$7S0- 
INV $500 - 


Hardware options 


40 column CRT 
64 column CRT 
80 col terminal 
80 col printer included 


64 col CRT only 

132 column printer only 


80 col CRT only 

132 column printer only 


cursor addressable terminal 

only 
132 column printer only 


Is source code included ? 


YES. INCLUDING 
PROGRAM FLOWCHARTS 


YES 


YES 


NO 


What type of after-purchase 
support is offered? 


1 YR WARRANTY & 
CORRECT ION OF DEFECTS 
THROUCH DEALER 
INDIVIDUAL PROCRAM 
AUTHORS AVAILABLE FOR 
QUESTIONS 


NONE 


1 YR WARRANTY & 
CORRECTION OF DEFECTS 
THROUCH DEALER 


TECHNICIANS AVAILABLE 
FOR QUESTIONS UPDATES 
MADE AVAILABLE FOR 
A FEE 



yourone-stop shop for all your business bookkeeping software 

You've been led down the path COMPUMAX software is de- Or do as many have done— keep it 



You've been led down the path 
before, but not this time. No more 
promises of turnkey computers 
without the key. It's YOUR turn to 
tell the computer how to run the 
business, not vice versa. 

With COMPUMAX software 
you have a beginning. With 5 
years of experience and over 3,000 
systems installed, they are pro- 
fessionals, when it comes to solu- 
tions for the businessman. 



COMPUMAX software is de 
signed with CHANCE in mind, 
since everybody really wants his 
own touch added. The programs 
are SIMPLE, YET ELOQUENT. 

COMPUMAX supplies ready, 
working programs. You can, then, 
easily customize them, as your 
additional requirements develop. 



Or do as many have done— keep it 
simple by running the programs 
in their ready form. Join the 
microcomputer revolution the 
simple way. 

For a demo, visit your local compu- 
ter store. If you local retailer does not 
carry COMPUMAX software, have 
him give us a call at (415) 321-2881 . 



JANUARY 1980 



505 HAMILTON AVENUE PALO ALTO, CA 94301 

93 CIRCLE 155 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Grow, con't... 

answers can be stored as keywords. 
Placing spaces around numerical 
keywords can be used to insure 
correct matching. Experimentation is 
the best way to learn how to use 
GROW to set up lessons, tutorials, 
quizzes and games. 

Inside GROW. 

GROW is written in CHAOS II 
BASIC which is similar to most 
microcomputer versions. The pro- 
gram uses mainly strings (but no 
string arrays) and sequential files, 
and should be easy to transport onto 
most disk or cassette systems. 

Nodes are stored in files with the 
name of the file being the name of the 
node. The internal format uses null 
strings to separate the components of 
the node. The format is : 

1. The initial description of the 
node (zero or more strings), 

2. A null string and 

3. Zero or more of : 

a. a list of keywords/phrases 
(one to a line), 

b. a null string, 

c. a list of actions (one to a 
line) and 

d. anull string. 

Nodes are extended by adding an- 
other list of keywords/ phrases and 
list of actions at the end of the file 
(separated and terminated with null 
strings). Since files are totally dyna- 
mic in CHAOS II, GROW need not 
worry about the size of the node. 
The main variables in GROW are : 
N$ the name of the node the user 

currently is in, 
P the user's score, 
l$ a line input from the user and 
S$ a line input from a file. 
GROW is constructed modularly with 
the main program consisting of a call 
to the initialization subroutine and an 
infinite loop in which the subroutine 
to get and process commands from 
the user are called. The subroutines in 
GROW are: 

INITIALIZE line 2000 

Clears space for the strings and 
files, zeroes the score and 
causes the introductory message 
in the IN IT node to be printed. 

INPUTLINE Iine3000 

Gets a (command) line from the 
user. The prompt is a space. 

PROCESS LINE line 4000 

Tries to find a match for the 
(command) line by first looking 
in the current node (N$) and then 
in the DEFAULT node. The FIND 
LINE subroutine does the actual 
searching and returns with F set 
to 1 if, and only if, it has found a 
match. If a match is found, then 



the DO ACTIONS subroutine is 
used, otherwise a random re- 
sponse is given. 

FIND LINE line 5000 

Searches the currently opened 
file for a match to l$. Subroutine 
SKIP BLOCK is used to skip over 
the initial description of the node 
and later over the lists of actions. 
Subroutine GET LINE is used to 
obtain a line S$ which contains a 
keyword /phrase. FIND LINE re- 
turns with F = O unless a match 
is found - in which case F = 1 . 

DO ACTIONS line 5400 

Finds and performs the actions 
associated with a keyword/ 
phrase that has been matched. 
SKIP BLOCK is used to get to the 
list of actions and GET LINE is 
used to obtain the actions one at 
a time. Null and undecipherable 
actions are ignored. Subroutine 
CONVERT is used to get the 
numerical value for actions with 
" + " or "-." Subroutine GO TO 
NEW NODE is used for action 
"G;" subroutine EXTEND NODE 
is used for action "X." 

RANDOM RESPONSE Iine5800 
Prints a random response. 

SKIP BLOCK line 6000 

Reads through a file (#1) until a 
null line or the end-of-file is en- 
countered. For instance, SKIP 
BLOCK is used to advance 
through files containing nodes 
skipping over lists of actions. 

GET LINE line 6200 



Reads the next line from a file 
and returns this in S$. If there are 
no more lines, S$ is set to the 
null string. 

CONVERT line 6400 

Converts the second through the 
last characters of S$ into an 
integer and returns this in N. 

INPUT NEW DATA Iine6600 

Obtains lines from the user and 
writes them into a node. The 
prompt is a colon. The user indi- 
cates the end of the list of lines 
by an empty line. 

COPY NODE Iine6800 

Copies the current node into a 
node called TEMP. TEMP can 
later be expanded by subroutine 
INPUT NEW DATA. 

GOTO NEW NODE line 7000 
Sends a user to another node if 
the name appears legal. N$ is 
updated. If the node exists, sub- 
routine GET LINE is used to help 
print out the description in the 
node. If the node does not exist, 
the ERROR trap is used and the 
user must describe the new 
node. The description is entered 
via subroutine INPUT NEW 
DATA. The ON ERROR GO TO O 
resets the ERROR trap. 

EXTEND NODE line 8000 

Uses INPUT NEW DATA to add 
the list of keywords /phrases and 
the corresponding list of actions 
to the current node. The COPY 
routine is required due to CHAOS 
II file usage. 



Bh" I r 










MITT 


Bf>sir 


Vm. 4. 1 








OK 












LDHP-KPOIJI 










OK 












LIST 












10 PEN 






••• 


EXTFNSIBIF flTiVFNTMPF ♦♦* 


?n PFM 






• 


COPYRIGHT .f. |-a7« • 


■»n pfm 






• 


BY IFFF LFVIMSKV • 


4t1 PFH 






• 


Fill PIKHT" PF"FPVFT ♦ 


50 PFH 






♦ UP IT 


6A PFM 










1000 


PFM 








MFiIN LOOP 


inm 


fin "Hi! 


?000 








10£n 


ROSD* 


-■1 








1 i'i 3 i'i 


GOSUP 


40 on 








10411 


GOTO 


I0?0 








ifififi 


PFM 








INITIR1 ITF 


?(<\ n 


ri EHP 


^nn.;- 








<=■ iv n 


p.n 










?{*->.<* 


N«« "TNTT 








?040 


I*»" 


iNTpn " 








.-• 06 fi 


r;rv-nf: 


4 ii n n 








t ri ? n 


gcitp 


1 IV ii 








3000 


PEM 








INPUT LINE 


3nin 


t INF 


INPUT " " 


S It 




sto?o 


I$»" 


•♦!«♦ 










cmn 


1030 








4 ri mi 


PFM 








PPPfFti LINE 


40] ii 


PPFN 


T". |.N« 








4 IV ri 


PflSIIB 


SO I'i l"i 








«Mfl 


IF F« 


1 THFN 41 


1 li 






4114"! 


n ivf 










40S0 


ppfn 


'l-.li PFFP.IILT" 





94 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Let us Take you Elsewhen 



Designed pTT* 
for use on I C I 



TREK-X 

Welcome to the most sophisticated Trek we've 
seen yet. We'll beam you aboard to command 
this mission at the helm of the Federation Star- 
ship Enterprise. Your briefing follows: 

I. The Romulans and the Klingons, normally an- 
tagonistic to one another, have decided to form 
an alliance. This alliance has but one end — to an- 
nihilate the United Federation of Planets. 

II. You have a dual mission: first, to explore the 
more distant realms of space; and second, to 
locate and destroy as many Romulan/Klingon 
warships as possible. Another ally of the 
Romulan/Klingon coalition may attack the Enter- 
prise -you will receive further instructions. 

III. After you make fifty confirmed "kills," your 
mission will be accomplished, and you can head 
home. 

In Trek-X the vastness of space is depicted by 
a 12 x 12 x 4 matrix containing suns, planets, 
moons, and other celestial bodies. Unlike some' 
two-dimensional "treks," Trek-X allows you to 
move in front of or behind suns, planets, and 
enemy spacecraft. Note also that quadrant 
boundaries are transparent to you, just as they 
would be in real life. You'll have both warp power 
and sub-light speeds at your disposal, and a 
detailed map of space will be available on de- 
mand. Your ship's computer will display the pres- 
ent alert condition (e.g., Green, Yellow, Red, or 
CRITICAL), and will keep track of your shield 
power and the number of hits you've received 
from enemy vessels. 

To add even more realism, optional sound ef- 
fects— phasor and photon torpedo fire, and their 
resultant explosions - have been included. Trek- 
X: more than just a game. For the 8K PET. Order 
No. 0032P $7.95. 
* A trademark of Commo dore Business Machines Inc. 

Ask for Instant Software at a com- 
puter store near you or call Toil- 
Free 1-800-258-5473. 

I 1 



I 



Address 



City 



Stale . 



.Zip. 



□ Check 
OVISA 
Card No. 



Q Money order 
D AMEX Q Master Charge 



Expiration Date. 
Signed 



Order your Instant Software today! 



Quantity 


Order No 


Unit Cost 


Total Cost 


































Prices valid Handling 


$100 


in USA only Total Order 





Instant Software Inc. oept ccoao 

Peterborough. N H 03X58 USA 
J 



We can take you to the 15th century, to the states of Italy to rule the 
fortunes of many. . . we can take you to 1922 for a solo flight through 
the American Midwest. . . we can take you to the future, where you'll 
journey along the final frontier. . . the choice is yours. 



B '—" 



■i ' 




Designed 
for use on 

TRS-80* 

16K 
LEVEL II 



EVERY 

FLIGHT 

IS A SPECIAL 

DELIVERY 



OK, Ace, you survived everything that von Richthofen and the Flying Circus threw 
at you. Well, that was four long years ago -and yesterday's medals don't pay the 
rent. But just a minute, here's an ad: 

"Airmail Pilot wanted . . ." 

AIRMAIL PILOT 

You can almost smell the gasoline as the ground crew fuels your J 4 Jenny biplane to her 
26-gallon limit. Precious mail is loaded into the cargo area, tagged for Chicago. The weather- 
man reports severe icing above 6,000 feet, so you know you have to keep the plane low. It will 
be a dangerous flight, but you knew that when you took the job. The mail must go through. So, 
in the tradition of Lindbergh and a hundred unsung heroes, you bravely turn your plane into the 
wind. The engine roars. Suddenly you're aloft on the first leg of your journey. Dayton's socked 
in by fog. You change your course for Lucasville. Lightning zigzags the sky. A massive, fast- 
moving thunderstorm forces you to land in a cornfield. As the weather clears, your plane leaps 
once more into the sky. But even clear skies can cause problems- violent air currents buffet 
your fragile wooden aircraft. Your fuel is down to two gallons as Lucasville comes into sight. 
You make it! Refuel and head for Chicago. But you're not out of trouble yet. There's a wind 
shear at the Chicago airport. You have to land in a shifting crosswind. Can you make it? AIR- 
MAIL PILOT from INSTANT SOFTWARE. Unlike any other computer simulation you've ever ex- 
perienced. Challenging. Difficult. But never impossible. An event in a cassette. Crash or fly, it's 
so realistic, you can almost feel the wind. Requires a Level II 16K. Order No. 0106R $7.95. 




taW ^" \ « Ltt • . 

SANTA PARAVIA AND FIUMACCIO 

The year is A.D. 1400, and you are the ruler of a 
tiny Italian city-state. You are ambitious by 
nature and intend to build your little city-state in- 
to a powerful kingdom. 

So begins Santa Paravia and Fiumaccio, 
where you and your fellow players compete as 
rulers of neighboring cities. You control the grain 
harvest, feed your people, set tax rates, exercise 
justice, invest in public works and, of course, try 
to stay on the good side of the church. 



Life was short back then, and you'll have only a 
limited amount of time in which to build your 
kingdom. The lives of your serfs will depend on 
your decisions. If you act wisely, then your city- 
state will grow and you will acquire loftier titles. 
If your rule is incompetent, your people will 
starve, and your city-state may be invaded by 
your neighbors. 

You can play the game yourself or set up the 
tournament version, which allows up to six 
players at a time to compete. Either way, you're 
sure to find your route to the throne a challenging 
and rocky one. 

How will you rule your kingdom? Will you be a 
benevolent ruler — an iron fist in a velvet 
glove -or will you become unscrupulous and 
follow the example set by Niccolo Machiavelli in 
his book on government, The Prince? Only you 
can answer that question -with Santa Paravia 
and Fiumaccio Order No. 0043R $7.95. 
* A trademark of Tandy Corporation 



Instant 



Peterborough, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



JANUARY 1980 



95 



CIRCLE 110 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Grow, con't... 




FINT' 



nn action: 



4060 gpshp snoo 

40*0 IF F»1 THFN 4110 

4090 fin^iip ssi'n 
4inn sotp 4i?o 
4i in ensui -.4 mi 

41 ?o nn'F 
4130 PFTUPN 

5000 pfh 
5010 F«n 
50?o firm if ^ooo 

5030 IF FPF r 1 , THFN PFTUPH 

5040 fin'iifc 6poo 

5050 if ?««""Then 30j>o 

5060 s*«" ♦»♦•• 

5070 IF 1N - Tp. It. "t>«0 THFH 50?0 

soso f»i 

5090 PFTHPH 
'.4 00 PFH 

5410 60$U) 6000 

54?0 RP'Hp 6? 00 

5430 IF "t='"THFH PFTUPH 

1440 T*»l FFTt' "t. 1 • 

5450 IF T»«"P"THFH PPINT H I Dt <?*•?> S 6PTP 54?0 

54*0 IF T««"f>"THFN PPINTfWIT UlTH " « PS "PPINTS " : FNA 

547 IF T«»"*" THFH fiP^UP 64 00:P«P*N:6PTP 54? 

5480 IF Tt""-"THFN 6P"t IJ.-.4 "O: P«P-H: 6PTP54?0 

5490 IF T««"6"THFN RO'np 70oii: PETHPN 

5500 IF T««"X"TNFN 6P's"F 8000:PETUPN 

=i51Ci i^PTP54?0 

5800 PFH 

5S1 o PelNT<PMP^O'» I 

58? IF R-fl THFH PPIhT'HIiH-'FLSE IF P«1 THFH PPIHT ■ UHATTl IF PPIHT"! DPH 

t [Montxirw 

PFTHPH 
6000 PFH 

6010 IF FPF'1'THFH "t^": PFTUPH 
60?0 INPMTsl. t 
MM IF"*' '•THFH 601 
6040 PFTHPH 
6200 PFH 

6?I0 IF FPFM' THFH t»" EL^F INPUT* 1>SS 
6?20 PFTUPH 
64 00 PFH 
641 H=n 
64? l«? 

6430 IF !>LFN' -t>THFN PFTHPH 
6440 N=N»1 0+M"|- 'HI Tit. "t. I. 1 ' • -H " l" • "0" . 
6450 |aT + 1 

64 3 

INPUT NEU TlRTH 



CPPV MOPE 



PhHPDM PETPOH : E 



~KIP PI DC* 



r-fl LIHE 



fPHVFPT 



646 


KPTP 6430 


660 


PFH 


6610 


I INF input • :•; it 


66? 


PR1NT«I • IS 


6630 


IF I* •■'THFH "in 


6640 


PFTUPH 


6800 


PFH 


6*10 


PPFH -I-.?.H« 


68? 


PPFH "fl'.lt 'TFHP" 


68 -• n 


IF FPFi?' THFH PFTHPH 


684 


INPUT ::?. It 


6850 


PPIHT III . It 


6860 


KPTPf 


70 III' 


PFH 



GPTP HFU HOHE 
70)0 IF'l FN. t' .- 'DP'I FU. f *■ THFH PFTUPH 
70?0 CI P'F 
70"-i0 Ht=HUlt ' '»•? ' 
7040 PN FPPPP GPTP 71 Or 
70*0 PPFH "I'.ltNS 

7060 Hp-np 6?on 

7070 IF't* '"THFH71-.0 

708 PPINT't 

7 Oil i KPTP rri6 l'. 

71 00 PF'UHF 71 1 

7110 i i n ■ F 

7l?n PFFN "II" « 1 .Nt 

71M. PPIHT' OF-iPIFF 'IHt 

714i"i hP " I 'P p-.r^lill 

71S0 fti FPPPP i"--PIP i' 1 

71i-.ii PFTHPH 

8000 PFH F: TFHP HDI'F 

8010 I" I p ■ F 

80?0 fiflSIIH 680(1 

PP1NT">FV UPPTi" PH«6 ^ 

8040 liP"li^ r- » 

8050 PP!HT"6r Tipr. 

9060 l-.p"l ip f-.r- 00 

ftli^.ft ll P' F 

8069 k II INS 

8070 NHMF TPHF8 N1 
808n PFTUPH 



Figure! 



To run GROW on a new system, the 
nodes INIT and DEFAULT must also 
be provided. On CHAOS II, these 
nodes can be created using the text 
editor. On other systems a short pro- 
gram can be written to read lines from 
the terminal and place them in a file of 
strings. The listings of GROW, INIT 
and DEFAULT are given in Figure 1 . 

Beyond GROW 

Some of the features absent in 
GROW are actually provided by the 
CHAOS II system. These include the 
ability to have several GROW sub- 
systems and the ability to protect 
specific nodes from extension. 
CHAOS II also enforces a quota on 
files thus preventing GROW from 
overgrowing the entire computer. 
Users of other systems might obtain 
these features by modifying GROW 
itself. For instance, GROW might 
automatically prefix each node name 
with an ASCII character indicating to 
which subsystem the node belongs. 
This provides up to 256 subsystems 
and prevents errors arising from simi- 
larly-named nodes in different sub- 
systems. 

Those accustomed to program- 
ming languages such as BASIC or 
PILOT will probably feel uncomfort- 
able with the limited number of 
primitive actions that GROW pro- 
vides. A language such as BASIC or 
PILOT could be used in place of the 
primitive actions, but the implemen- 
tation can be difficult. One technique 
is to encode nodes as subroutines 
rather than as data files and to merge 
the current node Into the program 
workspace. Certain BASICs appear to 
have this capability. 1 Another tech- 
nique, which can be used with 
BASICS that provide an immediate 
mode, is to encode GROW in 
assembly language and have it call 
upon the BASIC to execute the 
actions in the node. Using a high level 
language for actions does require that 
all users who add extensions learn 
that language (or at least a subset of 
it), which may be impractical, especi- 
ally with elementary school students. 

7 POINT FOOTNOTE GOES HERE 
On larger computers, GROW can very 
easily be implemented in interactive 
languages such as APL and LISP. 

In connection with a computer 
science curriculum, GROW can be 
used effectively as a base for a 
series of programming exercises. For 
example, a program can be written 
which will find all nodes and all paths 
between nodes. This can then be 
modified to print all of the descrip- 
tions of nodes or all of the keywords 
and phrases. If the GROW program 
has been in use for some time, the 



CREATIVE COM PUTINQ 



Grow, con't... 




listings of what has been a 
be quite amusing. An advanced pro- 
ject is to find the shortest way (in 
terms of nodes visited) to score as 
many points as possible (without 
scoring at a particular node more than 
once). This is a variant of the Travel- 
ing Salesman problem. 

Finally, imagine a single GROW 
system on a network of personal 
computers, with thousands of users 
playing simultaneously. Even with 
only a dozen or so users providing 
extensions at a time, one could be 
certain to be able to explore new 
nodes forever. □ 

References 

1 . Kroening, Mary E. CHAOS User's Manual. 
San Diego, California: 197B. 

2. Levinsky, Jeff L. "CHAOS: An Interactive 
Timeshared Operating System for the 8080," 
Or. Dobbs Journal. XXXI (January, 1979), 
6-13. 

CHAOS II 

CHAOS II is a multi-user, multi-tasking 
8080-based system developed at Clairemont 
High School in San Diego, California as an 
economical alternative to large timeshare or 
networked microprocessor installations. 
CHAOS II permits at least half a dozen students 
to simultaneously develop and /or run pro- 
grams written in BASIC, 8080 machine lan- 
guage and SHELL (a powerful command lan- 
guage). Students and teachers may each have 
private directories; both files and directories 
may have access rights specified to restrict or 
allow access from other directories. CHAOS II 
currently uses floppy disks for mass storage, 
and directories are assigned to a particular 
disk, thereby permitting one disk to be used per 
class. This in turn results in greater economies, 
as the disks for one class can be copied and 
dismounted and the disk for another class 
mounted on the same drive within a five to ten 
minute class break. 

For further information about CHAOS II, 
please write to: 

Computer Systems Design Group 

3632 Governor Dr. 

San Diego, CA 921 22 




"You don't have a mind of your own 
and can be programmed to do any- 
thing, but on the other hand, you have 
a great memory and. . . " 

©Creative Computing 



ORTRAN 

for the 8080 only $99 9 5 



FORT//80 is a subset of Fortran IV with many powerful enhancements! 
FORT//80 is an advanced software development tool! 
FORT//80 is AFFORDABLE!! 



FEATURES 



> FORT//80 directly addresses 8080 ports as 
FORTRAN variables 

| • I/O drivers accessed via FORTRAN read/ write 

statements 
I • FORT/ ,80 accepts embedded in-line machine code 
| • 8080 condition codes are available as FORTRAN 

keywords and can be operated upon 

> Multiple assignment operators accepted 

| • Interleaved listings and object code for quick 

debugging 
| • Symbolic names up to 31 char long simplify 

documentation 
| • Constants expressabie to base 2. 8. 10. 16 or as 

char strings 
| • Compact: Needs only 2SK for compiler and 

minimum workspace 



• Fast. Runs up to 10 times as tasl as PLM 

• FORT//80 directives specify location of code in 
memory at run time 

• Interrupt and interrupt control 

• FORT//80 control ol interrupts and interrupt 
service lines 

• All code runs on 8080. 8085 and Z80 (upward 
compatibility) 

• FORT//80 is a true resident compiler and 
generates directly executable object code No run 
time package needed 

• F0RT//80 is very last It compiles quickly and 
produces dense highly optimized code 

• Single and double precision IBM tormat floating 
point arithmetic 



PRICING 

[ FORT/ 80 CPM version and manual on 8" diskette $99.95 I 

FORT/ /80 Language manual separately 20 00 

FORT/ /80 Implementation manual 20.00 

Sample diskette validation program and data 5.00 | 

Shipping charges to US and Canada postpaid, overseas add $5 00 Please add 
appropriate state sales tax. Master Charge and Visa accepted. 

1 FORT/ 80 is supplied on a single use basis, subject to the signing of a non-disclo- 
sure agreement 

1 2. FORT/ /80 can be implemented with other disc operating systems using the | 
implementation manual or special versions available by quotation 

| 3. The purchase price of manuals and sample programs will be credited towards | 
subsequent purchase of FORT//80 



rsmsfJij : I : : 1 1 1 1 i : ■> 



BOX 4072. ROCHESTER. NY 14610 
PHONE ORDERS CALL 716-271-6487 



Distributors: 



Digital Research of Texas Box 401565 Garland. TX 75040. (214) 271-2461 
Electrolabs Inc Box 6721 Stanford CA 94305 (415) 321-5601 
' Arkansas Systems Inc 8901 Kanis Rd Little Rock. KS 72205. (501) 227-8471 
♦Arkon Electronics Ltd 409 Queen St W. Toronto. ONT M5V 2A5. (416) 868-1315 
Dealer inquiries invited 



CIRCLE 113 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Are you 

THE WIZARD OF WALL STREET? 

Real-time TRS-80 L2 16K stock market game 
with supply/demand, US economy, cycles, 
takeovers. $19.95 cassette. 

WRITE 

METATRON. Box 900, Amherst MA 01002. 



JANUARY 1980 



CIRCLE 17« ON READER SERVICE CARD 



97 



AUTHORS WANTED 
BY N.Y.PUBLISHER 

A well-known New York subsidy book 
publisher is searching for manuscripts 
worthy of publication. Fiction, non- 
fiction, poetry, juveniles, travel, scien- 
tific, specialized and even controversial 
subjects will be considered. If you have 
a book-length manuscript ready for pub- 
lication (or are still working on it), and 
would like more information and a free 
booklet, please write: 



Vantage I 
516 W 34th St.. 



ress. I >i-|,t 
New York. 



D-65 

NY 10001 



CIRCLE 115 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Recursive 

Procedures 

In Fortran i 



Brian Hess 






How often have you seen some fancy algorithms 
written up In a book or magazine using a corrupted 
ALGOL-like notation which took advantage of 
recursion? Ever had to just skip right past it because, 
while you understood recursion, you had no language 

Brian Hess. 362 Memorial Dr., Cambridge. MA 02139. 



available to you on your micro, mini, or school computer 
which supported recursive procedures? No longer — 
you can use FORTRAN! As klugy and primitive a lan- 
guage as it may be, through the miracle of the "ASSIGN" 
and assigned "GO TO" statements, recursion can be 
very easily simulated. 



Program A 



INTEGER STACK. TOP.RTNAPR 
COMMON fOP. STACK (256) 



C *«« CALL TO THE RECURSIVE PROCEDURE: AT 

STATEMENT 200 *** 
ASSIGN 100 TO RTNADR 
CALL FUSH(RTNADR) 
GO TO 200 
100 CONTINUE 

■qre of main f»rosra».:- 



CALL EXIT 
C **» STATEMENT 200 BEGINS A RECURSIVE PROCEDURE *** 
200 . procedure bodv 



CALL POP(RTNABR) 
GO TO RTNADR 
C *** END OF PROCEDURE *** 
END 

SUBROUTINE PUSH (ITEM) 
INTEGER STACK. TOP 
COMMON TOP. STACK (25 .5) 
C *** PUT SOMETHING ON THE TOP OF OUR STACK t** 
TOP * TOP+1 

IF (T0P.GT.254) CALL STRACE 
STACK (TOP) » ITEM 



RETURN 
END 

SUBROUTINE POP (ITEM) 
INTEGER STACK. TOP 
COMMON TOP. STACK (256) 
*** GET THE TOPMOST THING OFF THE STACK *** 
IF (TOP.EQ.O) CALL STRACE 



ITEM = STACK (TOP) 
TOP =» TOP-1 
RETURN 
END 

SUBROUTINE STRACE 
C »»« UE MUST HAVE PUSHED OR POPPED TOO FAR - 

EXECUTE STACK TRACE It** 
INTEGER STACK t TOP 
COMMON TOP. STACK (23 6> 
C *»* REPORT WHICH IT WAS **S 
WRITE(A.l) TOP 
1 FORMAT (1H1.//, 'THE PUSHDOWN STACK BOUNDS HAVE 

BEEN EXCE^ED' 
It/.' *»«** TOP OF STACK NOU - ' tllOt/) 
WRITE(6.2> STACK 
2 FORMAT (//•' ***»» STACK CONTENTS *****' 

,/,(10I10./>> 
STOP 'ERROR' 
END 



98 






CREATIVE COMPUTING 





> 



Available Now 

The most widely used Pascal system. 
Compilers to complete development 
software. For most popular microcom- 
puter systems. With full documentation 
and support. From one source. 



micRosvsTems 

n SUBSIDIflflV OF SOFTECH 

9494 Black Mountain Road 

San Diego. CA 92126 714 578-6105 

UCSD Pascal is a trademark of the Regents 
of the University of California 



Find out more. Send this coupon. 

D Please send UCSD Pascal description and order 

form. 
□ Please send distributor and volume license 

information. 



Name- 
Title 



Company- 
Address 



CitylStatelZip. 



Computer system. 



Send to: SotTech Microsystems 

9494 Black Mountain Road 
San Diego. CA 92126 



TO ORDER CALL (212) 687-5000 

The COMPUTER FACTORY 



in Jit ii 



'99 



CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Recursive, con't. 



A Quick Review of Recursion 

A function is recursive when it calls Itself. (It can 
also call a second function which calls the first, etc.) 
Let's use the factorial function to illustrate. (A factorial 
is the product of the integers between 1 and a given 
integer. For example, 5 factorial, written 5!, Is 
5x4x3x2x1 = 120.) We will use the property that Nl = 
Nx(N-1)l. (51 = 5x4!) If FORTRAN allowed procedures 
to call themselves, our factorial function might look like 
this: 

FUNCTION IFACT(Ni 
C **« P( IS DEFINED TO BE EQUAL TO 1 *** 

IF (N.NE.O) GO TO 10 

IFACT = 1 

RETURN 
C *** ELSE KECURSE *** 

10 IFACT -- N*IFACTlN-l> 

RETURN 

END 

If you want a more complete explanation of recursion or 
stacks and some relation to BASIC, refer to the article 
"Something is Missing" by Craig Flnseth In Creative 
Computing, November/December 1977. 

How to do It In Legal FORTRAN 

To implement a recursion scheme, you save return 
addresses on a pushdown stack. Program A demon- 
strates the technique. 

The "ASSIGN" statement and the unconditional "GO 
TO" In Program A behave like the machine Instructions 
which the compiler generates for an ordinary subroutine 
call, i.e., they save the return address and transfer 
control to the subroutine. The difference Is that the 
return address is saved on a pushdown stack by "CALL 
PUSH(RTNAOR)" Instead of a fixed location. This 
makes recursion possible. Note that all of the recursive 
procedures must belong to the same FORTRAN com- 
pilation, since "RTNADR" must be recognized and 
treated as a local address by the FORTRAN compiler. 

An Example 

Let's look at an example. Program B calculates 
factorials; it again uses the definition Nl = Nx(N-1)l. 
This is not the fastest way to compute factorials, but It's 
a very easy test run to program. There Is a slight 
difference between Program B and Program A. Program 
B must call the routine with an argument (the number to 
be "factorlalized"), so an extra call to "PUSH" is done 
every time the routine is called. 

Don't forget that when pushing or popping argu- 
ments on the stack, the recursive procedure must obey a 
"stack discipline." All this means is that whatever items 
any routine pushes onto the stack It must pop off again 
before returning from the call. In the example, when 
setting up for the recursive call, we push two Items: the 
return address and the value of the argument previously 
passed minus one. When entering the factorial routine, 
we pop one Item (the argument) off, and when the' 
"return" is executed at statement 155, the other Item Is 
popped. 



1 






INTEGER STACK. TOP. RTNADR 


2 




COMMON TOP. STACK (256) 


3 


C *** 


'GLOBAL' WILL HOLD OUR RESULT *** 


4 


C *** 


'ARC IS USED TO GET OUR ARGUMENT OFF 








THE STACK *** 


5 






INTEGER GLOBAL. ARG 


6 


c **« 


COMPUTE 10 FACTORIAL *** 


7 






N - 10 


S 


c »** 


PUSH ON RETURN ADDRESS. THEM ARGUMENT TO 








BE PASSED *** 


9 






ASSIGN 50 TO RTNADR 


10 






CALL PUSH<RTNADR) 


11 






CALL PUSH(N> 


12 






GO TO 100 


13 




50 


URITEC6.51) GLOBAL 


14 




51 


FORMAT (' 10' ■ -.110) 


15 






CALL EXIT 


16 


c 






17 


c 






18 


c 






19 


c 


*** 


RECURSIVE PROCEDURE FACTORIAL *»* 


20 


c 






21 


c 


*t* 


CHECK IF ARGUMENT =0 — 0' DEilNED 

as i «sa 


22 




100 


CALL POP (ARG) 


23 






IF (AKG.NE.O) GO TO 110 


24 






GLOBAL ■ 1 


25 






GO TO 155 


26 


c 


*** 


REPLACE ARGUMENT »*t 


->7 




110 


CALL PUSH (ARG) 


28 


c 


*** 


CALL FACTORIAL IAkP-1) *** 


29 






ASSIGN 150 TO RTNADR 


30 






CALL PUSH ( RTNADR ) 


31 






CALL PUSH '. ARG- 1) 


32 






GO TO J 00 


33 


c 


*** 


UE FINALLY GOT AN 'ASSIGNED CO' TO 150 
- STAR! MU! T I PL Y I NO ** 


34 




ISC 


CALL POP < ARG) 


35 






GLOBAL ■ GLQBAL*ARG 


36 


c 


**» 


RETURN *** 


37 




15L 


CALL POP (RTNADR) 


39 






GO TO RTNADR 


39 






END 



Program B 

But look at statement 110. Isn't It kind of unusual 
that we took the argument off the stack and then pushed 
It right back on again? Does this violate our stack disci- 
pline? No, we Just didn't want "ARG" to get trampled by 
the next recursive call to our factorial procedure. "ARG" 
was used as a "local variable" which most other 
languages would save for us during recursion, but 
which we must save for ourselves in FORTRAN. It is 
popped off later when multiplying "GLOBAL" at state- 
ment 150, keeping the stack level correct. 

Extra Fun 

So, to create recursive procedures in FORTRAN (or 
assembly language, for that matter), we must use a 
pushdown stack to hold return addresses and (some- 
times) simple arguments and local variables. What 
needs to be done in our example to pass real numbers as 
arguments? Variable-length character strings? Does 
this add any new restriction to our stack discipline? Can 
you think of a way to modify "PUSH" and "POP" so that 
"STRACE" can tell what kind of a variable or address is 
contained in "STACK" and print each element in the 
stack dump using the proper format? Try the simple 
recursion example for a start . Good luck ! 

Acknowledgement 

Many thanks to Walter Gilbert at the University of 
Maryland for publishing a list of UNIVAC 1100 program- 
ming tricks from which this ideas was borrowed. 



100 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



...... Moo/uot softnaae 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE #1300 

pRoouct FnuwciM. reports, print chicks, special control 
mm. reports n verso* nn, invoice ween, agco 
and histotr file. auto sorting of vendor amd invoice 
fh.cs. plus check and me check journals. 

accounts acceivarle a1sco 
produces financial a1poats. prints statements. produces 
reports by customer account numea. invoice by custohu 
account numea ano invoice it invoice number, faint amd 
aefoat and trial balance. keefs history file ano auto 
sorting of files. 

general ledger #100 
frogaah upoates to leogea files and also generates 
reforts on payroll . sales. accounts fatab.e. cash ano 
expense statistics. balance sheet ano profit | loss 
reforts. information can be generated for tear cm 
taxes. 9a1 ano k? forms. 

inventory i, #600 
inventory for a small conrany. produces activity 
reports for dat, month ano year. hinimun quantity 
search. inventory list by class. by yenoor or complete 
nith totals and financial report. 

inventory u, #700 
produce inventory reports by description or vendor. 
print activity reports for one day. one month or one 
tear. quick search by part number. produce total 
inventory ano financial report. (for one store) 

inventory iii. #b00 
sam as inventory ii. #700. but produces reports 
for eight stores. 

shipping/receiving 
produce your business financial report. produce reports 

on saxes, accounts receivable alt) last purchase by 
customer, print mad. ik l/lbo.s ano print customers 

BILLS. 

MAILING LAK.CS #100 

PRINT MAILING LABELS FROM YOUR COMPLETE FILE. FOR A 
PARTICULAR CITY OR STATE. USE OHC-RART MAILING LABELS. 

MAIL IMG LABELS #400 

SAME AS #100, BUT ALSO PRINTS LABELS BY NAMES. USE 
NULTIHE-RAAT LABELS. 

BASIC OR 
UPGRADED SNTP 3.S FOR Wot ANO BOONS. 
RUNS 301 FASTER AMD CAN BE USED NITH EXISTING 
(BOO PROGRAMS TO BE USED NITH BOO* SYSTEMS. 
NO MANUAL. 



#•• CUSTOMIZED PROGRAMS FOR YOUR BUSINESS REQUIREMENTS "* 
CHARGE YOUR ORDER TO YOUR VISA OR MASTER CHARGE 

AvaHAbkt Irom Compute* Storm or oror* d.Ki From 
OMNI THONICS INC. IBATRY ». COMCOttO SOUAAf M#A#ll TOM SO . NJ 

CIRCLE 123 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





This Is a blockbuster ol a book containing the majority of 
material from the first 12 issues of Byte magazine. The 146 
pages devoted to hardware are crammed full of how-to articles 
on everything from TV displays to joysticks to cassette 
interfaces and computer kits. But hardware without software 
might as well be a boat anchor, so there are 125 pages of 
software and applications ranging from on-line debuggers to 
games to a complete small business accounting system. A 
section on theory examines the how and why behind the 
circuits and programs, and "opinion" looks at where this 
explosive new hobby is heading. 

Softbound, 386 pages, $11. 95 plus $1 shipping and 
handling In U.S. ($2 foreign). 

Send to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M. Morristown, 
N.J. 07960. Residents of the Garden State add 5% tax. Orders 
must be prepaid. 

For faster service, call in your bankcard order to : 

800-631-8112 

(In N.J., call 201-540-0445) 

creative computing 



o*t 



A O . 












> 




JANUARY 1980 



CIRCLE 126 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 



101 



CIRCLE 192 ON REAOER SERVICE CARD 



DYNACOMP 



Quality software for: 



Applr II Plus 
TRS-80 (Level II) 
North Star 






All software is supplied with complete documentation which includes clear ex- 
planations and examples. Each program will run with standard terminals (32 
characters or wider) and within loK program memory space. Except where 
noted, all software is available cm North Star diskette (North Star BASIC or 
Microsoft BASIC for those North Star systems running under CP/M), TRS-80 
cassette (Level II) and Apple cassette (Arvletoft BASIC). These programs are 
also available on PAPER TAPE (Microsoft BASIC). 

FUGHT SIMULATOR 

(at described in SIMULATION. Volume U) 

A realistic and extensive three -dimensional simulation of take-off, flight and landing. 
The program utilizes aerodynamic equations and the characteristics of a real airfoil. 
Y' l ran practice inttrumrnt approaches and navigation using radials and compass 
headings. The more advanced flyer can alto perform loops, half-rolls and similar 
acrobatic maneuvers. 

Price: $17.95 postpaid 

SIMULATION. Volume II (BYTE Publications): J6.00 

VALDEZ 

A simulation of supertanker navigation in the Prince William Sound and Valdez 
Narrows. The program use* an extensive 256X256 element radar map and employs 
physical mt -del* of ship response and tidal patterns. Chart your own course through 
ship and iceberg traffic. Any standard terminal may be used for display 

Price $14.95 postpaid 

BRIDGE 2.0 

An all-inclusive version of this most popular of card games. This program both BIDS 
and PLAYS either contract or duplicate bridge. Depending on the contract, your com- 
puter opponent* wilt either play the offense OR defense If you bid too high the com- 
puter will double your contract! BRIDGE 2.0 provides challenging entertainment for 
advanced players and is an excellent learning tool for the bridge novice. 

Price: $17.95 postpaid 

HEARTS 1.5 

An exciting and entertaining computer version of this popular card game. Hearts is a 
trick -oriented game in which the purpose is not to take any hearts or the queen of 
spades. Play against two computer opponents who are armed with hard-to-beat play- 
ins *tratryu-4 

Price: $14.95 postpaid 

MAIL LIST I 

A many-featured mailing list program which sorts through your customer list by user- 
defined product code, customer name or Zip Code. Entries to the list can be con- 
veniently added or deleted and the printout format allows the use of standard size 
address labels. Each diskette can hold approximately 900 entries. 

Price $16-95 postpaid (available tor North Star only) 

TEXT EDITOR I (Letter Writer) 

An easy to use, line-oriented text editor which provides variable line widths and simple 
paragraph indexing. This tent editor is ideally suited for composing letters and is quite 
capable of handling much larger jobs. 

Price: $14.95 postpaid 

COMPRESS 

Make your BASIC programs run taster and use less memory! In many cases you can 
reduce the size of your programs by 30% or more, while improving execution speed by 
a comparable amount Save money by storing more programs on each diskette or 



Price: $9 95 postpaid 

GAMES PACK I 

Seven entertaining games for less than a dollar a kilobyte! Play CATAPULT. CRAPS, 
SWITCH. HORSERACE. SLOT MACHINE. BLACKJACK and LUNAR LANDER. 
This is an excellent way to introduce your children to computers. 

Price: $10.95 postpaid 

All order* are processed within 49 hours. Please enclose payment with order. If paying by 
MASTER CHARGE or VISA, include all numbers on card. Foreign orders add 10% for 
shipping and handling 

Write for detailed descriptions of these and other programs available from DYNACOMP. 

DYNACOMP 

P.O. Box 162 Dept C 
Webster, New York, 14580 

New York Stale residents please add 7% NYS sales tan. 




Recursive, con't... 



INTEGER STACK. TOP. RTNADR 

COMMON TOPr STALK (256) 
C *** GLOBAL UILL HOLD OUR RESULT *** 
i: *** ARC IS USED TO GET OUR ARGUMENT OFF 

n* STACr- !■*« 

INTEGER GLOBAL* ARG 
C *** COMPUTE 10 FACTORIAL *** 

N = 10 
C *** PUSH ON RETURN ADDRESS f THEN ARGUMENT rn 

r<r PASSED 

ASSIGN 50 TO RTNADR 
CALL PUSH < RTNADR • 

CALL PUSM(N) 
GO TO 100 

30 URITEtAsSl' GLOBAL 

31 FORMAT ( ' 10' ■ ' • 110- 
CALL EXIT 



RECURSIVE F ROC "DURE FACTORIAL **« 

Of DEFINED AS t «** 



«** CHECK IF ARGUMENT * - 
100 CALL POP(ARG) 

IF (ARO.NE.0) GO TT no 



GLOBAL - 1 
GO TO 155 
C *** REPLACE ARGUMENT *** 

110 CALL PUSH(ARG) 
C *«* CALL FACrORIAL'ARG-1) **» 
ASSIGN 130 TO RTNADR 
CALL PUSH (RTNADR) 
CALL PUSH(AK-G-l) 
GO TO 100 
C *** UE FINALLY GOT AN ASSIGNED GO' TO ISO - 

BTART MULTIPLYING «** 
ISO CALL P0P<ARG> 

GLOBAL ■ CL0BAL*ARG 
C *«* RETURN *»« 

135 CALL POP (RTNADR) 
GO TO f»TNA"k 
END 

SUBROUTINE PUSH<ITEM) 
INTEGER STACK. TOP 
COMMON T0P.SfACK<256> 
C *** PUT SOMETHING <3N THE TOP OF OUR STACK **» 
TOP « TOPfl 

IF (T0P.GT.25A) CALL STRACE 
STACK(TOP) ■ ITEM 
RETURN 
END 

SUBROUTINE POP < I TEN) 
INTEGER STACK. TOP 
COMMON TOP. STACK (256; 
C *** GET THE TOPMOST THING OFF THE STACK *** 
IF (T0P.EQ.0) CALL STRACE 
ITEM ■ STACK(TOP) 
TOP ■ TOP- 1 
RETURN 
END 



SUBROUTINE STRACE 
C *** UE MUST HAVE PUSHED OR POPPED TOO FAR 

- EXECUTE STACK TRAC'ti •*» 

INTEGER STACK. TOP 
COMMON TOP. STACK (256) 
C *** REPORT WHICH IT WAS **» 
WRITE<6.1> TOP 
1 FORMAT <1 HI. //.'THE PUSHDOWN STACK BOUNDS 

HAVE BEEN EXCEEDED 
TCP OF STACK NOW * .110. ) 
STACK 
***** STACK CONTENTS ***** 

• . /.( 1011')./) ! 



1./.' ***** 

WRITE(e>.2> 

■ FORMAT <//. 



STOP 
END 



ERROn- 



CIRCLE 167 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



102 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




computer 
products, 



inc. 



11542-1 KNOTT ST. 

GARDEN GROVE, 

CA 92641 

(800)854-6411 

(714)891-2663 



4116's 



(250NS) 

ADDON MEMORY 
FOR APPLE, TRS 80, HEATH 

8 for $64.00 
16 for $120.00 

FULLY GUARANTEED 



2708s 

450NS. 

8.00 each 

OR 

8 for $60.00 



ORDERING INFO 



NAME. ADDRESS. PHONE 
SHIP BY UPS OR MAIL 
SHIPPING CHRG ADD 
12 50 UP TO (5) LBS 



IMSAI CONNECTORS 

100PIN«SOLDERTAIL 

$3.00 each 



OR 



10 for $2.75 each 



WRITE TO US FOR 
OUR NEW CATALOG 



SPECIAL 

.1 @ 12 VOLTS 

CERAMIC 
CAPS 

10$ each 

OR 
100/S9.00 



TERMS 



WE ACCEPT CASH. 
CHECK. MONEY ORDER 
VISA & MASTER CHRG 
(US FUNDS ONLY) TAX 
6% CALIF ONLY 



LO-PRO SOCKETS 



14PIN 
16PIN 
18PIN 
20PIN 
24 PIN 
28PIN 
40PIN 



124 
.15 

.16 
.19 
.27 
.35 
.40 
.50 



2599 
.14 

.15 
.17 
.25 
.31 
.33 
.46 



100 Up 

.13 
.14 
.15 
.23 
.27 
.29 
.41 



REGULATORS 



320T-5. . . . (.80) 



320T-12. 
340T-5. . 
340T-12. 
78H05... 
78L12... 



■ (-80) 

• (-75) 

• (75) 
(5.00) 
. (.35) 



MICROBYTE 
16K RAM BOARD 



•FULLY S-100 

COMPATIBLE 
•USESLOW-PWR4KX1 

MM 5257 STATIC RAM 
•2MHZOR4MHZ 
•4K BANK 

ADDRESSABLE 

• EXTENDED MEMORY 
MANAGEMENT 

• NO DMA RESTRICTIONS 
•ASSEMBLED & TESTED 

2MHZ $250.00 
4MHZ $265.00 



MICROBYTE 
32K RAM BOARD 



•FULLY S-100 

COMPATIBLE 
•USES LO-PWR 4Kx1 

MM5257 STATIC RAM 
•2MHZOR4MHZ 
•BANK ADDRESSABLE 
•EXTENDED MEMORY 

MANAGEMENT 
•8— BIT OUTPUT PORT 
•NO DMA RESTRICTIONS 

2MHZ $525.00 
4MHZ $540.00 



SA800 



DISK 
DRIVE 

INSTALLED IN DUAL 

CABINET W/PWR SUPPLY 

ASSEMBLED & TESTED 

(1) DRIVE INSTALLED 

$695.00 

(2) DRIVES INSTALLED 

$1125.00 



MISC. COMPONENTS 



LM324 
LM348 
LM377 
LM380 
LM556 
LM3900 



.75 
1.05 
1.25 
.75 
.75 
.50 



2104 
4108 



1.50 
3.00 



MCM 6574 

CHARACTER 
GENERATOR 



$7.00 



•a. 



271 6's 

5 VOLT ONLY 
450NS. 

$35.00 ea. 

8/S250.00 



8251 

4MHZ/U-ART 

$5.00 ea. 



2732's 

(4K) E-PROM 

5 VOLTS 

$95.00 ea. 



CIRCLE 137 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



New From ECI 



Selectric I/O Interface Controller For IBM 

Selectnc I O typewriters. Uses standard parallel port 
driver. Automatic case control. (Some typewriter 
modification may be required.) Less connectors. With 
full instructions. $289.00 

Cassette to Parallel Converter— Use with 
Selectric I/O interface to run a typewriter or other 
parallel device from your cassette output. Works with 
T-BUG or similar monitor program. Software listing 
supplied. $69.95 

AGC Box— Provides constant cassette output 
regardless of tape level. End loading error problems. 
Includes tape deck control switch and data 
indicator. $29.95 

Dual unit for two recorders. $39.95 

I.C. Tester— Tests most common TTL and CMOS 
I.C.'s. Convenient benrh-top module. $199.95 



SC-5 Typewriter 
Controller 



Will accept: Master Cha rge, Visa or COD 

(TO) 

ELECTRO CONTROLS INC. 

6951 Southgate. San Diego. CA 921 19 




CIRCLE 143 ON READER SERVICE CARO 



^ 



^ 



TRS-80* PEOPLE'S PASCAL 
PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 



"Tiny" Poscol, runs on any I6K Level II system, includes the 
programming structuring capabilities of full Pascal, but not data 
structuring. 

Compiled People's Pascal programs run about five-times faster than 
level II Basic — graphics run eight-times faster. Tape 3 compiler 
written in Basic; tape 6 in machine language (FASTER). 

People's Pascal Tape 3 $1 5.00 

People's Pascal Tape 6 $23.00 

Tape 1 Level II, 34 business, educational programs $7.50 

(Level I version, 24 programs — separate tape) 
Tape 2 Level II, 77 programs from Osborne book, "Some 

Common Basic Programs." $7.50 

Tape 4 level I, business and educational $7.50 

Tape 5 Level II, business and educational $7.50 

Add 50< each tope for postage and handling. 
California residents add 6% tox. Dealer inquiries invited. 

COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

Box 158 
San Luis Rey, CA 92063 



CIRCLE 13S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



103 



Now your Apple can tick, 
chime, and keep time. 



Grandapple Clock 



Christopher Howerton 



The enclosed program was written 
by William B. Smith of Gambier 
Island, British Columbia. Here is 
his description. 



This program is an attempt to 
humanize the computer a little by 
having it perform the old-fashioned 
functions of a grandfather clock. 
Using the Grandapple clock has 
certain advantages over a regular 
clock: 

1) it will keep the Apple II working 
24 hours a day rather than 
gathering dust in a corner, or (if 
switched on) maybe figuring 
out how to program itself. 

2) allows for operation of a 
a grandfather clock regardless 
of gravity -- a useful feature 
when visiting the moon 

3) costs less than a real grand- 
father clock (not counting the 
computer, of course) 

Other uses of the Grandapple 
clock include store display, timing 
games, and showing modern day 
children what clocks used to look 
like in the analog era. 

The program displays, graphical- 
ly, a clock face on the monitor, using 
the high resolution graphics facilities 
of the Apple. It uses Roman numer- 
als to mark the hours, has a long and 
a short hand, and has gothic style 
columns on either side of the clock 
face just to balance the display. 

The menu at the start of the 
program allows the user to have 
sound effects (chimes, ticks and 
tocks with a visual pendulum and an 
alarm.) 
To Use 

a) This program requires 24K 
bytes of RAM. 

b) Load Applesoft Basic (cassette 
version) 

c) Load the program in the usual 
manner, and type 'RUN' 



Christopher Howerton, 13572 92 Avenue, 
Surrey, B.C. Canada V3V 1 H7. 



d) Now follow the instructions in 
the menu. 

e) To stop the clock, hit any key 

f) To turn off the alarm, hit any 
key. 

Note that the program simulates the 

clock without use of any special 

hardware. This is done by using 

timing loops. This program uses the 300-349 

simple tone routine by P. Lutas 

which is in the red Apple Manual. 

Line by line description : 

Lines 0-99 were originally reserved 
for REMs, but Murphy's 
Law regarding program 
size expanding to fit 
available memory ap- 
plied! 

100-149 are the basic timekeep- 
ing loop. The variable E 
allows for the different 
subroutine options (e.g. 350-399 
chimes) to have the 
amount of time they use 
deducted from the vari- 
able which keeps the 
clock accurate. Line 120 
branches the program to 
the "tick tock" routine, 400-499 
which has its own tim- 
ing loop. Line 130 allows 
the user to exit the 
program by depressing 
any key. 

150-199 keep the minutes, hours 
and am/pm flags updat- 
ed. Line 160 also 
branches to the "alarm" 500-599 
routine, if the alarm is 
set, to check whether it 
is time to ring the alarm. 
This occurs once each 
minute. 600-699 

200-299 draw and erase the min- 
ute and hour hands. The 
several IF statements 
control the display of 
the hands when they 
pass each other 700-799 

pm% new position of 
minute hand 800-849 

ph% new position of 
hour hand 



opm% old position of 

minute hand 

xph% old position of 

hour hand 

Line 285 branches pro- 
gram to "chimes" rou- 
tine once per hour if the 
flag is set 

control the "tick tock" 
and pendulum features. 
If this option is being 
used, lines 305-315 con- 
trol the timekeeping 
loop. Lines 325&335 call 
for the tick and the tock 
noise. Lines 330&340 
draw, and lines 347 & 
348 erase the pendulum. 
The variable B keeps 
track of whether the 
clock ticked or tocked 
last time. 

are the chimes option. 
Lines 350-363 call for a 
little tune. Lines 365-385 
chime the number of 
hours. Line 390 keeps 
account of the time used 
for the above, 
are the alarm option. 
Lines 400-415 are 
checked once each min- 
ute, if the alarm is set, 
to see if it is time to start 
ringing. The remaining 
lines produce an inter- 
rupted tone until any key 
is depressed, 
provide the data for the 
short tune, the various 
shapes, and the position 
of these shapes on the 
hgr2 display page, 
are mostly read state- 
ments to draw the clock 
face. Line 690 makes a 
machine code program 
for sounds (written by P. 
Lutas). 

include the menu and 
and input statements, 
are the exit from the 
program after any key is 
depressed. 



104 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



IMt=W 




FUNCTION PLOT 



$24.95 



Sil p Btf , a t !iS lsw * ?! '-wjusm 1 



TRIVIA BOX 



$19.95 




MOTOCROSS 



$9.95 




FRUSTRATION 



$9 95 




GUIDED MISSILE 



S15.95 




LASER BLAST 



S9.95 




THE PLANETS 



S1595 




CASSETTE 



$15.95 




DISKETTE 



$19.95 



AND MORE... 

ACTIVE FILTERS $24.95 

ALIEN INVASION 9.95 

AMPERSORT II 15.95 

APPLE ALLEY 6.95 

BASEBALL 15.95 

BATTLEFIELD 9.95 

BREAKTHRU 9.96 

CHECK BOOK 34.95 

DATABASE MAILER 29.95 

DEATH RACE 15.95 

EARTH QUEST 19.95 

HOME BUDGET 24.96 

HOUSEHOLD FINANCE 24.95 

MINI GENERAL LEDGER 59.95 

MOUSE HOLE 6.95 

PEG JUMP 9.95 

RICOCHETTE 9.95 

STAR VOYAGER 15.95 

STUNT CYCLE 15.95 

All orders must include 3% postage and handling. California 
residents add 6% sales tax. VISA and MASTERCHARGE 
accepted. 

Apple II is a trademark of Apple Computers, Inc. 



PROGRAMMA 
INTERNATIONAL. Inc. 
3400 Wilshire Blvd. 
Los Angeles, CA 9001 
(213) 384-0579 

384 1116 

384 1117 




ICHING 



S15.95 




SHAPE BUILDER 

4mm 



$19.95 




BOXING 



S9.95 




ALGEBRA I 



$15.95 




SPACE WAR 



$9 95 




Dealer Inquiries Invited 
CIRCLE 149 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SIRIUS 



$15.95 







i 

0) 

1 

CD 

TJ 

T 


(Q 

T 
0) 

3 

TJ 

T 


a 

c 
n 

ct 
(0 



Grandapple, con't 




III 

lis 



sis 



Hi 




G> 







i 





Sr°E. 



8 
^ 









ifi 



I 



eS 



<3 

5 § 



" ... ■». 



3* 

8,38 

IP- 

y 3 s f j 



& 






—1 OL 



ft 



> s S 



'— OB 



'J 



£ 



3 



(9 



s .. 



I.J -J- 



II l.j 



8^ 

in»i** 



= II 



5/ 



(JO 

3S 






.S3 



•8 



a ■ b 



1 I 

8 



85 

8* 



.a 

•a 



£<»j 



*a 



§ 



2«s 

» ntt 
opgc ' es " o ~~ Q - h^ "- t5 " o ""■ sj i^ ll " '" 

-~"H-ll UJ ^r'> t *-'-« ^jcjc ^* § © •-• 0»J v* fr 'it *-»*-• —act*.-* ■• — »-.£|OmH»-«M 









6?" 



55 iu 



GJ 

lis ^ 



g§« ^ I **«- s 






:>:. 






■ I 



nn 

■•■Jr. 



as 

* <2 



!>:• O CM 



IT. (S 

I - oo 



in o ii - . © 
09 S> 8 ~t 

«H <M CXI C M 



in 

•H 
i-J 



'••J 
CO 



11-.,-, 
I J I , 

' J r .j 



U-.0 -H 
I -1 ■* t 



•T IT. 



;3£2S£, 

•x. r - o Ip n iri 
CO COCA ft 9 © 
f J cj ft c» f> i^J 



Grandapple, con 




33 
p < 



8 



3 



o . 
u_ ii is: r- *-* ?i 



t 5 



i J 



Su. 



•X CO Uf «H 

r- eg it 



9g 



iu. 3 



8w«ggt 



L-'.r li ' 



Jfc« 



gg 



rs ho n: 



J £5 l 



8 






H>« CD 

II C>l 

. T TZ •+■ 



'2 '■» « 
9 1 ~ S* 



[33 



I 



8 



SkS 















UJ 






& 



»— u: u'j 






8 



»R 






© •* 



ST £ a: ' S*B*8 

. OB -i. > j 






MM 



u-> a> io o in 
rtNN f'.' O 
I s ? M c» o r» 



u-i r - eg c-i o it* o 



co ch-su 
T tini 



r~>ro r-> r->f)r->r-> 






> C jS £2 !C ® tr> co u-.es. io ■-.. io to en 

» C> O SO TH rH OJ t-t-t T IT' IT> <£ CS> 



»v * «nr t» 



■♦ f f U" u"> 




Air Traffic Controller 



David Mannering 



Sam, a friend of mine, called me 
the other day. He sounded exhaust- 
ed, his voice weak and raspy. "Dave," 
he said, "you've got to destroy that 
game. Burn the cassettes. It's a 
menace." 

I had no pity. Sam had just won a 
"twenty" game of ATC, the air traffic 
control simulation game, on his 
TRS-80. This should have been a 
cause for elation, since winning at 
that level is extremely difficult. 
However, Sam's win came at the end 
of a series of three and four hour 
sessions that were interrupted only 
for work and, less frequently, food 
and sleep. He complained that ATC 
was taking up his whole life and 
vowed never to play it again. But I've 
heard that before. 

ATC is a game in which you are 
an air traffic controller with the 
responsibility for the safe and expe- 
ditious flow of air traffic within a 15 x 
25 mile area from ground level to 
5,000 feet in altitude. Within your 
area are two airports, two naviga- 

David Mannering, 930 Kentucky, Lawrence, KS 
66044. 



tional beacons (navaids), and ten 
entry/exit fixes. During your shift as 
controller in charge of this airspace, 
26 aircraft will become active and 
under your control. Some of them 
will be jets travelling 4 miles per 
minute, and some will be props 
travelling only half that fast. Some 
will depart from an airport and fly out 
an exit fix, some will enter via an 
entry fix and land at an airport, and 
some will simply fly from one fix to 
another. They will come at various 
times, headings and altitudes, 
whether you are ready for them or 
not. 

Your goal is to get all of the 
aircraft to their assigned destina- 
tions before your shift is completed. 
At your disposal are the computer- 
assisted radar display of the air- 
craft's positions in the control area; 
coded information concerning air- 
craft heading, destination and fuel 
supply; navaids enabling you to hold 
aircraft or assign them automatic 
approaches; and commands to alter 
the altitude or heading of an aircraft. 
Working against you are altitude and 



heading requirements for landing or 
exiting aircraft, fuel restrictions and, 
of course, the clock. The biggest 
problem you will encounter, how- 
ever, is the game's fundamental 
aircraft separation rule: No two 
aircraft can be less than three miles 
from each other at the same altitude. 

Before the game is discussed in 
more depth it might be useful to say 
a few things about what ATC is a 
simulation of, namely, air traffic 
control via computer assisted radar. 

When you think of a radar scope, 
you may think of a large round screen 
with a luminous arm sweeping 
around it like the second hand of a 
watch and filled with little dots which 
represent aircraft. However, in air 
traffic control there is a lot more. The 
screen has a map showing airports, 
radio towers and other useful things 
superimposed on it. Also, it has mile 
markers to aid the controller in 
judging the distance between two 
aircraft. In addition, many of the little 
dots have alphanumeric tails which 
follow them across the screen. These 
tails contain coded information about 



108 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



into the 80's. 




PROGRAMMING THE ZBOOO 

By Richard Mateosian. 320 pp, Ref C281. $14 95 

A complete and detailed introduction to the Z8000 

and its specific programming techniques from basic 

concepts to multimicro synchronization. 
Available at the end of December. 

PROGRAMMING THE 8086 Available soon 



TO ORDER: 

■r Phone: 415) 848 8233 Viso. MC Amer- 
ican E«pf 

■y MeM: Indito'e quantity detred Include 
payment 

Shlpplng:Add SI 50 per book (UPS), or 75c 



SYBEX. INC 



2020 Milvia Street, Dept CC1 
Berkeley, California 94704 



CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



\ 



i 

t 

e 

i 
i 

r 



U 



nvr 

' tW-4 



» ptT • i»fT • per • m 



PET PRODUCTS 

Program* — Workbook* 
tor Floppy Disk — I 



<F 




MMMNOH 

W8 I 0««k>f IkirM •» Touf »fT f3« 
CMCCKKKMt record WrB-J f»f T Ikkif an* Array HeneMne 13 9 

ACCOUHTt*—pttmchol**oommyQu*owmue*\ *?"* JJJ ?*■**?•,_ 
IfCOlT create end mamiem <Mt a mm **~ llV V** ** * '2L - - 

eiiiii M « M , W n^ jsi ^ ii c^ - j^ir'** S! 

Theee prog/ems ere special purpose MU DM* management systems Tney Ml cen 

• Sort numeric or string netds 

• S elect b aa ed on numeric or string (•) 

• Select based on substring match 

• S atSCI betted on rang* of an try numbs* 

Prtca* (9 90 aach for programs using cassette siorege tor data 
|12 96 aach using sequential floppy disk storaga for data 



Add 12 00 for shipping and handling 
Monsy back guarantee 



On bank card orders 
PIT « a trademark of 



fat 

• O Sea tti. Oat* CC 

Laa a lamas. Ntt tTSSe 

all number* 

Business Mschines 
KT • PCT a pfT • l»tT • l*«T « 



CIRCLE 134 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



1PMM1ILJL TOi 



ll'iA'HlBl'l-lfSjivl 



)S^teflD 



SYSTEM INCLUDES 

Siemens 8" Disk Drives 

• 1 Cabinet with Fan and Power Supply. 

• 1 Tarbeli Floppy Disk Interface, assembled & tested. 

• 1 CP/M* Disk Operating System. 

• 1 Tarbeli BASIC. 

• All Cables and Connectors. 

• Complete User Documentation. 

• Fully Factory Assembled and Tested. 

VDS-II Single Density $1888 

VDS-IID Double Density $1999 



CP/M is a 




9S0 OOVLEN PLACE. SUITC B 

CARSON. CA 9074e 

(2111 5M42S1 •121)1 5M22S4 



JANUARY 1980 



109 



CIRCLE 13S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ATC, con't. . . 

the aircraft, including call-sign, type, 
altitude and ground speed. These 
tails are generated by a computer and 
are but the most visible aspect of a 
nation-wide network of air traffic 
tracking systems. Each radar scope 
has a keyboard associated with it, 
and the controller communicates to 
the computer through it even as he 
communicates to the aircraft pilot 
through his microphone. 

For training purposes, it is pos- 
sible for the computer to generate 
imaginary aircraft which the control- 
ler can maneuver through the key- 
board. The program which enables 
this is called a "target generator" and 
it is the inspiration for ATC. 

ATC is written in machine lan- 
guage and executes in real time. It 
retains the basic realism of radar air 
traffic control, but adds the excite- 
ment and well-defined goals of a 
game. Perhaps the best way to 
describe ATC in detail is to look at 
how the game begins, and how it 
ends. 

To begin, execute the program 
and the radar screen, complete with 
map and mile markers appears. Make 
sure you're familiar with the map, the 
locations of the airports, navaids and 
fixes, as well as the appropriate 
headings for each. Then enter a clock 
setting for the number or minutes 
you want the game to last and the 
game has started. Perhaps nothing 
happens for a minute or two, but 
then some coded information ap- 
pears in the preview area at the right 
side of the screen. It tells you of an 
inbound jet from fix 7, coming in at 
6,000 feet, heading northwest, bound 
for the main airport. It won't be in 
your area for another minute, so 
merely note it and move on to the 
other information in the preview area. 
It says that a prop is waiting to 
depart from the secondary airport. Its 
destination is fix 5. Clear it for 



Wfr* A - 




"I'm sure those rumors about an 
invasion from outer space by giant 
computer robots is pure nonsense. " 



takeoff with a final altitude of 5,000 
feet and instruct it to turn left 135 
degrees after departure. The pilot 
responds "ROGER," and in 30 sec- 
onds the aircraft is airborne and 
visible on your radar. Now the 
inbound has appeared and preview 
area shows three more aircraft will be 
inbound in the next minute. Clear the 
first one for an approach to the main 
airport and begin figuring how you 
are going to divert two of the 
inbounds around your departure. You 
settle in for a busy shift. 

There are six ways in which a 
game of ATC can end, and each has 
its own story. 

Boundary error: The airspace which 
you control is surrounded by other 
airspace which is presided over by 
other controllers. Just as there are 
definite ways in which aircraft enter 
your airspace from these other areas, 
so there are definite ways in which 
aircraft must exit your airspace to 
enter these other areas. The control- 
ler next door doesn't want any 
surprises. Thus, the aircraft must 
leave via the proper exit fix at the 
proper altitude and heading. Failure 
to meet these requirements ends the 
game with a boundary error. Perhaps 
the most common cause of this is 
forgetting to turn an aircraft in time, 
so that it arcs out of your control area 
before completing a turn. 
Conflict: This is by far the most 
common ending for a game. Aircraft 
travel very fast and have a large 
turning radius. Also, radar is not 
always a very precise representation 
of where an aircraft really is. There- 
fore, it is necessary to keep aircraft 
separated by a comfortable distance 
to provide a margin of safety as they 
whiz past one another. The basic rule 
of radar control is separation of 
either three miles or one thousand 
feet. The one thousand feet refers to 
altitude and is so slight because 
altimeters are more accurate than 
radar and because aircraft do not 
normally change altitude as fast as 
they change lateral position. The 
three miles applies whether the 
aircraft are converging, diverging, or 
flying parallel courses. There is a lot 
of space in your control area. 
Unfortunately, aircraft do not tend to 
distribute themselves uniformly 
throughout it, but bunch up around 
the airports and navaids. Free alti- 
tudes in these areas can get scarce 
quickly, and a familiar sight in the 
middle of the swarm is the conflict 
mark which shows where the three 
mile rule was broken and ends the 
game. Bad habits, such as flying 
aircraft near fixes at high altitudes, 
or near airports at low ones, can 



contribute to the frequency of this ^ 
ending. 

Fuel exhaustion: Fuel is not normally 
a factor in air traffic control. Aircraft 
are supplied with plenty of fuel to get 
to their destination with a normal 
amount of handling. However, ex- 
cessive delay, whether it be in a 
holding pattern or sitting on the 
taxiway waiting for a takeoff clear- 
ance, can bring a certain sense of 
urgency to the aircraft's fuel situa- 
tion. Fuel in aircraft is measured in 
minutes remaining rather than gal- 
lons. More than one game has been 
lost when the player realized that 
aircraft whose destination is three 
and one-half minutes away has only 
three minutes of fuel remaining. This 
can happen if you are the kind of 
player who likes to save the depar- 
tures for the end of the game. 

Time Limit: The main measure of 
difficulty ot a game is the ciock 
setting at the beginning. You will 
control the same number of aircrft in 
a 16 minute game as you will in a 99 
minute game. The only difference is 
that in a 99 minute game you will 
have time to go fix a sandwich 
between the appearance of two 
successive aircraft, while in the 16 
minute game you may not even have 
time to swallow before all of the 
aircraft have appeared. The last 15 
minutes of a game is a free period in 
which no new aircraft will appear. 
This is to give you time to sort out 
your existing problems before the 
game ends. In theory this makes it 
possible to win every game, since 
even a prop traversing your airspace 
lengthwise requires only twelve and 
one-half minutes to do so, providing 
you do not divert it. However, as with 
fuel, excessive delays can cause time 
to become a critical factor. Even 
without delays some games are very 
time sensitive, and it can be easily 
demonstrated that not all games can 
be won before the clock reaches 




"/ asked it how to find an honest 

politician." ©Creitiw Computing 



110 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



VERBATIM® ATHANA® GEORGIA MAGNETICS® 

Floppy Diskettes for 

ANY COMPUTER SYSTEM 



8 " Floppies only $3 

MU 

10 for $3.65 ea • 50 for $3.40 



20 

ea. 

HUNDRED LOTS 



We reterve the right to ship cither ol ttw nam* brands that we carry. 

ff amaaai ■ mm m ■ mmt <kgQ 

• ea 

HUNDRED LOTS 

10 for $3.10 ea • 50 for $2.85 ea 



5 1fe" Mini-floppies only $2! 



SPECIFY SIZE, TYPE, A COMPUTER 

5% ' Soft Sector 10 Sector. 16 Sector-8 IBM Compatible, Hard Sector 



CALL TOLL-FREE 24 HRS. TO ORDER 

800-824-7888 
OPERATOR 813 

CALIFORNIA 800-852-7777 ai.'dir.Vrvicad C.O.D 



School* and 
unlvoraltiaa 




or 



DC SOFTWARE & COMPUTER PRODUCTS 
POST OFFICE BOX 503 
SAN BRUNO, CALIF. 94066 

FOR INFORMATION 415-348-2387 



CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Z-80/TRS-80 '" Users 

BOOK YOU'VE WANTED NOW CAN BE YOURS 

THE Z-80: HOW IT WORKS 

(THE PROGRAMMERS PERSPECTIVE) 

By Monte Corum 

Best Most Complete Reference Yet 

cpu Operation Explained 

Addressing Modes Demystified 

Register Functions Described 

Instructions Defined 

Interrupts Diagrammed 

Cycles Outlined Formats Described 

Execution Described in Text, 

Notation and Diagrams 

Meaningful Analysis of 698 Commands 

in Formatted, Usable Tables 

Simple, Consistent Notation and Formats 

A Programmer's Book, Beginner or Experienced 

Ideal Text for Class Instruction 

Pricse: $17.95 Plus Tax and Shipping 

VISA & MSTRCHRG-NUMBER AND EXP. DATE 

PREPAID WE SHIP 

MICROWARE ASSOCIATES, INCORPORATED 

9301 N. 58th St. DPT. BBB 

SCOTTSDALE, AZ. 85253 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

" TRS-80 IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP 

CIRCLE 174 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SUPER INVADER 



• Features superb high resolution graphics, nail-biting tension and 
hilarious antics by the moon creatures! 

• Self-running "attract mode" of operation for easy learning and 
demonstrating of the game. 

• As good in every way as the famous Invaders arcade game. 




• High speed action ! • Sound effects! 




Fifty-five aliens advance and shower you with lethal writhing 
electric worms. As you pick off the aliens, one-by-one, they 
quicken their descent. They whiz across the screen wearing away 
your parapets, your onty defense, coming closer and closer to your 
level. SPACE INVADER is the original invader game, with original 
moon creatures and action twice as fast as any other invader game 
on the market. 

Super Invader is available for only $19.95 on cassette (CS-4006) 
for a 32K Apple II or on floppy disk (CS-4503A) for a 48K Apple II. 
The main program is in machine code and requires integer basic. 

Send payment plus $1.00 shipping and handling to Creative 
Computing Software, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. NJ 
residents add $1 .00 sales tax. Bankcard orders may be called in toll 
free to 800/631-8112. In NJ call 201 /540-0445. 



sensational 
software 



creative 

computing 

software 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



111 



ATC, con't. . . 

zero. The incidence of such games 
is, fortunately, rare. 
Terminated: This ending occurs be- 
cause you have seen the inevitability 
of one of the above endings, or you 
smell smoke and hear sirens stop- 
ping out front. This, like resigning in 
chess, is a dignified way to admit 
that you blew it. 

Success: Well-deserved and heady. 
Keeping in mind that in real air traffic 
control mistakes can be fatal and it is 
probably better to win a game at level 
60 than lose with only one aircraft 
remaining at level 20. However, for a 
measure of pure skill, even losing at 
the lower levels may require better 
playing than winning at a higher 
level. Within each level, the fewer 
aircraft remaining at games end the 
better, and in case of a tie, the one 
with the most time left on the clock 
might be taken as the better player, 
though in some cases this is not a 
very good indicator. 

This might be taken as a general 
rating of game levels, though it is 
possible to have both very easy and 
very difficult games at almost any 
level. 

LEVEL RATING 

80-99 Beginners only. You should 
leave this level as soon as 
soon as you can remember 
the rules. 

60-79 Easy games. Use them to 
build proficiency. 

40-59 Average games, but can be 
challenging. You'll lose a 
few. 

30-39 Hard games. You'll have de- 
veloped your own style by 
now and won't panic when a 
difficult situation arises. But 
you won't win them all. 

20-29 Expert games. Just watching 
someone play one of these 
can boggle your mind. Loss- 
es will outnumber wins. 

16-19 Nearly impossible games. 
Unless you are an air traffic 
controller already, it's pos- 
sible that you'll never win one 
of these. But keep trying. 

Sam, by the way, got a good 
night's sleep and promptly forgot his 
vow. Rumor has it that he succumb- 
ed to the lure of a level 19 game. I 
expect to hear the phone ring any 
minute. D 



A Sample from 

Air Traffic Controller 



Randy Heuer 



One of my responsibilities at 
Creative Computing is software re- 
view. As a result, I see a multitude of 
computer games. Most of them don't 
impress me. So when a simulation 
the quality of Air Traffic Controller 
comes along, I get very excited. 

Now I know what you're thinking. 
"He's probably biased." Well, I'll give 
you a chance to form your own 
opinion. I'll play through a few 
minutes of Air Traffic Controller and 
let you see what an exciting simula- 
tion it really is. 

It's important to remember that in 
Air Traffic Controller, a computer- 
assisted radar scope is portrayed on 
the computer's video display. This is 
a very dynamic medium and I can't 
possibly show you everything that 
occurs during the course of the 
game. Therefore I'll. try to present the 
highlights of one game. 

1 2 3 

4 

I. 

I • I *.....$ 

« 5 i 7 

XK 



This is the mapboard for Air 
Traffic Controller (ATC.) The top of 
the screen is north. Each point on the 
map is one mile apart. The periods 
are simply mile markers. The num- 
bers on the edges of the display are 
the entry/exit fixes. Aircraft may 
either enter or leave your control area 
via these points. The two asterisks 
are navigational aids (navaids.) These 
markers are extremely useful as 
aircraft can be ordered to circle about 
these markers automatically or in- 
structed to assume an approach 
heading for either of the two airports. 
The airports are represented by the # 
and%. Aircraft must assume a 
westerly approach for the # airport 
and must land while travelling north- 
west for the % airport. 

Aircraft are represented on the 
screen by their call letter (A-Z) and 
their altitude (0-9) in thousands of 
feet. There are no active aircraft on 
the screen at this time, but if aircraft 
F was at 6000 feet, it would be 
displayed as F6. An active aircraft is 
one that is presently in your control 
area. Aircraft which have not yet 
entered or have already left the area 
are called inactive. 

The righthand side of the display 
is the aircraft status area. Informa- 
tion about aircraft to become active 
in your control area will be announc- 
ed in the status area. 

The following table lists the 
commands an aircraft can be given : 





A 


L 


R 





clear to land 


hold at navaid 


continue straight 
ahead 


1 


ascend/descend 
to 1000' 


turn left 45° 


turn right 45° 


2 


ascend /descend 
to 2000' 


turn left 90° 


turn right 90° 


3 


ascend /descend 
to 3000* 


turn left 135" 


turn right 135° 


4 


ascend/descend 
to 4000' 


turn left 180° 


turn right 180" 


5 


ascend /descend 
to 5000' 


clear for # 
approach 


clear for % 
approach 



112 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



TRS-80 • ATARI • PET • APPLE • SORCERER AND OTHERS 

CS-0 CALIBRATION 11 gg 

Maintain the proper head alignment on any mono tape recorder for any Microcomputer, and insure 
consistently good loads- All you need are: any Inexpensive AC voltmeter, a screwdriver , and this 
cassette Ves. Virginle. even the CTR-41 can be Kept In correct adjustment A must tor all TRS-80 
owners. 

CS-10RAPWCS TRS-80 Level II 4K up 9.95 ATARI 19 95 

OUAORAFLAKE ■ Graphics demo with more variety than can be Imagined 
MONDRIAN ■ Graphics demo In the style of the Clutch painter. 
TERRAIN • You design 3-D landscapes. 
CUBES ■ >0 graphics demo. 

CS-2 SHIPS TRS-80 Level II 4K a 15K up 9.95 ATAR1 19 95 

PLANETARY LANDING - Land your spaceship on any planet In the solar system - or on the moon. A 
reel challenge with timed Inputs. Accurate simulations BATTLESHIP - Use your torpedoes to sink the 
hidden battleship. Animated. 

CS-3 FUN » LOGIC TRS-80 Level II 4K * 18K up 9 05 ATAR1 19.95 

TUNNEL OUT - Dig your way out of prison thru a U-shaped 3-0 man containing a variety of obstacles - 

some that chase you This totally unique action game is one of our vary beet. Superb animation. Every 

mazeanewone. 

SUPERMINI) - A challenging version of MASTERMIND with 100K (105 I codes 

CS-4 MUSIC COMPOSER/EDITOR TRS-80 Level II 1BK up 19.95 ATARI 19.95 

48 note range. Songs up to 1000 notes long Choice of 7 note lengths. Save songs on tape. Play banjo, 
guitar, organ, and sound effects. Plus more. .Over 100 commands are available to enhance your 
creativity. TRS-80 version uses an entire 1BK of RAM Comes with the song 'DAISY and a complete 
instruction book. This program Is so good that even T l has purchased one. Our biggest seller since 
we introduced it In Creative Computing - Feb. 79. 

CS-5 HUMOR TRS-80 Level II 16K up 9 95 ATAR1 19 95 

TURTLE RACE - Two player betting geme with fine animation 

DADA SAYS - The computer Imitates the European dadaists of 1918 to give you non eequitur advice. 

This program demonstrates the ability of computers to compose sentences TRS-80 version usee 13K 

of RAM 

CS^ EDUCATIONAL TRS-80 Level II 15K up 9 95 ATARI 19.95 

TRIVIA - Answer as many questions as you can before the timer runs out. 3 levels of difficulty. 

animation. 4 sound effects TRS-80 uses 15K of RAM 

WORD • Guess the computer's secret word With 2 levels of difficulty. 

CS-7 COLUMBIA. THE OEM OF THE OCEAN TRS-80 Level II 10K up 9 H ATAR1 19.95 

This is the newest addition to our line of quality software A BATTLESHIP game with animation, 
sound effects, and naval songs. Plenty of excitement. 

Our cassettes are available from these and other computer dealers : 



THE COMPUTER SHOPPE 
3225 Denny Pant 
Metairie. LA 70002 

MICRO COMPUTERS OF NO 

2025 Canal 

New Orteane. LA 70112 



THE COMPUTER SHOPPE 
1 2A Westbank Expwy. 
Gretne. LA 70053 

THE COMPUTER PLACE 
1904 Plnhook RD Suite 202 
Lafayette. LA 70608 



THE PROGRAM STORE 
4200 Wisconsin Ave WW 
Washington. DC 20016 

THE COMPUTER PLACE 
3340 Highland Road 
Baton Rouge. LA 70802 



- or from us (personal checks allow 2 wks; others shipped w/ln 3 days): PFDC Software 3600 Garden 
Oaks SI 28 Algiers. LA 701 14 (504) 362-4881 . 

FREE WITH EVERY ORDER : Instructions on how to attach ATARI joysticks to the computers named at 
the top of this ad. With 2 sample programs 

See reviews of our products in Computer Cassettes Mag. 8 60 Software Critique. 



CIRCLE Hi ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Traffic ^ 
Controller^ 



TRAFFIC 
CONTROLLER 

This fast-moving, real lime pro- 
gram puts you in the chair of an air traffic 
controller. You control 27 prop planes and jets 
as they land, takeoff and fly over your air space. 
You give orders to change altitude, turn, maintain a 
holding pattern, approach and land at two airports. 
Written by an air traffic controller, this realistic machine 
language simulation includes navigational beacons and 
requires planes to take off and land into the wind. With its 
continuously variable skill level, you won't easily tire of this 
absorbing and instructive simulation 7TT~7|~~i 

CS-3006 16K TRS-80 Level II $7 95 »t»HSrtCIOHclI 

CS-8001 16KSOL-20 $7 95 SOI" i",YV <el»<i 

Send payment plus $1 .00 shipping 
to Creative Computing, P.O. Box 
789-M, Morristown, N.J. 07960. 



| cowpatlutf | 
software 



SOFT.WARE 
FOR THE TRS-80* 





NOW! 

A LIGHT PEN 

FOR THE TRS-80 

AND 

SOFTWARE 

THAT USES IT! 



QS LIGHT PEN. We have taken the excellent PhotoPoint light pen and packaged it with our 
own custom software. You get the light pen, which plugs into your tape recorder, and an 
instruction booklet that includes the software you need to interface a light pen to your own 
BASIC programs. Ouf software routines ate in BASIC and a simple G05UB puts the light 
pen in action . Two program examples are included. The "menu select" mode lets you set up 
selection squares anywhere you wish on the screen. The "screen location" mode searches for 
the pen position and returns the screen address to the calling program. One 9V battery 
required, not included. Light Pen - $19. 95 

SKETCH 80™ by Bob Christiansen. Use the QS light pen to draw figures on the TRS-80 
screen. Figures are drawn at three times normal we. Then save your sketch in memory and 
start another one. Your sketch can be displayed at normal size or at the enlarged size at 
which they were drawn. Combine two or more sketches on the same screen. Save your 
sketches to tape or disk. You can even ask the computer to print out the POKE values re- 
quired to produce your sketch. This system program figures out how much memory your 
TRS 80 has and allocates storage accordingly. Requires level li, I6K. On cassette - $14.95 

THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS REQUIRE LEVEL II. 16K, AND CAN BE 
PLA YEO WITH OR WITHOUT A LIGHT PEN. 

POKER PETE™ by Dave Gubser. Play five 
card draw poker one-on-one against an ani- 
mated PETE. Watch PETE shuffle and deal 
the cards. He will challenge you with bluffs, 
raises, calls and folds in this winner-take-all 
showdown. And watch out — PETE's got a 
gun! Three levels of skill. Written in BASIC. 
On cassette - $11.95 

LOWBALL POKER by Danny Shea. How low can you go? It's you against Micro Molly and 
the lowest hand wins. That's the rule in lowball poker. This version plays the popular 
Gardens. California rules. Don't take her for granted — Molly plays an excellent game. 
Written in BASIC. On cassette - $11.95 

RUMMV MASTER by Dave Gubser. Play rummy against the computer. Exceptional 
graphics display your hand, the discards, and the cards that have been melded. You see your 
opponent shuffle and deal out the cards. Tested in an arcade, this program was a big hit. 
Written in BASIC. On cassette - $11.95 

MATCH CARDS by Danny Shea; 8ANKSH0T by Bob Christiansen. Two programs on one 
cassette. MATCH CARDS is a concentration type game where you match numbers, letters, 
or graphic shapes. For 1 or 2 players. Automatic scoring rates your recall ability. Written in 
BASIC. BANKSHOT is a billiard like game for those who think they know all the angles. 
Hit the ball into the pocket, but you must hit a wall first. Written in BASIC with machine 
language subroutines. Just CLOAD and RUN. For 1 or 2 players. On cassette - $9.95 

THE FOLLOWING PROGRAMS REQUIRE LEVEL II, 16K, AND 00 NOT 
USE A LIGHT PEN. 

FASTGAMMON™ by Bob Christiansen. Our popular machine language backgammon game 
that started us in business. The computer plays against you and makes good moves instanta- 
neously. Option to replay dice rolls from the previous game. An eight-page instruction 
booklet is included. On cassette - $19.95 

On diskette - $24.95 

DEBUG by Bob Pierce. Oebug machine language programs by stepping through one Z 80 in- 
struction at a time. Relocatable. Several display options. Multiple break points. Modify 
memory and registers. On cassette $14.95 

Z-80 DISASSEMBLER by Vic Tolomei. Decode machine language programs, including 
TRS 80 ROM with this Z 80 Disassembler written in BASIC. Instruction mode prints out 
machine code and Zilog mnemonics in standard format. Or use the ASCII mode which con- 
verts machine language code to ASCII. On cassette $14.95 

auaLny software 

6660 Reseda Blvd Suite 103 Reseda CA 91335 
telephone 24 hours seven days a week |213l 344 6599 

HOW TO ORDER: MasterCharge and Visa cardholders may telephone their orders and we 
will deduct $1 from orders over $19 to compensate for phone charges. Or mail your order 
to the address above. California residents add 6% sales tax. Orders outside North America 
add $5 for registered airmail, pay in U.S. currency. 

'"TRS-80" is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 
CIRCLE 14t ON READER SERVICE CARD 




CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ATC.con't. 



An aircraft is given an instruction 
by typing its call letter, the instruc- 
tion letter (A,L or R) and instruction 
number (0-5). So, for example, to 
order aircraft Z to climb to 4000 feet, 
type ZA4. If your instruction is 
received properly, the pilot will 
respond "ROGER." 

You may also request information 
on any aircraft (active or inactive) by 
typing its call letter. This is useful for 
obtaining information on aircraft 
which are presently active and are no 
longer displayed in the status infor- 
mation area. 

That's a very brief overview of 
how the game is played. The object, 
of course, is to safely process all of 
the aircraft that enter your control 
area during the game. All of the 
restrictions discussed in David Man- 
nering's article apply. I've selected a 
60 minute game (as displayed on the 
clock in the lower right portion of the 
screen.) Remember, this is a real- 
time game. It's 0900:00 hours. 

i .... I .... . 3 mn* * 



the aircraft reaches the rightmost 
navaid it will assume a landing 
heading for % airport. I'll then give 
him a final, clear to land (PA0) 
instruction. 

This is typical of the type of 
planning that the air traffic controller 
must do the instant that a plane 
enters the status information area. 
Other aircraft which become active 
may force me to alter this plan, or if I 
make a mistake and forget to issue 
an instruction at the proper time, I 
may have to scramble in order to get 
the aircraft back to its intended 
destination. A serious mistake may 
end the game by causing one of the 
errors discussed in Mr. Mannering's 
article. Let's continue. 



I S i 7 

m 

0904:00 - My first aircraft is about 
to become active. The status infor- 
mation area contains : 

PJ6 8 A % N + 

This tells me that aircraft P is a jet (J) 
and is presently at 6000'(6). Aircraft P 
will enter my control area at fix 8 and 
has a destination of airport %. His 
present heading is north (N) and the 
+ indicates that he has more than 10 
minutes of fuel remaining. The 
aircraft will become active (on the 
screen) in one minute. 

Jet aircraft fly at tne rate of 4 
miles/minute, so this aircraft will 
approach its destination fairly quick- 
ly. My strategy here is to order this 
aircraft to make a 45" right turn (PR1) 
and descend to 2000' (PA2). I'll allow 
it to continue straight ahead until it 
reaches the east-west line defined by 
the and 9 fixes and order another 
45° right turn (PR1). I'll then issue a 
clear for % approach (PR5), so when 



mm * 



• 5. . ( 7 

3SK 

0905:30 - Another aircraft is 
about to become active. Aircraft W is 
practicing touch-and-go landings and 
wants to take-off from airport # and 
then land at the same airport. The 
problem here is that he must take-off 
and land in the same direction (west), 
so he must make a large circle. The P 
next to the W indicates that aircraft 
W is a prop plane flying at only 2 
miles/min. 

I'll order this aircraft to climb to 
only 1000'(WA1) and to make an 
immediate 180° left turn (WL4). 
When he flies far enough east, I'll 
instruct him to make another 180° 
left turn (WL4), clear him for ap- 
proach to # (WL5) and then clear to 
land (WA0). Note that aircraft P has 
made the first right turn and is now 



heading northeast. He has also 
finished his descent to 2000' and in a 
moment. I must remember to order 
him to complete his second right 
turn in order to head for the navaid. I 
must be careful not to cause a 
conflict error between aircrafts P and 
W. 




l 



j 3 wn»* 



I J f 7 

m. 

0909:00- Another aircraft arrives. 
A jet, Q is about to enter through fix 
7 with a destination of airport %. I'll 
order Q to descend to 20OO'(QA2) and 
then a clear to approach %(QR5). 
Note that aircraft P is 30 seconds 
from landing at airport % (indicated 
by the altitude). Aircraft W has 
finished his first 180° left turn and is 
heading east. I must be careful to 
keep aircraft Q above W until they are 
more than 3 miles apart to avoid a 
conflict error. 



i. . . .1 3 «3t5 ♦ 



ii4 -soar 



. . 7 



©Creative Computing 



0913:15 - My first overflight arrives. 
Prop aircraft V will enter fix 3 with a 
destination of fix 6. He must exit at 
5000' (WA5) but otherwise no other 
instructions need be issued. Since 
my last report, aircraft P and Q have 
landed. I've just issued aircraft W it's 
second 180° left turn instruction and 
the pilot has acknowledged it 
("Roger"). 

I'm getting a bit nervous. Things 
have been too quiet for the first ten 
minutes with only four aircraft active. 



114 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



ATC, con't 



3 



utns* 



wan* ♦ 



c 



»15 

. ». 



I. * V5 



8 



5 I... 1 

MR 
0918:00 - My fears are realized. 
Four aircraft arrive in the status 
information area simultaneously. Jet 
G wants to enter from fix 2 and land 
at airport #. This shouldn't prove to 
be too difficult. Prop B wants to 
take-off from # and exit fix 6 which is 
way across the map. Since a jet (Z) 
also wants to take-off from #, I'll hold 
B on the ground until the jet clears. 
Jet X wants to go from % to fix 1 . 
This will involve a couple of quck 
turns, but isn't too bad. Jet Z 
however must take-off from # and 
land at %, probably arriving at the 
navaid about the same time as jet G. 
This could be very touchy. Note both 
W and V are on their proper headings 
and need not be given any further 
instructions, but must be taken into 
account in order to avoid conflict 
errors (particularly W). In this deli- 
cate situation, one small mistake will 
probably be fatal. 

..!.... J J 

Hm ♦ 

a wim ♦ 

4 



. . 7 
>3X 



0921:45 - No new arrivals, but I 
just wanted to show what has 
happened since the last report. 
Aircraft X has exited successfuly. Z 
is on final approach and G is circling 
the navaid. Aircraft B and N are both 
in the air and aircraft I Is heading for 
fix 3. Without any major new 
problems or mistakes I might sur- 
vive. 



1 2 3 IK 11 5 ♦ 

in rt se • 



a. 

» is 



e 



. . 7 
>3K 



0922:30 - Two new arrivals. I 
must be careful to leave them above 
5000' until the other traffic has 
cleared. When G finishes this loop 
about the navaid, give him a clear to 
approach # instruction. 



l. 



3 



I 



1 5 K 7 

MR 

0920:00 - A very cluttered radar 
scope. Five aircraft are active at the 
present time (X, G, Z, V, I). A new 
arrival, I, wants to go from fix 6 to fix 
3. Two aircraft are awaiting clearance 
to take-off, the latest being jet N 
which wishes to exit fix 1. I'll order 
him up shortly although prop B has 
been waiting several minutes. As I 
feared, both Z and G will arrive at the 
navaid almost at the same time. I'll 
probably have to order G into a 
holding pattern until the other traffic 
clears. 



. . 7 

m 



0924:30 - Things seem to be 
going well. I survived the onslaught. I 
think I now have a few moments to 
recover. 



%.... 

I....0....I. 



8 ...J... 
X COfllCI XVII) 



I 7 

17 8DWW* >3X 



0925:30 - Well, I blew it. I relaxed 
for a moment and failed to notice 
that the two latest arivals (M, Y) were 
both at 6000' and I allowed them to 
get within three miles of each other 
causing a conflict error at the @ 
marker. Out of the 26 original 
aircraft, 17 failed to reach their 
destination. Fortunately, as in all 
computer simulations, everyone lives 
to fly another day. 

I hope this brief, sample game 
has given you the flavor of this 
exciting, new, computer simulation. 
ATC combines the best of computer 
gaming with the strategy of board 
games, offering features that you 
won't find in either. More important- 
ly, it's not the type of program that 
you'll tire of in a day or a week. You 
can always make the game more 
difficult. Every game is different. 
Every game is won or lost based on 
your decisions; not luck or chance. If 
you lose, it's because of a mistake 
you made. 

Creative Computing Software is 
pleased to announce that Air Traffic 
Controller is now available for several 
popular microcomputer systems. 
Each tape is written in machine 
language and retails for $7.95 plus 
$2.00 postage and handling. 
Air Traffic Controller 

CS-3006 TRS-80 LEVEL II 16K 

CS-4008 APPLE II 16K 

CS-5008 EXIDY SORCERER 8K 

CS-8001 SOL-20 16K 

In the future, look for Advanced 
Air Traffic Controller. This new 
version, by the original author, will 
be available for several of the 
machines listed above and will 
feature five different radar map- 
boards, an option that will allow you 
to replay the previous game, more 
restrictive and realistic boundary 
conditions and much more. Not 
intended for novices (like myself), 
this version will challenge even the 
most proficient controllers. D 



JANUARY 1980 



115 





sx 










: 

J 



SI 



S_- 



II 



. r ^\ 







Phantom VORTAC 



This module will guide you in preparing the master 
program for an on-board flight computer. The 
computer takes information from a VHF omni range 
system (VORTAC), and calculates the magnetic course 
and distance to a given airport for the pilot. The output 
of the program is such that the pilot can fly toward a 
"phantom" VORTAC located at any airport he selects. 

A description of this newly developed navigational 
system and the mathematics on which it is based are 
contained below along with alternate methods for 
handling the computation, and suggestions for ways in 
which previous programs you have written might be 
incorporated as sub-routines. 



A "real time" simulation of a flight using this 
system is suggested as an advanced level program. 

Pilots flying over the United States (and most other 
countries of the world) rely on radio facilities called 
VORTACs 1 for navigational information. The basic 
information the pilot receives in the cockpit is his 
position relative to the VORTAC, given in polar 
coordinates. 

The pilot in the illustration below would describe 
his position (obtained from his radio instruments) as 
being "on the 100* radial of the Allegheny County 
(AGC) VOR, 50 miles out." 

It is easy for this pilot to note that he can get to 



116 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




AGC by turning right, and flying a course 2 of 280" (Why 
280*?). If he is going 200 miles per hour, it is also easy 
for him to estimate that he will arrive at AGC in 15 
minutes (Is this exactly true?-go back over the article 
on vector addition if you are not sure.) 




The catch to all of this is that the location of the 
VOR is usually different from the location of the 
destination airport. This difficulty can be handled by 
flying two legs, the first from the present position to 
the VOR, and the second from the VOR to the airport. 
This is obviously an inefficient route. 

A new navigational system uses an on-board, 
special-purpose computer to tell the pilot what course 
and distance to fly in order to go directly from his 
present position to the airport. Let's first examine three 
ways of analyzing the mathematics involved in such a 
computation. 



210 




<' • 




, / ^ 



Before writing a program for such an on-board 
computer, it would be useful for a programmer to solve 
by hand typical problems arising in this situation. 3 At 
this point, let's look at three such solutions. 

Problem 1. The aircraft is 150 miles out on the 135* 
radial and the destination airport is 100 miles out on 
the 210* radial. That is, in the diagram, S1 = 150, E = 
135*. S3 = 100, D = 210*. 

Let A2 be the angle determined by S1 and S3. 
Hence, A2 = 210* - 135* = 75*. By the Law of 
Cosines, . — 

S2 =V100 2 + 150 2 -2«100«150«cos(75*) = 157.3 
miles. Now by the Law of .Sines, sin A3 = (100* 
966)/157.3 = .614 and cos A3 =y1 -.6142 = .789. 
From this we can get A3 = arctan (.614/. 789) = 38*. 
(Why wasn't A3 computed directly from sin A3?) 
Therefore x = 135* + 180* -38* = 277*. Output to the 
pilot is 157.3 miles, 277*— is this answer reasonable? 



V0RTAC 



D=210° 




Problem 2. The airplane is 250 miles out on the 45* 
radial and the destination airport is 100 miles out on 
the 280* radial. In terms of the diagram, S1 = 250, E = 
45*. S3 = 100, D = 280*. 

Converting the positions of the aircraft and 
destination to rectangular coordinates with the 
VORTAC as origin we have 

x p = 250 sin 45* = 176.8 miles, 
y p = 250 cos 45* = 176.8 miles, 
x d = 100 sin 280* = -98.48 miles, 
y d = 100 cos 280* = 17.36 miles. 

1 7fi ft 17 **lfi 

176.8-(A) =arCtan (- 5792 ) = »■■• 



A = arctan - 



JANUARY 1980 



117 



VORTAC, con't 




Therefore x = 270° - 30.1° = 239.9". By the 
Pythagorean Theorem 

S2 =^176.8 -17.36) +(176.8- (-98.48) )2 = 318.1. 

Hence the output to the pilot is : 318.1 miles, 239.9°. 



CROSS FLOW CHART FOR SUGGESTED ASSIGNMENTS 



Aircraft J 
Position 1 

Airport J 
Position! 



Enter 


radial of VORTAC on which aircraft lies 


Enter 


distance of aircraft from VORTAC 


Enter 


radial of VORTAC on which airport lies 


Enter 


distance of airport from VORTAC 



Program to simulate on- 
board computer, i.e.. 
compute course and 
distance to airport. 



NOTE: This 
is eliminated 
if Segment 
to be done 



(Segment 1) 




Program to compute the 
position of aircraft 
with respect to VORTAC 
after time t. 



Problem 3. The aircraft is 150 miles out on the 120° 
radial and the destination airport is 400 miles out on 
the 150' radial. 4 In the diagram, E = 120°, S1 = 150 
miles, D = 150", S3 = 400 miles. Using the same 
reasoning as in Problem 1 yields: 

A2 = 3Q° 

S2 = v 400 2 + 150 2 -2-150-400-cos30° = 290.3 miles 

sin A3 = 4 00 (.5236 /280.3) = .7135 

cos A3 =«/1 -.71352= .7007 

A3 = arctan(.7135/.7007) = 45.52° 

X = 120" + 180" -45.52 = 254.48° 
Output to the pilot is 280.3 miles, 254.48°-does this 
answer look reasonable? What went wrong? 

N 



E=120° 



D=150° 



VORTAC 




Assignment. Write a program for an on-board 
navigational computer which will accept as input the 
radial and distance from a VORTAC of both an aircraft 
and a destination, and which will compute a course 
and distance to the destination. The trigonometric 
subroutines in the computer require arguments in 
radians, but pilots think in terms of degrees, so it will 
be necessary for you to convert degrees to radians and 
back (see the module on converting to radians). Other 
possibly useful topics are inverse trigonometric 
functions, the Laws of sines and Cosines, and 
transformation of polar to rectangular coordinates 5 . 

Optional Section. During most flights, the aircraft 
moves through the air and the air moves as well. Write 
an addition to your program which will : 

1. Accept as additional input, specified by the 
'pilot,' (a) the aircraft's speed, (b) the speed of the 
wind, (c) the direction of the wind, (d) an elapsed time, 
t, and (e) a heading 6 for the aircraft. Any heading 
should be acceptable: the 'pilot' should be able to fly 
wherever he likes. 

2. Compute the new position of the aircraft on the 
basis of the above information. 

3. Repeat steps 1 and 2 as often as desired or 
necessary to reach the destination airport. □ 



118 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



1 . Very high frequency Omni Range and TACAN, where TACAN is an 
older military system of distance measuring equipment. Most 
civilian pilots call these facilities VOR-DME stations. 

2. The angular direction of the Intended flight path, measured 
clockwise from N. 

3. This Is another way of saying that computers do not remove the 
responsibility of analyzing a problem before solving it~qulte the 
contrary ; they demand more thought than ever. This may be, in fact, 
one of the most important contributions computing systems can 
make to learning. 

4. By now you should have noticed that the word radial is used to 
designate the angular position of a line segment that starts at the 
VORTAC. 

5. See previous articles. 

6. Heading is defined as the angular direction of the longitudinal axis 
of the aircraft with respect to North. In the picture below, the pilot is 
flying a course of 90* , but his heading is 65* . Why? 



This Is a reprint of one of the original Project Solo curriculum 
modules developed at the University of Pittsburgh. Project Solo was 
supported in part by the National Science Foundation, and It was 
directed by Tom Dwyer and Margot Critchfield. The modules were 
authored by various persons, including project staff, teachers, and 
students. 

It should be kept in mind that Project Solo began in 1969 (which is 
probably before some of Creatlve's readers were born.) Undoubtedly, 
many of the modules would be done differently today. There are also 
surely errors to be found, and neither Creative Computing, the authors, 
or NSF can warrant the accuracy of the reprints.' But as a starting point 
for your own explorations, they should make a good (albeit slightly 
ancient) set of shoulders to stand upon. We hope you enjoy the view. 



North 



WIND 




Longitudinal Axis 



— East 




DATA PROCESSING SUPPLIES & 
ACCESSORIES CATALOG 




NEW CATALOG FROM ALPHA SUPPLY CO. 
FEATURES . . . 

• RIBBON SELECTION GUIDE 

• MAGNETIC MEDIA STORAGE SYSTEMS 

• DISKETTES 

• MAJOR BRAND NAME MERCHANDISE 



To request a catalog, write or call 

0Cl|> ti i luiwly Company 

^9625 Mason Ave., Chatsworth. Ca. 91311 / (213) 882-9818 
CIRCLE 13« ON READER SERVICE CARD 
JANUARY 1980 



DISK DRIVE WOES? PRINTER INTERACTION? 

MEMORY LOSS? ERRATIC OPERATION? 

DON'T BLAME THE SOFTWARE! 





IS01 



Power Line Spikes. Surges & Hash could be the culpritl 
Floppies, printers, memory & processor often interact 1 
Our unique ISOLATORS eliminate equipment interaction 
AND curb damaging Power Line Spikes. Surges and Hash. 
'ISOLATOR (ISO 1 A) 3 filter isolated 3 prong sockets; 
integral Surge/Spike Suppression; 1875 W Maximum load, 

1 KW load any socket . . $54.95 

'ISOLATOR (ISO 2) 2 filter isolated 3 prong socket banks. 

(6 sockets total); integral Spike/Surge Suppression; 

1875 W Max load, 1 KW either bank $54.95 

'SUPER ISOLATOR (ISO-3), similar to ISO 1 A 

except double filtering & Suppression .... 
'ISOLATOR (ISO 41. similar to ISO 1 A except 

unit has 6 individually filtered sockets .... 
•ISOLATOR (ISO 5), similar to ISO 2 except 

unit has 3 socket banks, 9 sockets total . . . 
'CIRCUIT BREAKER, any model (add CB) Add 
•CKT BRK R/SWITCH/PILOT any model 

(-CBS) Add $11.00 

S£ PHONE ORDERS 1617 655 1532 

IS? Electronic Specialists, Inc. 



$79.95 

$93.95 

$76.95 
$ 6.00 



171 South Main Street. Natick. Mass 01760 



Oept. CC 



CIRCLE IN ON READER SERVICE CARD 



119 




I am writing to comment on Gary 
Young's program in the article, "An 
Intelligent Calendar for Every Home," 
vol.5, no. 4, page 128. 

The concept of such a calendar is 
a very good one. (Why is it that most 
magazine programs that interest me 
appear in Creative Computing?) There 
are, however, a number of places 
where the program can be improved 
quite a bit. Some of them just involve 
avoiding time consuming loops, 
others are to correct erroneous 
results. Rather than list all the line 
additions, corrections, or deletions, I 
am enclosing a modified and revised 
program which is about 1K shorter, 
much faster, and allows almost twice 
the number of descriptions in 80% of 
the disk space. Some of the changes 
are: 

• The leap year routine resulted in 

Rinaldo F. Prisco, R.O. #7, Edgebrook, 
Oswego. NY 13126. 



incorrect calendars since leap 
years are taken care of in line 
15400; thus the GOSUB in line 
7700 is replaced by A(2) = 29. 

• The " + 1" in line 14900 would 
have eliminated the week where 
the end of the month is a Sun- 
day ; it has been removed. 

• The only time the revised pro- 
gram checks for descriptions (a 
time consuming loop) is during 
the second line of calendar days 
and lines of calendar days where 
the preceeding line contained a 
description. 

• Payment-balance data and com- 
putations have been taken out to 
allow for twice as many descrip- 
tions. The important thing to 
know about payments is when 
they are due so they can be 
(hopefully) paid in time. The bill 
contains all the information. 



Intelligent 
Calendar 
Revisited 

Rinaldo F. Prisco 



■ Byte access has been used for 
disk storage for the month and 
day (using 2 bytes rather than 
10). We could be even more 
space efficient and use it for the 
frequency as well but care must 
be exercised since North Star 
data files use &1 for the EOF 
mark. Five blocks can now hold 
70 descriptions instead of 6 
blocks holding 40 descriptions. 

The CREATE routine will now 
actually create file space if it was 
not previously created. 

Modifications for data input and 
READ have been made. 

• An insert has been inserted 
between succeeding printouts of 
months to allow time for adjust- 
ment of the paper on the printer. 

All printouts other than the 
calendar itself are to the CRT. 



1500 
1850 

195: 
ia53 

1S6C 

186: 

1864 
190C 
2000 
2100 
2200 
2300 
2400 
2500 
2600 
2700 
2800 
2900 
3000 
3100 
3200 
3300 
34CC 
3500 
3600 
37:0 
3800 
3900 
4000 
4100 
4230 
4300 



MCDIFICATICS ANT REVISION CF PROGRAM LY 

gaf.y wx 
creative computing april 1979 

modtftcatic:: ;-_*:c rf.vis-on by 

?.:::al-c f. prisco 

all rights reser'.xd 



REM 

REM 

re:-: 

REM 

REM 

DIM B$(9),A(12) ,7(12) ,DS<53) , MS (108) 

REM ARRAYS ARE SET FOR 70 DESCRIPTION'S 

DIM D9S(C30) ,D9(70,4) 

DIM Li 7, 2) 

DATA 31 ,28,31,30,31,30,31,31,30,31,30,31 

DATA 0,31,59,90,120,151,181 ,212,243,273,304,334 

DATA " SUNDAY" 

DATA " MONDAY" 

DATA " TUESDAY" 

DATA "WEDNESDAY" 

DATA " THURSDAY" 

DATA " FRIDAY" 

" SATURDAY" 
DATA " JANUARY" 
TATA " FEBRUARY" 
DATA " M.APCH" 
DATA " Ar 
DATA " KAY" 
DATA " J 
IATA " 

DAT.'- ' .V :-VST" 
DATA "SE! 
DATA " OCTOBER" 
T-VTA "NOVEMBER" 
DATA "DECEMBER" 



440C 
4500 
4600 
4700 
4750 
4800 
4900 
5000 
5100 
5200 
5300 
5400 
5500 
5600 
5700 
5800 
5900 
6000 
6100 
6200 
6300 
6700 
6800 
6900 
7000 
7100 
7200 
7300 
7400 
7500 
7600 
7700 
7800 
7900 



FOR ti-1 TO 12:READ A(N):NEXT N 

FOR N-1 TO 12:R£AD TODiNEXT N 

FOR N-0 TO 6:L«N*9+1:READ DS(L):NEXT N 

FOR N-0 TO 11 :L-N*9+1:READ HJ(L):NEXT N 

INPUT "Enter name of data file: ",D1S 

1 "ENTER CPEATE, ADD, CHANGE, DELETE, LIST OR RUN? " 

INPUT "",FS 

IF LEr(FS)-0 THEN END 

IF F$-"CREATE" THEN 24600 

IF FS»"ADD" THEN 26500 

IF FS="CHANGE" THEN 27200 

IF FS-"DELETE" THEN 27200 

IF FJ-"LIST" THEN 29300 

IF F$-"RUN" THEN 5900 

I* INVALID COMMAND" 

GOTO 4800 

OPEN *1,D1$ 

J-0 

IF 7YP(1)=0 THEN 7400 

J-J+1 

READ #1,B$,SD9(J,1) ,iD9(J,2) ,D9(J,3) 

IF B$<> "DELETED " THEN 7000 

K-K-1 

GOTO 6100 

D9(J,4)-0 

K»(J-1)*9+1 

D9$(K,K+8)-B$ 

GOTO 6100 

N8-J 

! "ENTER STARTING YEAR, MONTH AND NO. OF MONTHS ", 

INPUT "".Y9.M9.N9 

IF Y9-INT(Y9/4)*4 THEN A(2)-29 

REM IT WILL TAKE A FEW SECONDS TO ADVANCE THE DATES 

REM DON'T THINK THE SYSTEM IS HUNG UP 



120 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



8000 GOSUB 22600 
8100 M9-M9-1 
8200 N1-0 
8300 N1-N1+1 

8400 IF NK-N9 THEN 8500: I IP,CHR$ (7) , :END 
8S00 M9=M9+1 
8600 IF M9<13 THEN 8800 
8100 M9=1:Y9=Y9+1 
8800 Y7-Y9 
8900 M7-M9 
9000 D9=1:D7-1 
9100 GOSUB 15200 
9200 IF W7>1 THEN D9-D9-W7+1 
9300 REM PRINT HEADINGS 

9350 INPUT "PRESS RETURN WHEN SELECTRIC IS READY. 
9400 1IP:IIP:IIP ",Z*:P-2 

9500 FOR J-1 TO 70:1IP,"#",:NEXT J 
9600 UP:IIP:UP,TAB(24) , 

9700 FOR J-1 TO 9 :K- (M9-1 ) *9+J: I IP, " " ,M$ (K.K) , :NEXT J 
9800 !#P," 19",12I,Y9:HP 

9900 FOR J=0 TO 6:K-J*9+1 : 1 IP, " ",D$ (K,K+8) , tNEXT J 
10000 IIP 

10100 FOR J-1 TO 71:1IP,"*",:NEXT J:!IP 
10200 REM PRINT BODY OF CALENDAR 
10300 N2-1:FOR J=1 TO 7:F (J) -1 :NEXT:GOTO 10700 
10400 N2-N2+1 

10500 REM N2 IS THE NUMBER OF LINES IN DAY BOX 
10600 IF N2>7 THEN 13200 
10700 S-0 
10800 T— 10 

10900 REM D1 IS THE CURRENT DAY IN THE MONTH 
11000 D1-D9 

11100 REM T IS THE TAB POSITION 
11200 T-T+10 

11300 REM S IS THE DAY OF THE WEEK COUNTER 
11400 S-S+1 
11500 IIP,TAB(T),"»", 
11600 IF T>69 THEN 12700 

11700 REM ON THE FIRST LINE OF THE WEEK, PRINT THE DATE 
11800 IF DK1 OR D1>A(M9) THEN 12500 
11900 IF N2>1 THEN 12300 
12200 !IP,TAB(T+5) ,%2I,D1, 

12300 IF N2>1 AND F(S)-1 THEN GOSUB 20000 
12500 D1-D1+1 
12600 GOTO 11200 
12700 IIP 
12800 GOTO 10400 
12900 REM 

13000 REM AT END OF WEEK, PRINT FULL BOTTOM LINE AND 
13100 REM CLEAR FLAGS 

13200 FOR J-1 TO 71: IIP,"*", :NEXT J:IIP 
13300 FOR J-1 TO N8:D9(J,4)-0:NEXT J 
13400 REM 

14700 D9=D9+7:IF D9>A(M9) THEN 8300 ELSE 10300 
15200 REM CALCULATE THE DAY OF THE WEEK 
15400 T7=INT(D7+365.25*Y7+T(M7)+.01*M7-.03) 
15500 W7=T7-INT((T7-1)/7)*7 
15600 W7-W7+1 
15700 IF W7-8 THEN W7-1 
15800 RETURN 

16000 REM INCREMENT TO NEXT PERIOD 
16200 M=D9(Q,1) :D-D9(Q,2)iF-D9(0,3) 
16600 IF F<>2 THEN 17100 
16700 M-M+6 

16800 IF M>12 THEN M-M-12 
16900 IF D>A(M) THEN D-A(M) 
17000 GOTO 19600 
17100 IF F<>4 THEN 17400 
17200 M-M+3 
17300 GOTO 16800 
17400 IF F<>12 THEN 17700 
17500 M-M+1 
17600 GOTO 16800 
17700 IF F<>24 THEN 18400 
17800 IF DOA(M) THEN 18200 
17900 D-15 
18000 M-M+1 
18100 GOTO 16800 
18200 IF D-15 THEN D-A(M) 
18 300 GOTO 19600 
18400 IF F<>26 THEN 18900 
18500 D-D+14 

18600 IF D<-A(M) THEN 19600 
18700 D-D-A(M) 
18800 GOTO 17500 
18900 IF F<>52 THEN STOP 
19000 D-D+7 
19100 GOTO 18600 
19600 D9(Q,1)-M:D9(Q,2)-D 
19700 RETURN 

19900 REM PRINT DESCRIPTION 
20000 FOR Q=1 TO N8 

20100 IF D9(Q,4>«1 OR M9<>D9(Q,1) OR DK>D9(Q,2) THEN 

21300 



20400 
20500 
20600 
21300 
21400 
22300 
22400 
22500 
22550 
22600 
22700 
22800 
22900 
23000 
23100 
23200 
23300 
23400 
23500 
23600 
23700 
23800 
23900 
24600 
24650 
24700 
24800 
25100 
25200 
25300 
25400 
25500 
25600 
25700 
25800 
25900 
26000 
26100 
26200 
26300 
26400 
26500 
26600 
26700 
26800 
26900 
27000 
27100 
27200 
27300 
27400 
27500 
27600 
27700 
27800 
27900 
28000 
28100 
28200 
28300 
28400 
28500 
28600 
28700 
28800 
28900 
29000 
29100 
29200 
29300 
29400 
29500 
29600 
29700 
29800 
29900 
30000 
30050 
30100 
30200 
30300 
30400 
30500 
30600 
30700 
31000 
31200 
31400 
31800 
32100 
32200 
32300 



N-(Q-1)*9+1:IF D9(Q,3)>1 THEN GOSUB 16000 

!IP,D9$(N,N+8) , 

D9(Q,4)-1:EXIT 21400 

NEXT Q:F(S)-0 

RETURN 

REM M5 IS THE MONTH OF THE EARLIEST DATE IN THE DATA 

REM IT IS USED TO CALCULATE FORWARD TO A LATER DATE 

REM DATA WITH A MONTH PRIOR TO M5 IS CONSIDERED AS 

REM NEXT YEAR 

M5-1 

FOR Q-1 TO N8 

IF D9(Q,3)-1 THEN 23800 

IF M5>M9 THEN 23400 

IF D9(Q,1)<M9 THEN 23100 ELSE 23800 

IF D9(Q,1)<M5 THEN 23800 

GOSUB 16200 

GOTO 23000 

IF D9(Q,1)<M9 THEN 23600 

IF D9(Q,1)<M5 THEN 23800 

GOSUB 16200 

GOTO 23400 

NEXT Q 

RETURN 

REM CREATE CALDATA FILE 

IF FILE(D1$)=- 1 THEN CREATE D1*,5 

OPEN |1,D1$ 

K=0 

I: ("ENTER ONLY CARRIAGE RETURN ON DESCRIPTION TO END": I 

K-K+1 

!%2I,K,") ", 

INPUT1 " DESC7 ",B$:IF LEN(B$)=0 THEN 26300 : 1TAB (26) , 

INPUT1 "MONTH? " ,S1 : ITAB (40) , : INPUT1 "DAY? ",S2 

ITABI53) ,:INPUT1 "FREQ.? ",F1:I 

GOSUB 30600 

IF E9>0 THEN 25300 

D9S(1,9)«" 

D9$(1,9)-B$ 

WRITE I1,D9$(1,9) ,&S1,iS2,F1 

GOTO 25200 

CLOSE 11:1:1 

GOTO 4800 

REM ADD ENTRIES TO BOTTOM OF DATA LIST 

OPEN I1,D1$ 

K-0 

IF TYPID-0 THEN 25100 

READ H,B$,tS1,&S2,F1 

K-K+1 

GOTO 26800 

REM CHANGE OR DELETE CODE 

REM A DELETE IS JUST A CHANGE WITH THE DESC-DELETE 

OPEN 11, D1* 

I "ENTER RECORD NO TO TERMINATE" 

INPUT "RECORD NO? ",R 

IF R-0 THEN 26 300 

J=(R-1)*18 

READ 11 %J,B$,tS1,&S2,F1 

IF F$="CHANGE" THEN 28400 

B$-"DELETED " 

WRITE 11 %J,B$,&S1,tS2,F1,NOENDMARK 

GOTO 27600 

INPUT1 " DESC? ",B*:IF LEN(BS)=0 THEN 26300: ITAB (26) , 

INPUT1 "MONTH? ",S1: 1TABI40) , :INPUT1 "DAY? ",S2 

ITAB(53) , :INPUT1 "FREQ.? ",F1:1 

GOSUB 30600 

IF E9>0 THEN 28400 

D9$(1,9)-" 

D9$(1,9)=B$ 

B$-D9$(1,9) 

GOTO 28200 

REM LIST THE FILE 

OPEN |1,D1$ 

K-0 

i 

!TAB(15)," NO. DESCRIPTION START FREQ" 

IF TYP(1)=0 THEN 30400 

READ H,B$,iS1,iS2,F1 

K-K+1:IF KOINT(K/14)*14 THEN 30100 

ICHR$(12) ,:INPUT1"",Z»: 1CHR$(13) , 

1TAB(15),%3I,K," ",B$(1,9)," 

1" ",%2I,F1 

GOTO 29800 

REM 

GOTO 26300 

REM EDIT THE INPUT DATA 

E9-0 

IF SKI OR S1>12 THEN 32100 

IF S2<1 OR S2>A(S1) THEN 32100 

IF F1-1 OR F1-2 OR F1-4 OR F1-12 THEN RETURN 

IF F1-24 OR F1-26 OR F1-52 THEN RETURN 

1 "ERROR IN DATA" 

E9-1 

RETURN 



,%2I,S1,"/",S2, 




Checkerboard 
Problem 

Solved 



In the September 1979 issue 
(page 152) Donald Piele presented 
the following problem from a recent 
programming contest. 

1. Patterns 

A. Suppose you have a 4 -by- 4 
checkerboard and four checkers. You 
are to place the four checkers on the 
checkerboard in such a way that each 
of the four rows, four columns, and 
two main diagonals contains exactly 
one checker. One such example is the 
following pattern: 



o 














o 




o 










o 





You are to write a program to print 
all the possible 4 -by- 4 checkerboard 
patterns which conform to the above 
rules. Each pattern should be dis- 
played with a star ( * ) in the position of 
a checker, and a dot (.) in the position 
of a space. For example, the above 
pattern should be displayed as 
follows: 



(Hint: To make the display more 
readable, you should print a blank 
between each of the characters on a 
line.) 

B. More generally, your program 
should work for any n-by-n checker- 
board, with the n checkers placed 
such that each of the rows, columns 
and two main diagonals contains 
exactly one checker. Your program 
should allow for input of the size n of 
the checkerboard. Each run should 
end by printing the total number of 
successful patterns found. The pro- 
gram should also request from the 



user whether the patterns themselves 
should be displayed; if not, only the 
number of successful patterns should 
be printed. 

Test your program with n = 3, n = 4 
and n-=5 checkers. Include displays 
of the actual patterns for n = 4, but do 
not include them for n = 3 or n = 5. 



Geoffrey Chase, OSB of Ports- 
mouth Abbey, Portsmouth, Rl 02871 
writes, "I found the problem to be a 
real stinker. The enclosed program 
exemplifies the technique of recur- 
sive descent used by nearly every 
syntax parsing routine. It is, in a 
sense, mathematical induction." 



100 

no 

i:'o 

1 ."',0 
140 
150 
160 
170 
180 
190 
200 

no 

220 
230 
240 
250 
260 
270 
280 
290 
300 
310 
320 
330 
340 
,T,0 
360 
370 
380 
390 
400 
410 
420 
430 
440 
450 
460 
470 
480 
490 
500 
510 
520 
530 
540 
550 
560 
570 
580 
590 
600 
610 
620 
630 
640 
650 
660 
670 



hTM. rht-rkerboard i rob I cut in Creative Computing 9/1979 

i P.A.S. September '79 

HIM C<20)fR(20) 

PRIN1 'CHECKBOARD HAS 'N' ROUSr 'N' COLUMNS. TYPE VALUE 0( 'N' 

INPUT N 

PRINT 'SHALI I PRINT Illl SOLUTIONS •.: INPUT S» 

S»*MI0<S«rlr 1 >: IF S«: 'V THEN N0=1 

L=0: S=0 ' level (row)? no. of solutions 

GOStlEl 260 

PRINT: PRINT r'THERI ul Rl **".SS , »* SOLUTIONS.' 

STOP 

i SUBROUTINE > 

REM. Descend one level: 

R(l ) i ' push J onto stack 

L-L+lt ir I >N THEN 410 ! not below bottom aet 



' bump solution counter 
1 N0=1 for no print-out 



S=S+1 

IF NO THEN 600 

PRINT 

TOR k = l TO n: PRINT 

FOR K2=l TO N 

IF C<K2>»K THEN PRINT USING •*#* "»KH GOTO 360 

PRINT • .. •; 

NEXT K2 

NrXT K 

GOTO 600 

l 



J=0 
J=J+1 

N THEN RETURN 
IF C<J)>0 THEN 420 



i trw next column 

' we've come too far, no column is free 

1 this column already taken 



REM. 

II .1 I THEN 520 
FOR K=l TO I 1 
IF C<K>-K THEN 420 
NEXT h 

REM. Check reverse diagonal 

II I Nil I THEN 570 
FOR K=l TO I 1 
IF C<NM K> K THEN 420 
NEXT K 



Check main diagonal: 

i not on main diagonal 

' no room for us on main diagonal 

t/erse diagonal: 

< not on reverse diagonal 

1 no room for us on reverse diagonal 



r:< oi 
gosiib : 



I this column is freer grab it 
1 dcgcand 



L-L-U IF 1=0 THEN RETURN 

FOR K=l TO N: IF C(K) I THEN C<K)=0 

NEXT K 

J=R<1 ) ' pop J from stack 

GOTO 420 



FNU 



! scrub out leftovers 



122 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Problem, con't. . . 

Steve North comments that the 
problem could be solved by exhaus- 
tive analysis. On an N x N board the 
number of trials would be: 



N 2 ! 



which for 5 is: 

25! _ 25'24»23»22'21 _ 
5! 20! 5«4«3«2 



53,130 



N!(N*-N)! 



53,130 possibilities to consider 
might be okay on a large mainframe, 
but not on anything smaller. 



CHECKPOARD HAS 'H' ROUS. 'N' COLUMNS. TYPE VALUE OF 'N'T 4 
SHALL I PRINT THE SOLUTIONS ? YES 




3 . 


4 


4 


3 
3 


.. .. 


2 


4 . 


1 


4 

2 . . 


1 



THERE WERE ** 1 2 ** SOIUT10NS. 



STOP AT I INF 210 
REAJIY 



RUN 

CHKRHD EDUCOMP BASIC V4.3 \6 BEI 



(HI IKBOARtl HAS 'N' ROUS. 'N' COLUMN!; . I Yl I VAI III III 'N'T L 
BHALI I IRIN1 Till Sill III IONS ? NIX 



llll hi WERE ** 3A0 ** SOLUTIONS. 

STOP At I INI ?10 
READY 

RUN 

CHKRBD I DUCONP BASH VA . 3 

illirMifiAl.li MA:. 'N' ROUS. 'N' COLUMNS. TYPI VAI III ell 'N'T 5 
3HALI I PRIN1 llll SOLUTIONS T MCA 1 1 VI 



Illll;l Ut I.I ** 66 ** SOI Ul I UN!,. 



STOP A I I INI 
READY 



R€unnc€ 

America's Most Versatile 

Line of Customized 
Audio Visual Packaging 

Audio Cassette 
Albums 




CA2LL-6 
Corrugated Mailers 



^ 




M-1 M-2 

For complete catalog write or phone 

ry-i iQ^yC p, »* ,ic * * 

ITCUI^ l>— C Packaging Omtion 

108-18 Queens Boulevard 

Forest Hills. N Y. 1 1375 (212) 544 9800 



CIRCLE 121 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




-FRACAS 

(fra'kas) n.l. a noisy 
dispute or fight; loud 
quarrel or disturbance; 
brawl; 2. a fantastic 
computer adventure 
challenging any number 
of players to explore a 
secret maze packed with 
hidden treasure, guarded 
by wily adversaries... 

Available NOW for 
APPLE II with 16K 
RAM...ONLY $19.95 
(postpaid) 

(CA n-HidrntH pli-aM- add .tale* tax) 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 
SATISFACTION 
GUARANTEED 




Computersmiths 

Box 755 

Meadow Visu.CA 95722 

(916) 878-2591 



JANUARY 1980 



123 



CIRCLE 127 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



These two pages are reprinted from "The I Hate Mathematics Book" by 
Marilyn Burns, Illustrated by Martha Halrston. The books In this series come 
from a group of California teachers, writers, and artists who get together to work 
every now and than on stuff for kids and to have a good time. The books reflect 
this approach and really make learning fun. Printed on brown paper, paperback, 
only $3.95 from Creative Computing Book Service. 



POISON - A FRIENDLY GAME 



You need: 



A friend, 




12 things that are the same — like beans, 
or nails, or bottlecaps and 




one more thing that is different — 
the poison. 



Say to your friend: 

"How about a friendly game of poison ?" 




Take turns. 

When your turn comes you must take 
away 1 thing, or 2 things, until only the 
poison is left.. 



-<_^-^£^ 



Whoever takes away the poison, dies. 




How can you always avoid the poison? 

You'll have to figure that out. (We can't 
tell you everything! But it's possible.) 

Some hints. (Well, questions, really.) 

Is it better to go 1st or 2nd? 

What would happen if there were a different 
number of things? 

How would it be if you could take away 1 
or 2 or 3 things? 

If you play enough, you'll figure it out. 



7T//5 GAME 15 I OF A VARIED CAUS) 
A//M-TYFE 6AMES. HERE lt> 
AJSOTHER VERSION 
yOU CAN FLAY 
WITH TOOTHPICKS. 



VOU'Ufi/EEPtfo, C^, 
r ry/<0 



HUM I (7) 

1 1 1 1 1 (5) 

iii (3; 

I (0 



AKKAH&ED UKE 7^/5 

OA/ YOUF\ TUfW. 7AKEA$ MAN y AS 

you M/ANr, Bi/r oNi-y from i 

KOIV. IVH0EV£K 7Afc£5 7HEIAST 
OA/E /LOSES. 



124 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Long-time readers of Creative Computing might recognize that PIG is a 
pencil-and paper version of NOT ONE which appeared back in Vol 1 . Nos 1 
and 3 of Creative. 






Here is a good game. It depends on know- 
ing a little something about probability as 
well as not being too much of a pig. 

You need 2 dice, a friend, and a paper and 
pencil (unless you are terrific at adding 
numbers in your head). 

You roll the dice and add up what they 
say. The idea is to get to 100. You don't 
have to take turns. You keep rolling as 
long as you want. BUT: 

If a 1 comes up on 1 of the dice, you 
lose your count for that turn. 



If a 1 comes up on both dice, your total 
goes back to 0. (Even if you were at 
98!) And anytime you throw a 1, you 
lose your turn. 

It helps a lot to know how to add. But it 
helps even more if you can predict how 
often l's will come up. What is the proba- 
bility of throwing one 1? What is the prob- 
ability of throwing snake eyes (two l's)? 

What is a lucky streak? Do you know one 
when you have it? 




JANUARY 1980 



125 






Space Games- 1 , CS-4001 (16K) 



Haunted 
House, 
CS-4005(16K) 



et-i-.B v:u Is * too* 



It is 6:00 and you have until 
midnight to find the secret 
passageway out of a haunted 
house. During your search, you 
may find skeleton keys to open 
locked doors, good luck 
charms, friendly ghosts, evil 
spirits, and skeletons. The 
sound effects (creaking doors 
and stairs) add to the eenness 
The house layout changes in 
every game 



1. Saucer Invasion 

We're being invaded by aliens 
from another planet. Your 
mission is to destroy as many 
saucers as possible with 15 
missiles Use the game paddle to 
move the launch tube back and 
forth across the bottom of the 
screen, then fire with the paddle 
button A two stage missile 
boosts slowly, firing its warhead 
midway toward the target. The 
flying saucers fly at different 
speeds and altitudes, so luck 
and timing are crucial! High 
resolution graphics, exploding 
saucers and wild sound effects 
make full use of the APPLE 
capabilities. 

2. Rocket Pilot 

Rocket Pilot is an advanced 
real time take off and landing 
game The object is to maneuver 
your spaceship successfully 



X / 






over a mountain to the landing 
area on the other side. The game 
paddles control your horizontal 
and vertical thrusters In 
addition to the graphics display 
of the rocket, the screen also 
shows your current velocity, 
time, and remaining fuel Earn a 
rating of "rocket pilot" if you 
negotiate the trip without 
•running out of fuel or crashing 
into the mountain 

3. Dynamic Bouncer 

Watch a ball move through a 
maze of colorful, changing 



obstacles in this creative 
graphics demonstration. 

4. Star Wars 

Use the game paddles to get 
the enemy TIE fighters within 
your crosshairs, then FIRE!! The 
object is to destroy as many 
enemy ships as possible in 90 
seconds as they perform evasive 
maneuvers to avoid your fire. 




Lasers, exploding enemy 
fighters, and action sounds put 
you in the middle of the fierce 
battle against the Imperial 
Empire! 



Apple Software on Disks 



Now. Creative Computing 
offers its cassette software of 
floppy disks These are not just 
the same programs stored on a 
disk but enhanced, menu driven 
libraries for the ultimate in ease 
of use. The machine language 
programs have been relocated 
to run with your disk system, 
and even Applesoft programs 
are loaded and executed 
automatically Make the most of 
your APPLE with Creative 
Computing floppy disk 
software. 

SPACE AND SPORTS GAMES 
CS-4501 

Rocket Pilot 
Saucer Invasion 
Star Wars 
Dynamic Bouncer 
Baseball 
Torpedo Alley 
Slalom 
Darts 



STRATEGY AND BRAIN 
GAMES CS-4502 
Checkers 
Skunk 
UFO 

Blockade 
Genius 

Nuclear Reaction 
Dodgem 
Dueling Digits 
Parrot 
Midpoints 
Lines 
Tones 

CAI PROGRAMS AND KNOW 
YOURSELF CS-4503 
US Map 
Spelling 
Math Drill 
Add-With-Carry 
Life Expectancy 
Psychotherapy 
Computer Literacy 
Alcohol 
Sex Role 



How To Order 

Creative Computing Software should be stocked by your 
local retail computer store. If your favorite retailer does not 
have the software you need, have him call our retail 
marketing dept. at 800-631-8112. (In N J, 201 -540-0445). 

Or you can order directly from Creative Computing. Use the 
handy order form on page 133. 



sensational 
software 



creative 

computing 

software 



Sports Games-1 , CS-4002 (16K) 



1. Baseball 

Play in the APPLE World 
Series! This two-player game is 
played according to Major 
League rules Game paddles 
control the infielders and 
outfielders, as you pitch 
changeups. fastballs. sliders, 
curves or knuckleballs. When 
you're at bat. good timing is the 
key as you swing the bat with a 





tap on the space bar This 
exciting graphics game even 
includes stealing, double plays, 
and sacrifices under computer 
control. 



2. Torpedo Alley 

The object of Torpedo Alley is 
to sink as many ships as 
possible with your forward 
torpedo tubes Move into 
position and FIRE'! But don't 
waste a shot -it takos time to 
reload when the tubes are 
empty Targets include aircraft 



carriers, patrol boats, destroy- 
ers, and cargo ships Depending 
on your score, you earn the rank 
of cook, seaman, or captain. 
How many stripes for you'' 



3. Slalom 

Have fun skiing without 
getting cold! Slalom is a 
downhill exercise in which you 
weave in and out of the flags on a 
championship slalom course. 
Game paddles control the speed 
and motion of the skier as you 
go for Olympic gold But don't 
knock down any flags or go off 
the mountain. Swiss hospitals 
don't take Master Charge! 



4. Darts 

How's your aim? Play darts 
and find out You have six darts 
to throw at a dartboard. The 
game paddles control the 
position of the darts. Can you 
hit the Bullseye? 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



126 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Strategy Games- 1 , CS-4003 (16K) 



1. Checkers 

(Requires Applesoft or 
Applesoft II BASIC) 

This is the APPLE version of 
the popular board game, with 
color graphics. Test your 
strategy against the computer. 
The computer does not look 
ahead for future moves, hence it 
is best suited for beginning 
players. 




2. Skunk 

Skunk is a two player dice 
game in which the object is to 
accumulate 100 points before 
your opponent. On each turn 
you may roll the dice or "pass." 
You roll the dice by turning a 
game paddle, and the value of 
the roll is added to your total 
score. If you roll a 1 . you lose all 
the points accumulated on that 
turn. If you roll snake eyes (two 
1s). your total score goes to 0. 

3. UFO 

You are the captain of a space 
ship carrying the last remnants 
of the human race, after a space 
war with another planet in which 
both worlds were destroyed. 
The aliens have launched a 
similar vessel and will attempt to 




destroy your ship. On each 
move you decide whether to 
maneuver, halt for repairs, or fire 
from your arsenal of heavy guns, 
warheads and lasers. 



4. Blockade 

In this game, each player 
controls a colored marker which 
leaves a trailing path. The object 
is to keep your marker in motion 
longer than your opponent by 
not running into a wall, the other 
player's path, or crossing your 
own path. Direction is 
controlled on the keyboard, but 
you can't stop moving. Game 
options include one or two 
player games, and accelerated 
speeds which increase as the 
game progresses 

5. Genius 

In each round of this game, 
you are given a potpouri of 5 
trivia questions to answer as 
quickly as possible. Any final 
score above 400 will merit a 
rating of genius, but watch out! 
There's a 25 point penalty for 
each wrong answer The quiz 
includes questions about 
movies, sports. TV. literature, 
general knowledge, and of 
course, computers. 



Know Yourself, CS-4301 (16K) 



The programs in this series 
aren't games, but they are fun to 
use. All of them are based on 
statistically valid tests and data. 
Using them from time to time 
could help you see in what 
direction your life is progress- 
ing. 

1. Life Expectancy 

Do you ever wonder how long 
you will live? Take the Life 
Expectancy quiz and find out! 
Will a different life style increase 







■ 




. |N AM 


* PtOPU Ofi ft FfiflH 




-* "« 


RHMCi 



3. Computer Literacy 

Are you a computer whiz? Try 
this quiz and find out how much 



you know about computers and 
computing. On each round, 
answer 5 questions as quickly as 
possible Depending on your 
score, you will be rated from 
janitor to a systems analyst. 
Ouestions range from history to 
present technology and 
applications. A large number of 
questions ensures variety on 
each round. 



4. Alcohol 

Are you a lush? Do you like to 
hide your Ripple in a Grape Nehi 
bottle? Alcohol allows you to 
experiment with the relationship 
between drinking, the alcohol 
level in your blood, and its 
effects on your behavior. Enter 
parameters such as body 
weight, time spent drinking. 



your life expectancy? Will 
following all the advice in the 
National Enquirer really help? 

2. Psychotherapy 

The APPLE analyst asks you 
20 questions to help you 
decide if you might benefit from 
a psychotherapist. Psycho- 
therapy asks you about your 
feelings, actions, and phobias 
and compares them against 
population norms. Here's where 
you can talk freely about those 
special powers people are using 
against you With sound. For all 
computer freaks. 




type of beverage and number of 
drinks. Sound and graphics- 
even a bubbling champagne 
glass!— make Alcohol fun as 
well as informative 



5. Sex Role 

Are you androgynous' This 
program helps you to examine 
your nature, behavior and 
attitudes in light of society's 
changing concept of sex roles. 



CAI Programs, CS-4201 (16K) 




1. U.S. Map 

Do you have problems 
remembering which state is 
which? Do you know the 
capitals? After a few games of 
US Map. you should have no 
trouble This advanced 
application of APPLE high 
resolution graphics enhances 



interest in the learning process. 
Options allow you to choose 
whether to identify only the state 
or both the state and its capital 
As the run progresses, missed 
states or capitals are repeated 
several times 

2. Spelling 

(Requires Applesoft or 
Applesoft II BASIC) 

Do you need practice 
spelling'' Let APPLE'S Spelling 
program lend a hand You are 
shown a word and asked to spell 
it when it disappears Grades 
from A- to F are given 
depending on how many you get 
correct The better you are, the 



shorter the time you see the hint 
word. 



3. Math Drill 

How are your math skills? Let 
Math Drill help you improve 
them. You can choose the type 
of problem you wish to 



& * 1= 9 
WOW ! ■ ! 



practice— addition, subtraction, 
multiplication, division or 
mixed You may also choose 
large or small numbers, whether 
or not to have a time limit, and 
how long the limit is to be. 

4. Add With Carry 

Here is a program to help you 
with harder addition You are 
presented with a series of 
addition problems of increasing 
difficulty. You add one column 
at a time, filling in the column 
sum and then the carry amount. 
If you do well, the problems get 
harder, if you don't, they get a 
little easier 



CIRCLE 20S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



127 



Brain Games-1 , CS-4004 (16K) 




1. Nuclear Reaction 

Nuclear Reaction is an 
exciting strategy game for two 
players. Each player, in turn, 
places a particle of radioactive 
material on a 6x6 board When 
the number of particles at a 
location reaches its critical 
mass, it explodes, sending a 
particle to adjacent squares As 
the board fills up. a single 
explosion can cause long chain 
reactions The object of the 



game is to cause the right chain 
reaction to wipe out all your 
opponent's pieces. Nuclear 
Reaction is a game of skill, fast 
decisions, and quick reversals. 
making it fun to play for many 
hours Action sound effects 

2. Dodgem 

In Dodgem, two sets of pieces 
move at right angles across a 
checker style board The object 
is to move all your pieces across 
the board and off the opposite 
edge. One player moves from 
the bottom to the top while the 
other moves left to right You 
may play Dodgem against the 
APPLE or a friend Six board 
sizes and action sound effects. 



3. Dueling Digits 



presents a digit and tone, then 
erases it. You then type in the 
same digit. After each turn, the 
computer repeats all the 
previous digits and adds a new 
one. and you try to type in the 
entire sequence The round is 
over when you make four 
mistakes. For up to four players 
Two skill levels 



R 1 




F r 


1 


E: 


J 



4. Parrot 



Do you have a good memory Parrot is similar to Dueling 

for sequences of numbers'' Play Digits, but you try to remember 

Dueling Digits and find out In sequences of letters and tones 

this game, the computer instead. Two skill levels 




5. Midpoints and Lines 

These two colorful graphics 
demonstrations will run 
continuously. Great for store 
displays, parties, and showing 
off your computer. 



6. Tones 

This program allows you to 
make your own music and 
sound effects with the game 
paddles. One paddle controls 
the pitch of the tone, the other 
controls the duration No 
special hardware is required 



Smart Alec, CS-5002 (8K) 

Smart Alec is fun as well as educational Test your memory by 
answering five multiple-choice questions on each round. Each 
question has a time limit and you are penalized 25 points for a 
wrong answer. Your score is based on how long it takes you to get 
the correct answer. If you do well, the computer will certify you as a 
genius 



There are seven areas in 
which to test your expertise 
They are: 1. Science 

2 Geography 

3 History 

4 Computers 

5. TV. and Movies 
6 English 
7. Trivia 



Graphics Games-2, CS-5001 (8K) 3 N "clear Reaction 



_:A 




1. LEM 

In this graphic version of the popular real time lunar landing 
game you must land on the moon's surface with the lowest possible 
velocity You can control the thrust of your retro-rockets with the 
number keys but you have a limited amount of fuel. The automatic 
pilot option can be activated and deactivated with the keyboard. 
You take a walk on the moon and plant a flag if you land 
successfully. 

2. Pie Lob 

This is a game in which two players lob pies at each other across 
a computer-generated hill. You choose the angle and the strength 
of the throw and then watch the trajectory of the lob across the 
screen The computer changes the terrain and the wind speed in 
each game. Pie Lob makes good use of SORCERER'S graphics. 



Nuclear Reaction is an exciting s'rategy games for two players 
Each player, in turn, places a particle of radioactive material on a 
6x6 board When the number of particles at a location reaches its 
critical mass, it explodes, sending partic.es to adjacent squares As 
the board fills up. a single explosion can cause long chain 
reactions The object of the game is to cause the right chain 
reactions to wipe out all your opponent's pieces Nuclear Reaction 
is a game of skill, fast decisions, and quick reversals, making it fun 
to play for many hours 

4. Bounce 

Bounce is an intriguing graphics demonstration which traces the 
path of a ball as it bounces around the screen 

5. Checkers 

The SORCERER matches its strategy against yours in this 
popular game The computer does not look more than one move 
ahead, hence the game is best suited for beginning players 

6. Dodgem 

Dodgem is played on a checker-type board against the computer 
or another player. The object of the game is to block your opponent 
to slow him down. One player moves pieces from the bottom of the 
board to the top. and the other player moves from left to right, 
trying to get all the pieces off the board This is a challenging game 
of strategy 



CIRCLE 20S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



128 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Air Traffic Controller, 

CS-3006(16K) 

This real time machine 
language program puts you in 
the chair of an air traffic 
controller. There are 27 
airplanes— jets and prop 
planes — which must be 
controlled as they land, take off 
and fly over your air space You 
give the orders to change 
altitude, turn, maintain a holding 
pattern, clear for approach, and 
land at your two airports. This 
realistic simulation includes 
navigational beacons, and 
requires planes to take off and 
land into the wind. Air Traffic 
Controller was written by an air 
traffic controller and isa favorite 
of the Creative Computing staff! 



Strategy Games, CS-3005 (16K) 



1. Tunnel Vision 

Tunnel Vision gives an 
exciting visual twist to the 
popular maze game You are 
transported into a massive 
labyrinth and must find the exit 
or be lost forever. A mouse's eye 
view is displayed as you wander 
through the maze, seeing walls, 
turn-offs, and dead ends as they 
are encountered This is an 
excellent example of three 
dimensional perspective using 
TRS-80 graphics. 




a combination of deductive 
reasoning and luck you must fit 
the graphically represented 
puzzle piece into place. Jigsaw 
has four different options 
featuring concealed pieces and 
helpful clues. 

4. The Masters 

Are you a wandering pro or 
just a Sunday golfer who would 
like to keep in practice? Each 
hole is graphically depicted 
from tee to green. You choose a 
club for your next stroke- 
wood, iron, or sand wedge 
Once you're on the green, a 
worms-eye view is displayed for 
putting. 



2. Evasion 

In this real time game, you are 
pursued around the game board 
by an evil-looking snake The 
arrow keys control your small 
drone as it tries to avoid being 
bitten for as long as possible 
(Evil-looking snakes always 
catch their drones ) Variations 
of play include two different 
speeds and hyper-jumps which 
randomly relocate you on the 
board Looking for an escape? 
Try Evasion. 

3. Jigsaw 

Jigsaw is a computer-age 
puzzle game making extensive 
use of TRS-80 graphics. The 
computer generates a random 
puzzle and puzzle board. Using 




5. Motor Racing 

Motor Racing combines real 
time racing action with 
advanced graphics functions. 
You racing car may be driven on 
two skill levels. The first allows 
only for directional control on a 
simple track, while the second 
skill level offers a choice of 
professional tracks, the 
Indianapolis Speed Way or a 
road race course. The graphics 
and animation make Motor 
Racing fun to watch as well as 
play 



Board Games-1 , CS-3001 (16K) 



1. Mugwump 

Mugwump is a board games 
which uses a 10x10 grid on 
which four friendly Mugwumps 
are hiding. Your mission is to 
locate these mysterious animals 
and capture them. You input X 
and Y coordinates for each 
move and after each round the 
distances from each mugwump 
are displayed. What is a mug- 
wump? No one really seems to 
know, but if you find one. 
maybe you'll let us in on the 
secret. 



2. Flip Disc 

Are you an Othello freak? Do 
you wish there were someone 
who would provide you with a 
challenging game at a mo- 
ment's notice? Flip Disc is a 
program which will turn your 
computer into an excellent 
opponent. Flip Disc provides 
the game board, chips, and 
handles all playing functions. 
Three different skill levels, 
(good, expert, and genius), 
provide an introduction for the 
novice and continuing interest 
for the experienced player. 



3. Wumpus 

Chances are if you ever leave 
your keyboard you have heard 
of the mythological Wumpus. In 
the game of Wumpus 1, you are 
scouring a network of under- 
ground caves in search of the 
prized Wumpus. The dreaded 
super bats and bottomless pits 
make Wumpus hunting a risky 
affair. On each turn, as you 
wind your way through the 
caves, you have a choice of 
moving or shooting through the 
cave. Bagging a Wumpus wins 
the game, but if you accident- 
ally stumble into his cave, the 
Wumpus will enjoy a tasty 
dinner of sauteed computer 
freak. 



4. Wumpus 2 

If you master the dodeca- 
hedron cave network in Wum- 
pus 1, you may proceed to 
Wumpus 2 which allows you to 
choose from five different 
caves, or you can design your 
own. Super bats and the in- 
famous bottomless pits are also 
included in Wumpus 2, so be 
prepared to jump into the frying 
pan! 




5. Qubic 

Oubic is a three dimensional 
Tic Tac Toe game. The game is 
played in a 3 dimensional cube 
(4x4x4). The object is to outwit 
the computer and place four 
pieces in any straight line. Be 
warned, the computer plays a 
very tough game and makes no 
concessions for your ability, or 
lack of it. 



TTTTTT 




i 

- 

. U IX. 


• ■ a 


▼▼▼▼▼▼ 



6. Backgammon 



This is the TRS-80 adapt- 
ation of the popular board 
game Backgammon uses graph- 
ics and all the standard back- 
gammon rules, not a strange com- 
puter variation. The computer is 
your opponent in this version, 
written by Scott Adams of "Adven- 
ture" fame. 



How To Order 

Creative Computing Software should be stocked by your 
local retail computer store. If your favorite retailer does not 
have the software you need, have him call our retail 
marketing dept. at 800-631-8112. (In NJ, 201-540-0445). 

Or you can order directly from Creative Computing. Use the 
handy order form on page 133. 



sensational 
software 



creative 

competing 

software 



JANUARY 1980 



129 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



nai 




Investment Analysis, 

CS-3305(4K) 

This program was originally 
developed for personal use by 
an investment specialist. Crea- 
tive Computing Software now 
makes this package available 
for you to analyze your invest- 
ments and investment decisions. 
Programs in this package include 
regression analysis, stock market 
simulations, market/stock values, 
risk analysis, time related invest- 
ments, and tax analysis. (Available 
in October) 



Checking Account, 

CS-3304(16K) 

This program does not re- 
place the standard method of 
checkbook balancing. Instead it 
acts as an aid in keeping track 




of individual and monthly ex- 
penses. You enter the amounts 
and payees of individual checks, 
and save the information on 
cassette tape. The program then 
allows you to analyze your checks 
by payee or date of payment. Keep 
track of where your money is 
going and how effective your 
budget is. 



Graphic Package, CS-3301 (16K) 



This package provides a 
variety of interesting and useful 
graphing routines Graphing 
Package combines text and 
TRS-80 graphics to plot a variety 
of functions and other graphs 



1. Bar Graph 

Bar Graph plots graphs for up 
to six different categories. An 
optional display does con- 
version to a line graph. 





2. Cartesian Coordinate 
Graphing 

This program plots a standard 
X, Y graph from a user entered 
function A special feature of 
this program automatically 
scales of the Y-axis. 

3. Polar Coordinate 
Graphing 

Rarely found in computer 
graphing packages, this polar 



graphing program provides 
plots of polar functions. The 
program labels all axes, features 
automatic scaling, and lets you 
input the range and increment of 
the plot A unique and valuable 
program 

4. Parametric Graphing 

Parametric functions are 
functions in which both x and y 
are expressed in terms of an 
independent variable t. The 
resulting graph is X vs. Y. This 
program allows the user to input 
two parametric functions and 
produces a graph. 

5. Linear and Parabolic 
Regression 

These two programs are used 
for data analysis which can later 
be entered into the graphing 
routines Regression routines 
analyze how well a series of 
points fit on a linear or quadratic 
function. 



Tape Manager and 
Advanced Statistics, CS-3303 (16K) 



This package may be the 
ultimate in statistical appli- 
cations for the 16K TRS-80. 
Attractively packaged in a vinyl 
binder with a large instruction 
booklet. Advanced Statistics 
will provide you with the ability 
to perform statistical tests never 
before available on small com- 
puters. Its cassette based data 
file system allows you to store, 
retrieve, and transform data 
files for use in several different 
tests. 

1. Tape Manager 

Tape Manager, the heart of 
the statistical file management, 
allows you to create, edit, and 
transform data files. Unique to 
this program are features that 
allow the user to perform 
transformations on variables, 
extract and create subfiles, and 
selectively copy records. Up to 
twenty variables and an un- 
limited number of cases can be 
processed. 

2. Descriptive Statistics 

Descriptive Statistics com- 
putes the mean, standard devi- 
ation, standard error of esti- 
mate, variance, skewness, kur- 
tosis. range, median, and quar- 
tiles for a variable and con- 
structs a histogram for each 
value. A test scoring option for 
conversion of raw scores into 
percentiles is included. 

3. Two Variable 
Statistics 

This program calculates de- 
scriptive statistics for each 
variable. It performs a t-test for 
the difference of means, com- 
puting the product-moment 
correlation coefficient and its 
associated significance level. In 
addition, it performs linear 
regression and computes stand- 
ard error of estimate for Y. 

4. Crosstabulation 

This program constructs con- 
tingency tables for displaying 
frequencies, column percentages 
and table-wide percentages for 
each cell. It computes the Chi- 
square, the level of significance 
and gamma statistics. Tables as 
large as 10x10 may be evaluated. 

5. Regression-Trend 
Analysis 

This program computes least- 
squares regression coefficients 



from time-series or paired data for 
best-fit equations (linear, para- 
bolic, hyperbolic, logarithmic, 
power, exponential and cubic 
types). Calculates standard error 
of estimate for each equation and 
more. 



LI*C* 


wanmamm 
t • i.au • i. mi i 


i » 


.vm 


NMBJD 


f ieii i .xn >• tnm nana* 


.«* 


IrfimiC 


(*> 4.Mtf H? -<W.Bff «• 


" 4 


I.Mr? 


\m * 


1 -.TP*C • 7.VTD UMO 


1 ■* 


i.*b 


no- 


T. LMBQDt JW7 


1 * 


■jm 


ononvL-.f tan ( uw m 


I » 


.mm 


otic 


f *.li»W.«Si»-.ffyttn?..MBBir) | 






1 » 


■j- 


WOS: 


T> liW-AWi'1 


tt1.rjfrZ.FK 1 


«M 00O H tMMT . 




J 



6. Multiple Linear 
Regression 

Performs multiple linear regres- 
sion using up to ten independent 
variables. The program computes 
both unstandardized and normal- 
ized coefficients, covariance, 
multiple correlation coefficient, 
and the standard error of estimate. 





sTa«n am:mv anricioiTs 


1 ! 


amino 

.tin 


■am ma r 

.WW K 


, ] 


1 1 


.ira 


.mm U 


2 i .»■% 

3 4 .U7W 

imsiim 
nos una to aurnr . 


.ant is. 
.7WJ .c 



7. Correlation Analysis 

Computes product-moment cor- 
relation matrices, multiple cor- 
relation coefficients and partial 
correlation coefficients with their 
associated significance levels. 

8. Analysis of Variance 

This program performs one-way 
and two-way analysis of variance 
for a maximum of ten groups in 
each control variable. Statistics 
include the mean and standard 
deviation for each group, sum of the 
squares, degrees of freedom, mean 
square. F-ratios. and significance 
level. 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



130 




Economic and Ecology 
Simulations 



The Ecology Simulations 
series are a unique educational 
tool. They are based on 
"simulation models" developed 
by the Huntington Two 
Computer Project at the State 
University of New York at Stony 
Brook under the direction of Dr. 
Ludwig Braun. The programs 
and accompanying document- 
ation are written for self- 
teaching or classroom use and 
include background material, 
sample exercises and study 
guides. Graphic displays were 
specially developed by Jo Ann 
Comito at SUNY and Ann 




Corngan at Creative Com- 
puting. The Ecology Simula- 
tions packages are a remarkable 
educational application of 
micro-computers 



Ecology Simulations-"!, CS-3201 (16K) 



1. Pop 



The POP series of models 
examines three different 
methods of population 
projection, including exponen- 
tial. S-shaped or logistical, and 
logistical with low density 
effects. At the same time the 
programs introduce the concept 
of successive refinement of a 
model, since each POP model 
adds more details than the 
previous one. 



2. Sterl 

STERL allows you to 
investigate the effectiveness of 
two different methods of pest 
control— the use of pesticides 
and the release of sterile males 
into the fly population. The 
concept of a more environ- 
mentally sound approach 
versus traditional chemical 



W\ 



i ••»§ ivmMme 



methods is introduced. In 
addition, STERL demonstrates 
the effectiveness of an 
integrated approach over either 
alternative by itself 



3. Tag 

TAG simulates the tagging 
and recovery method that is 
used by scientists to estimate 
animal populations. You 
attempt to estimate the bass 
population in a warm-water, 
bass-bluegill farm pond. 
Tagged fish are released in the 
pond and samples are recovered 
at timed intervals. By oresenting 
a detailed simulation of real 
sampling by "tagging and 
recovery." TAG helps you to 
understand this process 

4. Buffalo 

BUFFALO simulates tee 
yearly cycle of buffalo 
population growth and decline, 
and allows you to investigate the 
effects of different herd 
management policies. Simula- 
tions such as BUFFALO allow 
you to explore "What if" 
questions and experiment with 
approaches that might be 
disastrous in real life. 



IQTest,CS-3203(16K) 



IQ tests have been the subject 
of a great deal of controversy in 
the past few years. Yet, few of 
us know our IQ score. Now you 
can find out with our IQ test. 

Taking advantage of the TRS- 



80's graphic capabilities, this 
test consists of 60 multiple 
choice questions. A special 
machine language routine does 
the scoring of the test and 
makes cheating almost impos- 
sible. 



Ecology Simulations-2, CS-3202 (16K) 



1. Pollute 

POLLUTE focuses on one 
part of the water pollution 
problem; the accumulation of 
certain waste materials in 
waterways and their effect on 
dissolved oxygen levels in the 
water You can use the 
computer to investigate the 
effects of different variables 
such as the body of water, 
temperature, and the rate of 
dumping waste material 
Various types of primary and 
secondary waste treatment, as 
well as the impact of scientific 
and economic decisions can be 
examined. 

2. Rats 

In RATS, you play the role of a 
Health Department official 
devising an effective, practical 
plant to control rats. The plan 
may combine the use of 
sanitation and slow kill and 
quick kill poisons to eliminate a 
rat population. It is also possible 
to change the initial population 
size, growth rate, and whether 
the simulation will take place in 



an apartment building or 
entire city. 



nemo" tmruocss.* tub i n s 


«$f:to.$ j^L ^L 




wEsrv iL ill iL iL 

»o A A A A t\ 


■ 1 


reaiTO V V 

ama ft ft ,-v 


• 1 


- X 


it'. 


IS m or TO (MM 






3. Malaria 

With MALARIA, you are a 
Health Official trying to control 
a malaria epidemic while taking 
into account financial con- 
siderations in setting up a 
program The budgeted use of 
field hospitals, drugs for the ill. 
three types of pesticides, and 
preventative medication, must 
be properly combined for an 
effective control program. 

4. Diet 

DIET is designed to explore 
the effect of four basic 
substances, protein, lipids, 
calories and carbohydrates, on 
your diet You enter a list of the 
types and amounts of food eaten 
in a typical day. as well as your 
age. weight, sex, health and a 
physical activity factor. DIET is 
particularly valuable in 
indicating how a diet can be 
changed to raise or lower body 
weights and provide proper 
nutrition. 



Social and Economic Simulations 

CS-3204(16K) 
1. Limits 



LIMITS Is a micro-com- 
puter version of the well known 
"Limits to Growth" project 
done at MIT. It contains a 
model of the world that is built 
of five subsystems (popula- 
tion, pollution, food supply, 
industrial output, and resource 
usage) linked together by six 
variables: birth rate, death 
rate, pollution generation, re- 
source usage rate, industrial 
output growth rate, and food 
production rate. 

2. Market 

Market allows two or more 
people to play the roles of 
companies who are competing 



for the market for a particular 
product : in this case, bicycles. 
Each player makes market- 
ing decisions quarterly includ- 
ing the production level, the 
advertising budget, and the 
unit price of the product for 
his/her company. 

3. USPop 

USPOP allows the user to 
study many aspects of the 
United States' human demo- 
graphy (population change) 
including population growth, 
age and sex distribution. 
USPOP makes population pro- 
jections and investigates the 
consequences of many differ- 
ent demographic changes. 
(Available in November). 



JANUARY 1980 



131 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Space 

Games-3, 
CS-3002(16K) 
1. Ultra-Trek 

Ultra-Trek is a fast-paced 
version of Star Trek, complete 
with "real time" action graphics, 
lasers, Nilon space mines, high 
energy photon torpedoes, enemy 
ships that move, and an experi- 
mental ray which does something 
different each time you use it. At 
the beginning of your mission, you 
are told the number of Klingon 
base ships and battle cruisers you 
must defeat. Klingons have sharp 
eyes and quick torpedo launchers. 
They don't wait for you to type in 
your moves, so you must act 
quickly to save yourself and the 
Federation. 




2. Romulan 

Your mission is to destroy an 
invading Romulan space craft, but 
you'll have to find it first. The 
Romulans have a new cloaking 
device. By activating your sensors, 
the Romulans position will be 
shown briefly, but the sensors use 
a lot of energy. Maneuver through 
space and around stars looking for 
the deadly enemy, but be careful! 
The nasty Romulans fire back. 

3. Star Wars 

If you hate Oarth Vader. you'll 
love Star Wars. Take an X-Wing 
fighter into combat and save the 
Rebels' base camp Using the 
keyboard to control the ship, you 
must line up the TIE fighters into 
your sights and zap them with your 
lasers. This real time game is fun 
for aliens of all ages. May the Force 
be with you! 

4. Star Lanes 

Imagine yourself the president 
of an intergalactic shipping com- 
pany. In Star Lanes you control 
sections of the galaxy and. on each 
turn, are given chances to buy 
stock in developing businesses. 
You are free to roam about the 
galaxy and engage in bartering, 
business ventures, stock splits, and 
company takeovers. If you're 
successful, you may be named 
Imperial Advisor on Economic 
Affairs. Entrepreneurs: to your 
ships 



Pursuit Games, CS-3004 (16K) 




1. Stock Car Race 

Stock Car Race is a real time 
racing game on a road race 
circuit Your high speed racer is 
controlled by the "arrow" keys. 
as you shift up and down 
through four gears. Take the 
turns slowly, "floor it" on the 
straights, but don't blow your 
engine! 

2. Maze 

Maze for the Level II 16K 
machine is a high speed pursuit 
game You are timed throughout 
your run and rated on the basis 
of elapsed time and the number 
of moves required to escape A 
different maze every time. Nine 
skill levels 

3. Indy Racer 

Indy Racer is a real time 
racing game for the TRS-80. 
You're in the driver's seat of a 
red-hot Indy car, changing 
gears and weaving around the 



track as you pass your 
competitors Indy Racer is 
similar to the popular arcade- 
style driving games 

4. Depth Charge 

As commander of a destroyer, 
your mission is to destroy as 
many enemy subs as possible 
Move your ship back and forth 
on the water, positioning 
yourself over enemy subs as 
they cruise into range. Depth 
charges sink slowly, so timing 
and position are important in 
this re-creation of the Battle of 
the Atlantic. 




5. Kaleidoscope 

This graphics demonstration 
program turns your TRS-80 into 
a computer age kaleidoscope 
You enter the number of lines 
and size of the display to 
produce changing patterns on 
the video monitor Truly 
hypnotizing. Kaleidoscope runs 
continuously to brighten up 
your home or office 



Text Processing, CS-3302 (16K) 



This program turns a 16K. 
TRS-80 and lineprinter into a 
line oriented text-processing 
system 



>i mis is i* nwm* ■»' i* omniit inn massa 
ye ii or » mn kmdtu twits, wt n unci u itu 
>3 airaic «J«m. n is went «j <m rwu kki 

* i ica massa idiwhik am irnwii 

» OICHIC MOT. BII«ll«III(»»M«lUll«ir 

* DO ItKMt IWItS L 10 001 91 OWlllIt M lit W 



CWIINLC LIST 01 SCKDI 

HOfltLIlt 

CUT 

INStPT Lilt 

R£SUC KEYING 

LIST 91 SOO 

PPIKT HflRU COPY 

GLUT ttltftt 

SAVE ttt Tift 



Developed exclusively for the 
TRS-80. this program lets you 
use the computer to enter 
general text or business letters, 
edit and modify your work, save 
text on cassette tapes, and print 
out a perfect report, document, 
or letter every time 



Editing commands are similar 
to those used in Level II BASIC, 
so there are nocomplicated new 
commands to learn Lines may 
be either inserted or deleted A 
special format is available to 
speed entry of business letters 
Final printout can be done in 
numbered pages and you may 
print multiple copies. 



TRS-80 Software 
on Disks, (32K) 

Now. Creative Computing 
offers its cassette software on 
floppy disks These are not just 
the same programs simply 
stored on a disk, but enhanced, 
menu driven libraries for the 
ultimate in ease of use. Machine 
language routines have been 
relocated to be compatible with 
disk basic, and the file handling, 
such as is used in the Checking 
Account program, can now be 
handled using your TRS-80 
mini-floppy system. Make the 
most of your TRS-80 with 
Creative Computing floppy disk 
software 

CS-3501 ECOLOGY 

SIMULATIONS-1 
Pop Tag 

Sterl Buffalo 

CS-3502 ECOLOGY 

SIMULATIONS-2 
Pollute Malaria 

Rats Diet 

CS-3507 SOCIAL & 
ECONOMIC 
SIMULATIONS 

Limits USPop 

Market 

CS-3503 GAMES PACK-1 

Backgammon Stock Car Race 
Qubic Maze 

Flip Disc Indy Racer 

Wumpus 1 Depth Charge 
Wumpus 2 Kaleidoscope 
Mugwump Tunnel Vision 
Ultra Trek Evasion 
Romulan Jigsaw 

Star Wars The Masters 
Star Lanes Motor Racing 

CS-3504 TEXT PROCESSING 
CHECKING 
ACCOUNT 

CS-3505 ADVANCED 
STATISTICS 

Data File Manager 
Descriptive Statistics 
Two Variable Statistics 
Crosstabulation 
Regression 

Multiple Linear Regression 
Correlation Analysis 
Analysis of Variance 
Advanced Multiple Regres- 
sion 

CS-3506 ADVENTURE 1 AND 2 

Adventure 
Pirate Adventure 



CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




132 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PET LOGIC GAMES- 1 (8KXCS-1001| S» games to lest your skitl end 
LOGIC GAMES-2 toKxCS-1003) Challenge you' loo>c atMlity in 6 mora 

■mm 

GRAPHICS GAMES-1 (BKXCS-1004) Five act. on -packed o'*O h| c» 

contests 
GRAPHICS GAMES-2 (8«mCS 1006) Nuclear react.ons lunar landings 

and 3 mora 
NUMBER GAMES-2(8KXCS-l0ra)Si« number -guessing games 
CONVERSATIONAL GAMES-2 <8K »CS 100B) Test y ou' wit m 6 unusual 

■M 
BOARD GAMESlBKKCS-1007) Yehuee Beekgammon. Blackjack. 

Trek-3. and mora 
ACTION GAMES I8K| iCS-1008) Battle N out with torpedo*, depth 

charges and rood 'ecers 
ADVENTURELANO AND PIRATE AOVENTURE (24KXCS- 1009) saa 3007 

and 8 lor tha TRS-80 
SENSATIONAL SIMULATIONS (8KXCS 1201) Ancient Sumer.a. I ha 

Stock markat and mora 
STUDY MADE EASY (BKiCS-1207, Create study drills for any subfact 

automatically 

TRS-eO LEVEL t GAMES- 1 (4K*CS-2001> Fi«* games including 

Battling Oaath Stars 
GAMES-2 (4KXCS 2002) Foracast your tMOrythms. compose mu*«c. 

and 3 mora 
GEOGRAPHY (4KKCS 220') Drill for Europe. Africa. North and South 

Amarica 
TAPE MANAGER/GRAPHICS/STATISTICS (4KKCS-2301) Statistical 

computations and displays 
INVESTMENT ANALYSIS (4KXCS- 33051 Anelyaa your investment 



TRS-SO LEVEL II BOARD GAMES- 1 (16KXCS-300H Ot hallo, backgam- 
mon end4more 

SPACE GAMES-3(teKHCS-3003l Star Wars. Romulan, Ultra Trak. Star 
iMM 

PURSUIT GAMES HSKXCS-3004) Stock Car Race Ma/a Indy Racar. 
and 2 mora 

STRATEGY GAMES C6Ki iCS 3005) Tunnel Vision. Evasion. Jigsaw. 
and 2 mora 

AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER H6KKCS-3006) Control 27 planaa in your 



ADVENTURELANO (16KXCS-3007) An anchanlad work) ol mag.cal 

beings, putties, and parils 
PIRATE AOVENTURE HWuCS 30061 You'll meet tha Pirata on your 

say to Traaaura island 
MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE i i6K»CS-3009l Save tha world's 

Itl nuclear raacior 



SENSATIONAL SOFTWARE FROM CREATIVE COMPUTING 

VOODOO CASTLE (18KKCS-3010) Rescue Count Cnsto from tha 

fiendish curse 
THE COUNT nrJKiiCS- »' 1 1 You wafce up in a brass bad in Transylvania 

Ceette 
ECOLOGY SIMULATIONS- 1 (l6KXCS-320ii investigate population 

protection 
ECOLOGY Simul ATiONS-2 (16K»CS 32021 Control epidemics, pasts. 

and pollution 
IO TEST ( 16KXCS-3203) A genuine IO last impossible to chaat 
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC SIMULATIONS 416KX3204) Limits to 

Growth" and much mora 
GRAPHIC PACKAGE (l&KXCS 3301) Sophisticated Graphing routina* 

and othar computations 
ADVANCED STATlSTiCS|16KXCS-3303> Vafianoa and corraiat.on 

analysis, cross -tabulation, mullipla linear ragrassion. and descnp 

tiva statistics 
CHECKING ACCOUNT n6Ks.CS- 3304) Or genua your chocking 

account 
INVESTMENT ANALYSIS (4KXCS 330SI Analyse your Investment 

decision* 

TRS-80 DISKS ECOLOGY SIMULATIONS- 1 (32KXCS-360H for tha 

TRS-80 saw CS- 3201 
ECOLOGY SIMULATIONS-? (32KXCS-3602) »s* CS-3202 tor th* 

TRS-80 
GAMES PACK i (32KHCS-3S03) Spaca. pursuit, sir stagy, and board 

Oamas 
TEXT. PROCESSING CHECKING ACCOUNT(32KNCS 35041 saaCS33C2 

and CS-3304 tor tha TRS-80 
ADVANCED STATISTICS 132KXCS-3606I saa CS 3303 lor tha TRS-80 
ADVENTURELANO AND PIRATE ADVENTURE (32KHCS-350B) saa 

CS- 3007 and CS- 3008 
MISSION IMPOSSIBLE AND VOOOOO CASTLE ADVENTURE (32K1 

(CS-3607, saa CS- 3008 and CS 3010 for tha TRS-80 
SOCIAL AN0 ECONOMIC SIMULATIONS (32KHCS 3500) saa CS 3204 

tor tha TRS-80 

APPLE N SPACE GAMES (16K)(CS-400lr Four challenging galactic 

gam** 
SPORTS GAMESJ18KKCS-4002) Basaball. Torpado Allay. Slalom, and 

Oarts 
STRATEGY GAMES-i (16K«CS-4003i Biockada. Skunk. UFO. and 

BRAIN GAMES-1 ( 16KXCS-4004) Sn e*ciling programs with sound 

effects 
HAUNTE0 HOUSE (16KKCS-4006I Saarch lor a sacrat passageway 

With sound #fl acts 
CAi PROGRAMS (16KXCS-4201) Spoiling. Geography, individualized 

Math programs 



KNOW YOURSELF H6KNCS 430D Your *•< role, life expectancy. 

mental health and response to alcohol 
SPACE INVADER (32KMCS -4008) Tha arcade Style inverJar gam* 55 

aliens high resolution graphics, and sound effects 

APPLE " MSK SPACE ANO SPORTS GAMES (32KKCS 450D sea 

CS-eOOl and 2 for the Apple 
STRATEGY AND BRAIN GAMES (32KMCS-45021 see CS 4003 and 4 tor 

the Apple 
CAI PROGRAMS/KNOW YOURSELF (32KHCS-4503) see CS-4201 and 

CS-4301 for the Apple 
SPACE INVADER (48KXCS-4S03AI Tha arcade style invader game U 

aliens high resolution graphics, and sound effects 

SORCERER GRAPHICS GAMES (OKXCS-SOOD S-« aclionpackad 

graphics gamee 
SMART ALEC l8K»CS 5002) Test your expertise in 7 categories 200 



ADVENTURELANO MSKxCS- 5003) see CS 3007 for the Apple 
PIRATE ADVENTURE ( 16KKCS-S0O4) see CS 3006 for the Apple 
MISSION IMPOSSIBLE ADVENTURE (16KKCS-30O5) see CS 3009 for 

the Apple 
VOOOOO CASTLE (16KHCS-5006) see CS-3010 tor the Apple 
THE COUNT (16KXCS-5007) see CS-301 1 for the Apple 
CHALLENGER GRAPHICS GAMES 3 (BKXCS-B001 ) 5 action packed 

graphics gamee 
SOL-JO AIR TRAFFIC CONTROLLER 1 16KHCS-8001 ) aee CS 3006 for 

the Apple 
SPACE GAMES-4 (32KNCS8003) Star Wars. Lunar Lander. Asteroid. 

and Romulan 
STRATEGY GAMES (32KXCS-80O4) Five tun end challenging bram 

games 

READING COMPREHENSION I20KKCS8201I Short stories end 
comprehension questions, with a 33 page instruction manual 

CP/M INVESTMENT ANALYSIS (4KXCS-9003> see CS 3305 tor the 
TRS-80 

BASIC GAMES 1 (4BKXCS-900I) 51 of Our beat action and strategy 

BASIC GAMES 2 I48KXCS-9002I 51 more fun and challenging games 
BASIC GAMES 1 AND 2 AND BASIC COMPUTER GAMES BOOK <*BK) 

(CS-9000) 
BASIC GAMES- 3 (4BKKCS-e006| 50 programs for games freaks 
BASIC GAMES-4 (48KXCS-9006) Hours of diversion with 30 games 
BASIC GAMES 3 AND 4 ANO MORE BASIC COMPUTER GAMES 

BOOK (4BKXCS-9007) 
BASIC GAMES 1 THROUGH 4. BASIC COMPUTER GAMES ANO 

MORE BASIC COMPUTER GAMES BOOKS (46KKCS 9008 | 
ORIGINAL ADVENTURE (48KMCS-9004) Underground caverns Of 
s and penis bi-ltngual English and French 



creative computing 

P.O. Box 789-M Morristown, NJ 07960 

Please use this order form for fast, dependable 
service. It gives us the information necessary to insure 
prompt delivery. 

To males payment: We gladly accept your personal 
check, bank draft, money order, VISA, Master Charge or 

American Express. 
Please do not 



mastei etiarge 



send currency. 
Sorry, no C.O.D. 
orders. 

Be sure to include the complete number and expira- 
tion date of your card. Your purchase will be included on 
your regular monthly statement. 




Name 



Address 
City 



Area code Telephone. 

Ship to : (if other than yourself) 



State 



Apt.#_ 
_2lp_ 



Name 



Address 
City 



Apt. #_ 

.State Zip_ 



D Check or money order enclosed (U.S. funds only) 
D VISA D Master Charge D American Express 

Card number 



Expiration Date 



Signature 



W Ordei 



Order Toll Free in continental U.S. 
800-631-8112 
(In NJ. call 201-540-0445) 



Payment for telephone orders must be made with Visa, 
MasterCharge, or American Express. 
CIRCLE 205 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE ORDER FORM 



Qty. Cat. No. Price Total 



PET 
1001 


$7.95 


1002 


$7.95 


1003 


$7.95 


1004 


$7 95 


1005 


$7 95 


1006 


$7.95 


1007 


$7.95 


1008 


$7.95 


1009 


$14.95 


1201 
1202 


$7.95 
$14.95 


TRS-80 Level I 

5W11 *7 95 


POO? 


$7.95 


9901 


$7.95 


9.101 


$7.95 


3305 


$4995 


TRS-80 Level II 
3001 $7.95 


3002 
3004 


$7.95 
$7.95 


3005 


$7.95 


3005 


$7 95 


3006 


$7.95 


3007 


$'495 


3006 


$14.95 


. 3009 


$14.95 


3010 


$14.95 


3011 


$14.95 


3201 
3202 
3203 


$24 95 
$24.95 
$14.95 


3204 
3301 


$24.95 
S7 95 


330? $14 95 

3303 424 95 

3304 17 95 

3305 $49.95 

TRS-80 DISKS 
1501 $24 95 

3502 $24.95 
3SM S.19 95 

3504 $24.95 

3505 $24 95 

3506 $24.95 

3507 $2495 

3508 $24.95 



Qty. 



Cat. No. Price 
APPLE II 



Total 



4001 

4002 

4003 

4004 

4005 

.4006 

.4201 

.4301 

.4501 

.4502 

4503 

4503A 



$7.95 

$7 95 

$7.95 

$7.95 

$7.95 

$19.95 

$7 95 

$7.95 

$14.95 

$1495 

$14.95 

$19.95 



SORCERER 
_. 5001 $7.95 

5002 $7.95 

5003 $14.95 

5004 $14.95 

5005 $14.95 

5006 $14.95 

5007 $14.95 

CHALLENGER 1P 

6001 $7.95 

SOL-20 
8001 $7.95 



8003 
8004 
8201 

CP/M 

9000 

_ 9001 

. 9002 
_ 9003 
9004 
9005 
9006 
9007 
9008 

BOOKS 



$7 95 
$7 95 
$50.00 

$50 00 
$2495 
$24 95 
$24.95 
$24 95 
$2495 
$2495 
$50 00 
$95.00 



6A $8.95 

6B $8.95 

6C $7.50 

6C2 $7.50 

8Z $8.95 

9Z $4.95 

10R $3.95 

Shipping and handling $2.00 
N J residents add 5% tax 



TOTAL 



Apple-Car 



Chuck Carpenter 



Correspondence is always welcome and a 
response will be made to those accompanied 
by a SASE. Send your letters to: Chuck 
Carpenter, 2228 Montclair PI., Carrollton, TX 
75006. 




Protected Software 

Gregory Yob, in a recent PET 
column (Creative Computing, Sept. 
79), pointed out some software prob- 
lems that are also appropriate for 
Apple owners. The particular problem 
has to do with protected software. That 
is, software designed to prevent you 
from making copies or changes, or that 
destroys itself if you make such an 
attempt. If software theft is a real 
problem then there is possibly some 
advantage to the seller. I say possibly 
because a good programmer can "fix" 
the software anyway. And, with special 
equipment, anything that is recorded 
on a magnetic surface can be copied 
onto a magnetic surface. For the most 
part, the attempts to prevent theft will 
only cause problems for the purchaser. 
If the software can't be copied for 
back-up then the user has to buy 
another when the original wears out. 
Stores selling software will be caught 
in the middle. If an attempt at goodwill, 
by replacing the software, results in 
loss of revenue, stores will stop buying. 
The whole thing would be likely to 
wind up in a vicious cycle — no one will 
buy the software so no one can sell . . . 

Applesoft — Keyword Search 

Searching files for keywords is a 
relatively easy task, especially if you 
are using the Apple DOS. The program 
segment in Listing #1 is part of a simple 
text file program. As you can see from 
the sample run in Listing #2, this is one 
of the file options. The parameters and 
variables needed for this segment to 
run were established at the beginning 
of the main program. To help with an 
understanding of how this routine 
functions, here is a list of the variables 
used: 

D$ = CHR$(4) = control D 
F$ = Name of active file 



K$ = Keyword to search for 
K = Keyword found flag 
C = Record counter 
I & J = Local loop variables 
Q$ = local response to input 

prompts 
CHR$(13) = return key 

To make it easier to follow, the 
program was written with a simple 
format and very few multiple line 
statements. Assume that a file exists 
with the name Apple Demo and that all 
variables have been initialized. When 
keyword search is selected from the 
options list, the title is displayed by line 
6035. In line 6040, an input request is 
made for the keyword. Having entered 
the keyword, lines 6050 through 6080 
open the file and READ record zero to 
get the record count. The READ 
operation is stopped in line 6090 with a 
control D. In lines 6100 thru 6120 the 
first record (or Jth record) is read in 
from the file and the READ is then 
stopped by the control D in line 6130. 

String parsing, for the keyword, is 
accomplished in lines 6140 through 
6180. The string length, minus the 
length of the keyword, is set in line 
6140. For unformatted text, setting the 
record length to 80 will be wasteful. 
However, this allows you to edit the 
record easier. And, use of structured 
formatted records will be the more 
likely application for this kind of file. 
Line 6150 checks a sub-string of 
characters equal in length to the 
keyword. If a match is found, the 
record number and the record are 
printed by line 6160. If no match is 
found, I is incremented and the next 
sub-string of characters is checked. 
This cycle is continued until all 
characters are checked or each occur- 
rence of the keyword is found. If you 
don't want or need to find all occur- 
rences of the keyword in a record, then 



add a GOTO 6190 command in line 
6170. 

Once the record search has been 
completed, J is incremented and the 
next record is read by line 6110. Now, 
the parsing process continues until all 
records in the file, equal to the value of 
C, have been read and parsed for the 
keyword. Lines 6200 through 6300 are 
a variety of options for working with 
the text file. If no keyword was found 
another one can be selected. Records 
containing the keyword can be edited, 
or simply choose to return to the file 
options. Note that in line 6290. GET AS 
was used to accept keyboard input. 
Also, CHR$(13) was used to allow only 
the use of the return key to return to the 
options list. Pressing any other key will 
clear the screen and display the press 
return prompt. Try this parsing routine 
on your own programs. Also, rewrite it 
for primary and secondary keywords. 

Integer BASIC — The MOD Function 

One command only briefly de- 
scribed in the Red Book, and only 
casually mentioned in the Integer 
BASIC manual, is the MOD function. 
MOD is an abbreviated form of the 
word Modulo. It is described in the Red 
Book as: the remainder after the 
division of one expression by another 
expression. For example, in this state- 
ment, R=X MOD Y, R will equal the 
remainder when the value X is divided 
by the value Y. Because only integers 
are allowed otherwise, this is a useful 
way to find the remainder after a 
division is executed. The immediate 
execution mode will let you find the 
value by typing in PRINT (#1) MOD 
(#2) on your Apple and pressing 
return. There are several programs 
containing examples of the MOD 
function in the Red Book. 

Another application for the MOD 
function is to POKE address data into 



134 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Apple-Cart, con't... 

memory. Rather than calculating the 
data values of memory addresses 
yourself, the MOD function will help 
you do it. For instance, to move 
LOMEM you can POKE the decimal 
value into memory like this: 

POKE 74, ADDR MOD 256 
POLE 75, ADDR / 256 
LOMEM pointer 

POKE 204, ADDR MOD 256 
POKE 205, ADDR / 256 
Variables pointer 

If you want to move LOMEM from 
$0800 to $0900 (the $ means a hexa- 
decimal number), convert the address 
to its decimal value and include the 
result in place of ADDR. The HEX 
number $0900 is equal to 2304 decimal 
and will be POKEd into memory as 
2304 MOD 256 = 00 and 2304 / 256 = 09. 
As you can see, these values equal the 
original HEX address: LO byte first, HI 
byte second. Try this with some 
addresses that are not as obvious: 
S1ABC for instance. Here's a short 
program to illustrate another use of the 
MOD function: 



-LIST 
1000 REM 
1010 REM 
1020 PRINT 
1030 INPUT 
1040 INPUT 



•»• MOD DEMO •** 



numerator « " 
denominator * 

1030 print n; h / m :d:" 
is approximately" 

1060 print n/d:". •; 

1070 FOR I«l TO 20 

1080 F»N MOD D 

1090 IF F>3276 THEN 1130 

1100 N«F»10 

1110 PRINT N/D! 

1120 NEXT I 

1130 PRINT 

1140 GOTO 1020 

.•RUN 

•NUMERATOR = ?3<j000 



DENOMINATOR 



'HI 



:<0000 / 111 IS APPROXIMATELY 
?70. 27027027027027027027 

NUMERATOR " ? 

If you have an interesting idea or a 
question you haven't found an answer 
for, I'd enjoy hearing from you. 




©Creative Computing 



6000 
6010 
6015 
6020 
6030 
6039 
6040 
6030 
6060 
6070 
6080 
6090 
6100 
6110 
6120 
6130 
6140 
6150 
6160 
6170 
6180 
6190 
6 00 
6.M0 

6220 
6230 
6240 
6250 
6260 
6270 
6280 
6290 

6300 



REM 
REM 



•• KEYWORD SEARCH •• 



HOME 
PRINT 
PRINT 
LET K 



KEYWORD SEARCH 
KEYWORD - ":K» 



PRINT 
INPUT 

PRINT D»"0PEN":F«:".L80- 

print d»"REAd m ;f»:".r-:o 

INPUT C 
PRINT D* 
FOR J 



~:f%:' 



•,r"; j 



LEN <K»> 

LEN <K«>> 

PRINT " T 



1 TO C 

print d«"read-;f»; 

INPUT R«(J) 
PRINT D« 

FOR I ■ 1 TO 80 - 
IF MID* (R*(J).I 
PRINT : PRINT J 
LET K « K ♦ 1 
NEXT I 

NEXT j: PRINT 
IF K > GOTO 6240 
PRINT : PRINT "NOTHING FOUND 
RD ? Y/N "J 
INPUT Q«: IF at * "Y" GOTO SOOO 
IF 0* ' "N" GOTO 6290 

print d»"close":f»;"" 

print : print "do you want to edit ? y/n ". - 

input 0»: if q« » "y" goto 3000 

PRINT : PRINT "TRY ANOTHER KEYWORD ' Y/N " ! 

INPUT Q«: IF 0% - "Y" GOTO 6000 

PRINT : PRINT "PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - m l'. GET A* 

■ CHRS (13) THEN HOME : UTAB (3): GOTO 1090 

HOME : GOTO 6290 



< > K* GOTO 6180 
PRINT R»<J> 



PRINT "TRY ANOTHER KEY WO 



: IF A* 
Listing 1 



TrTOH 

BUILD AND APPEND A FILE 

ENTER THE FILE NAME - APPLE DEMO 

FILE options: 

1979 10/03 08:23:43.328 

1. BUILD NEW RECORDS 

2. ADD MORE RECORDS 

3. LIST RECORDS 

4. EDIT A RECORD 

5. KEYWORD SEARCH 
0. END THE PROGRAM 

FILE'APPLE DEMO'CONTAINS 6 RECORDS ' 

WHICH NUMBER - 3 

LIST TEXT FILE - APPLE DEMO 

FAST OR SLOW ? F/S F 

1 WELL WELL! WHAT SHALL WE PUT IN THIS FILE? 

2 BECAUSE IT'S A DEMO OF THE KEYWORD SEARCHING 

3 PROGRAM SEGMENT -- I 'LL JUST PUT IN A FEW 

4 LINES AND SHOW HOW TO SEARCH FOR A KEYWORD. 

5 ACTUALLY — I CAN PUT IN AS MANY RECORDS AS 

6 THE DISK WILL HOLD. BUT — I'LL END IT HERE. 
PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 

! 

WHICH NUMBER - 3 

KEYWORD SEARCH - APPLE DEMO 

KEYWORD - KEYWORD 

2 BECAUSE IT'S A DEMO OF THE KEYWORD SEARCHING 

4 LINES AND SHOW HOW TO SEARCH FOR A KEYWORD. 
DO YOU WANT TO EDIT 7 Y/N ?N 

TRY ANOTHER KEYWORD ? Y/N ?Y 

KEYWORD SEARCH - APPLE DEMO 

KEYWORD - APPLE 

NOTHING FOUND - 

TRY ANOTHER KEY WORD ? Y/N ?N 



PRESS RETURN TO CONTINUE - 



Listing 2 



JANUARY 1980 



135 



f Apple-Cart, con't... 

Apple Blooms 

Now that the Apple computer has 
been available for over two years, 
things are a lot simpler. There was a 
time when the "Red Book" — "The 
Apple II Reference Manual" — was the 
primary source of information (it gets 
little use now I'd guess). For some, it 
was enough to get started in high style. 
For others, the information was con- 
fusing and didn't help much at all. But, 
many of the early Apple owners dug in 
and solved the mysteries of Apple's 
inner workings. Several Apple Users 
Groups were organized and soon 
started publishing Apple newsletters. 
And Apple Computer Company over- 
came production obstacles and pro- 
vided us with manuals for everything 
our Apples can do. As a result, there is 
now a small library of manuals, books 
and newsletters available for you to 
use for your programming tasks. The 
following is a list of Apple books and 
manuals and some of the more note- 
worthy newsletters: 
Apple II Reference Manual 

This is the "Red Book." Still the 
best source of documentation on 
Apples's inner workings. Not 
much help for the newcomer to 
programming. 
Apple II BASIC Programming Manual 
The first of Apple's tutorial books. 
An in-depth study of integer 
BASIC. And a very refreshing style 
of presentation, especially for the 
newcomer. 
The Applesoft Tutorial 

A book that gives Applesoft the 
same start-from-the-beginnig ap- 
proach used in the integer BASIC 
manual. Assumes use of Autostart 
ROM. 
Applesoft II BASIC Programming 
Reference Manual 

This book tells everything about 
Applesoft. Complete language 
implementation and usage of 
memory included. The appendix 
includes a large selection of data, 
too. 
DOS Version 3.2 Disk Operating 
Instructional and Reference Manual 
Do's and Don'ts of DOS. Every- 
thing you need to work with the 
Apple DOS, including direct ac- 
cess to data written on tracks and 
sectors. 
Apple Pascal Preliminary Reference 
Manual 

A thorough preliminary treatment 
of Apple Pascal for the experi- 
enced programmer. 
Pascal Users Manual and Report, 
2nd Edition. 

A publication by the people who 
developed this version of Pascal. 
Complete syntax and language 
description. 



Microcomputer Problem Solving 

Using Pascal 

A textbook by Bowles. Used for an 
introductory course in Pascal 
programming. Most programs in 
the book will not run directly on 
the Apple, but a good starting 
place. 

Utility and Accessory Manuals 

Apple Language System Installation 

and Operating Manual 

How to install the Language 
System and get it running. In- 
cludes a chapter on features and 
use of the Autostart ROM. 

Programmers Aid #1 

Installation and Operators Manual 
Complete documentation of fea- 
tures and applications of the ROM 
resident programs. Worth having 
just for the documentation. Comes 
with the ROM. 

Apple Software Bank Volumes 1-5 
The manual for volumes 1 and 2 
gives brief descriptions of the 
programs and how to run them. 
Volumes 3-5 are given very ex- 
tensive treatment. Much in-depth 
discussion of the programs is 
included (and there are some 
good ones too). 

Communications Interface Card 

How to install it and use all the 
features it has. Designed for use 
with a Modem. Pascal supports 
this card with full capability. 

Serial Interface Card 

More how-to-install-it and appli- 
cation instructions, but different 
from the Comm card. Not as 
versatile but very effective for 
driving a printer. Does not have 
hand-shaking so printers can't run 
at top speed. 

Parallel Interface Card 

Tells how to hook it up and use it 
with the variety of parallel printers 
now on the market that will work 
with the Apple II. 

Some Noteworthy Newsletters 

Call A.P.P.L.E. 

8710 Salty Drive N.W. 

Olympia, WA 98502 

(206) 866-1500 

This is the good one. Be sure to 

get all the back issues. 
Applesauce 

12804 Magnolia 

Chino, CA 91710 

The fastest growing from the new 

"Original Apple Corps." Get the 

back issues, too. 
ABACUS 

2850 Jennifer Dr. 

Castro Valley, CA 94546 

May not have back issues — too 

bad. 
NEWSLETTER for Apple II Owners 

Southeastern Software 



7270 Culpepper Drive 
New Orleans, LA 70126 
Geared to the beginner, 
issues may be available. 



Back 



Check with the newsletters at the 
address given for price and availability. 
These newsletters will provide a lot of 
help for the Apple owner; sometimes in 
new and unusual ways. 

Apple Things 

In addition to the many peri- 
pherals and peripheral driver boards 
provided by Apple, there are many 
more available from independent 
sources. Here are some that are known 
to perform as advertised. 

Mountain Hardware Clock Board 
Keeps accurate time; useful for 
logging date and time on listing 
and in programs; measures 
elapsed time, time intervals and 
control interrupts on a real-time 
basis; has battery back-up; com- 
plete with all operating informa- 
tion. Mine has been keeping 
accurate time — even with power 
failures — for over 10 months. 
Price: $215.00 with complete 
instructions in a 40-page manual. 

Mountain Hardware ROMPLUS+ 

Includes six, 2K ROM sockets, one 
with a high resolution graphics 
monitor providing upper and 
lower case. Can be connected to 
keyboard shift key. Or, use a 
control character to shift for upper 
case. Works with all the Apple 
languages except the Language 
System (Pascal). ROM expansion 
is bank switched into the SC800 to 
$CFFE memory space. Price: 
$169.00 with 2 manuals and a 
demonstration diskette. 

These two are available from computer 

stores and: 

Mountain Hardware 
300 Harvey West Blvd. 
Santa Cruz, CA 95060 

Serial Interface — RS232 

Switch Selectable baud rates. 
Includes ROM operating program, 
has full handshaking and works 
with Pascal. Price: $160.00 from: 
California Computer Systems 
309 Laurelwood Road 
Santa Clara, CA 95060 
CCS has a variety of Apple II interface 
boards. Information will be provided as 
soon as available. 

Serial Interface - RS232 

Low cost but effective serial board. 
Requires a software program in 
memory. Includes programs to 
help tune the baud rate for your 
printer. Price $62.00 from: 
Electronic Systems 
P.O. Box 21638 
San Jose, CA 95151 



136 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r 



Apple-Cart, con't... 

Micro Modem 

Couples your computer directly to 
the telephone. Uses an FCC 
approved coupler. Requires a 
modular jack or an adapter. 
Answers the phone for you. Or, 
you can set it up to dial phones for 
you under program control. You 
can manually dial phones right 
from the keyboard. Price: $365.00 
from computer stores or from: 
D. C. Hayes Associates, Inc. 
16 Perimiter Park Drive 
P.O. Box 9884 
Atlanta, GA 30319 
There are many other products being 
offered for the Apple. As soon as 
information is available, good or bad, 
I'll pass it along. 

Software 

There's a lot of it. I sat down with 
several magazines to see how many 
software sources I could find. There 
were so many that it became imprac- 
tical to list them all, at least for this 
column. So how do you know the 
software is something you want and is 
worth the price? Through the mail, 
there is no other way than to take the 
risk. The better ones get reviewed and 
this helps. If you can get to a computer 
store and see a demonstration, your 



risk is minimized. If good results are 
obtained from the purchased software, 
spread the word. If the results leave a 
lot to be desired, this also needs to be 
known. If you get ripped-off, be sure 
and tell the people that can publish the 
details. Be sure you attempt to get 
corrective action yourself first. And 
politely document your efforts. There 
are a number of good software sources 
that will support their products. If 
enough people make their 10 to 25 
dollar losses known, then the not-so- 
good ones will disappear. □ 




^J=tCfTT^- 



"Not only can it play chess, but It's 
also programmed to tip the board if 

it'S lOSing." ©Creative Computing 



(•APPLET 



• APPLE II or 

APPLE PLUS $995.00 

• DC HAYES MODEMS 339.95 

• FLOPPY DISK w/cont. 529.95 

• APPLE SOFT CARD 159.95 

• PASCAL CARD 459.95 

• ALF MUSIC 

SYNTHESIZER 249.95 

• 10 MEGA-BYTE DISK 

DRIVE (for APPLE) 4695.00 



UCATAN 
COMPUTER STORE 



across from Ramada Inn 

PO Box 1000 

Oestin, Florida 32541 

(904) 837-2022 or (904) 243-8565 



CIRCLE 114 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




Software for the? flppl* II :£ ; 



APPLE II OWNERS, DID YOU BUY YOUR COMPUTER TO DO BUSINESS 
APPLICATIONS? BUT, YOU CAN'T FIND ANY SOFTWARE.' CHECK 

WITH us: 

BILL OF MATERIALS EXPLOSION (Applesoft Disc) $250.00 
Gives you control over Rev Meteriels Inventory, 
Finished Goods Inventory. Using a Bill of Meteriels 
Mester File our systesi will let you cost your product 
using the letest cost. No chence of underestimating 
your cost because of increases in the cost of your 
raw Mterisls. Full range of reporting vie your 
printer or the screen. Requires 2 Drives, 41 K of 
memory. Printer optional. 



$250.00 



FULL BUSINESS PACKAGE FOR THE APPLE II.. 

Includes all of the fallowing, systems: 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

PAYROLL 

INVENTORY CONTROL 

SALES ANALYSIS 

GENERAL LEDGER 
Each of the subsystems prints checks and all 
associated reports. Requires 2 Disc Drives, 
Applesoft, Printer end 48K of memory. 

LEARN ACCOUNTING THE PAINLESS EASY NAY WITH 
OUR NEW INTRODUCTORY ACCOUNTING PACKAGE. IT IS 
A TEMPTING BLEND OP GREAT SOFTWARE AND A POLISHED 
EDUCATIONAL PACKAGE UTILIZING AUDIO CASSETTE 
INSTRUCTION. THE PACKAGES WERE WRITTEN FOR EACH 
OTHER. SO DON'T BE IN THE DARK WHEN IT COMES TO 
GENERAL LEDGER SYSTEMS FOR THE APPLE II. CALL US 
FOR MORE DETAILS. 

WE HAVE A COMPLETE LINE OF SOFTWARE FOR THE NORTH 
STAR, TRS-80 AND APPLE II ON DISPLAY IN OUR STORE. SEND 
FOR A CATALOG OR CALL YOUR ORDER IN. MASTERCHARGE A AND 
BANKAMERICARD ACCEPTED. 

VISIT OUR STORE OR MAIL IN YOUR ORDER TO 
THE TWENTY THIRD CENTURY 
AJA SOFTWARE 
2231 WEST BALL ROAD 
ANAHEIM, CA. 92804 
{714) 533-0123 

HEED CUSTOM SOFTWARE GIVE US A CALL. WE CAN DO IT! 



(714| 774-1270 




EL 



r^ 





TJ^ 



SCO'E 1M SCOtC lM 

ULTRA BLOCKAOf - Sm wawmwS «m*mm •**<* 

DYhAMA/l '•«lllM|**w<MlMMeM Vasj ie« fMM WN W W MMMi [•*•* Baeca. 

»•*<•>• acta*- leWt h 







leeway WkS caretatty m «NW Bwfe a* MBS f» law M Mm ■>••«. if mat's VM* ttyte) Thai .1 a 




WORLD Of OOVttC V a new e*ve 



MMlaM esewe* •* Dam II. «*•** iwaSlll SM •*•** 



■t ROUACKI V - am ■■ c. lsws aa*a*aj>4*v tern* a>**cft a*N Mat pHnw m ■>« Ska e»e*" The aeajMI a* the 




DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



atMo****** 
—J e c—*«- «*■■»! o> 



C#« or «r.» hvowfrm % tmthm t , go * 

SO*TW**t CATALOG |»0 W f«V/fT. / V/ 



CIRCLE 157 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 195 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



137 



WR 



** TRS-80 USERS! 

lbutS&hware 
market " 




GAMES 



Warfare I 4 game anthology. Laval II, 16K $7.95 

Backgammon by Scott Adams Laval II, 16K 

$7.96 

X Wing II by Chrle Freund Laval II. 18K $995 

Talpan by Art Canlil Laval II. 16K $9.95 

Sargon Chaaa by Dan and Katha Spracklen 

Laval II. 16K $19.95 

Chaaa Companion by Michael Kallahar. Laval II, 

16K $7.95 

TOM D Tie Tac Toa by Scott Adamj. Laval II. 

16* $7.95 

Concentration by Lane* Mlcklua. Laval II, 16K 

$7.95 

Amailn' Maiaa by Robart Wallace Lava. II. 16K 

$7.96 

Tlma Bomb by David Bohika. Laval II. ibk $4.95 




Llta Two by Lao Chrlstophereon With sound 

Laval II. 16K $14.95 

AndraM Nrm by Lao CrVletophereon. with 

sound ■ Laval II. 16K $14.95 

Cuba* by Lao Chrlatopharaon Laval II, 16K $9.95 

Maatarmlnd II by Lanca Mlcklua $7.95 

Mastarmlnd II Source List -$2000 

Robot/Braakaway Oama duo by Lanca Micklus. 

Laval II, 4K $7.95 

Tycoon by David Bohika. Laval II. 16K $7.95 

Slalom by Danalo Hamlin, lavai II. 16K $7.95 

% Qamas lor Preschool Chlldran by Gaorge 

Blank. Laval II. 16K $995 

Tan Pin by Frank B. Rowlett. Jr. Laval II, 16K 

$7.95 

Atlantic Balloon Crossing by Daan Powell Laval 

II, 16K $9.95 

Space Battles by Laval IV. Laval II. 16K Tape or 

32K Dlak. Tape $14.95. Disk . $1995 



Star Trek IN.S by Lanca Mlcklua Laval II, 16K 

$14.96 

Dog Star Adventure by Lanca Mlcklua. Laval II. 

16K $9 95 

Salad by David Bohika Laval II, 16K $7.95 

Treasure Hunt by Lanca Mlcklua. Laval II. 16K 

$7.95 

'Round the Mom by Gaorge Blank. Laval II. 16K 

$9.95 

Pork Barm by Gaorge Blank. Laval II. 16K $7.95 

Kamlkeie by Russell Starkey Laval II, 16K.67 95 

All Star Baseball by David Bohika. Laval II. 16K 

$7.95 

Barricade by Small Systems Software Machine 

Language -$14.95 

Journey To The Center Of The Earth by Orag 

Haaaatt. Laval II, 16K Tape $7.96 

Pentomlnoee by James Garon Laval II. 16K 

$7.95 

Snake Egga by Leo Chrlatopharaon With sound 

■ Laval II, 1BK $14.95 



NEW!!! 



Understandable! Indexed library with 200 
Assembly Language Routine*. 

Z80 Software Gourmet 
Guide And Cookbook 



from Scelbl. $1495 ♦ $1 postage 



SPECIAL 
PURPOSE 



Calculator by R W Robltallle 
Laval II. 4K $2 95 




by Circle Enter 
prises Laval II. 4K $9.95 
HletogreprVScattergrem by Gary S. 
Breschlnl. Laval II. 16K $9.95. 
Simple Simon by Gaorge Blank. Laval 
II. Written In BASIC $4.95 
Math Drill by K. L. Brown. Laval II. 16K 
$4.95 

RPN Calculator by Rusaall Starkey 
Laval II. 16K $9.95 

Ham Radio by Mlchaal Kallahar 
Laval II. 16K $9.95 

Ham Radio ARS 1.1 (32K dlak) $24.96 
Electronics Assistant by John Adam- 
son Laval II. 16K $9.95 
Prelllght by Stephen Heobler. Level 
II. 16K $20.00 

Basic Statistics by Steve Releaer 
Laval II. 16K $20.00 

by Computer Graphics ■ 
specify title daairad. Laval II, 16K 
$7.95 each. German, Russian, Italian, 
Spanish, or Mualc Theory 
Keyboerd-80 by John Adamson Laval 
II. 16K $9.95 



138 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




Cassettee boxes of ten each. CIO - $6 50 plus 

SI. 00 shipping 

C 20 ■ 17.50 plus «00 shipping 

Diskettes Dysan. (premium quality) box of 5 

-$24.95 plus $100 shipping, nationally known 

Brand, box of 10 ■ $34 95 plus St 

Diskette Storage Box $5 00 



lor ship 
plus $1 00 ship 



Floppy Armour' m Protective 
ping floppy disks. 5 pack ■ S4.f» 
ping end handling 

NEW DOS 



Eliminate 90% of the hassle of a disk system by 
replacing your trs DOS with NEWOOSI taater. 
more reliable, many more features $49 95 



WANTED 

Used trs-80 equipment! We buy and sell used 
equipment. Call or write for details. 



SPECIAL 

$669. TRS-80 
16K, LEVEL II 
NO KEYPAD. 



lAGAZINESl 



SoftSloet monthly) 

S18. 1 yr Bulk Rate 
$30 1 yr., Oversees Airmail 
S2S. 1 yr.. Flrat Class or Overseas Surface 
SOS. S moa. wfcaaaette $68 8 mo*, wfdlak 

PROO/S0W monthly) 

$15 1 yr .. Bulk Rate 

S22. 1 yr .First Class or Oversees Surface 

$27. 1 yr. Overseas Airmail 

Sottsides AppteSeeoXmontttly) 

$15 1 yr.. Bulk Rete 
$22. 1 yr . First Claaa 



1 A trademark of Radio Shack and Tandy Corp 



SAVE $167. 

TRS-80 expansion Interlace with our 
16K RAM, single PERCOM disk drives 
with cable, and NEWDOS operating 
system. $830. 



Add Superzap. Directory checks other utilities 
NEWDOS* $99 95 

PACKAGE PRICE $150 

SEPARATELY: 

MACRO ASSEMBLER $80 - 

FORTRAN $80.- 



FREE!! 



For more detailed 
descriptions of our 
software and ac- 
cessories, send 
lor the "TSE" 
catalog. ..It's 
FREEI 



TRS 232 by Small Systems Hardware $49 95 

Percom Disk Drives Single or dual, for TRS-SO's. 
Single drive $399 00. Dual drive - $795 00. Cable 
required - $29.95 

ASK ABOUT OUR FREE 
HARDSIDE CATALOG 



TO ORDER (9AM - 5:30 PM, EST) 



TOLL-FREE 1-800-258-1790 

Software Exchange 



6 South Sfrert, Box 68,Millord,NH 03055 603-673-SM 



CIRCLE 11$ ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



139 




For column 14, we look at Creative 
Computing's Games- 1 cassette, Radio 
Shack's service manuals for the video 
display and disk drive, an aircraft 
landing simulator, a technical article 
on the editor/assembler, the $30 fee for 
fixing your out-of-warranty CPU/key- 
board, a short program that draws lines 
very easily, and an OEM note about the 
TRS-80 Model II. 

We'll continue the series on com- 
puter graphics in the next issue. Some 
excellent entries have been received in 
response to the "square within a 
square" software challenge. 

Games-1 

For $7.95 at your local computer 
store, the Games-1 cassette from 
Creative Computing gives you five 
games for your 4K Level-I TRS-80. 

The first is Battling Deathstars, an 
exciting real-time game for two play- 
ers, in which you try to destroy the 
other ship without your own getting 
destroyed in the process. 

Each of the two Deathstars is 
shown on the screen in the form of a 
white squre, with a corner cut out to 
indicate the gunport's location. Each 
player uses seven keys to control his 
ship. Four determine whether you 
head north, south, east or west. Two 
others rotate the ship, clockwise or 
counterclockwise. The seventh fires 
the gun. 

You have to get quite close to hit 
the other ship, within 2y 2 inches on the 
screen. It's quite tricky to stop the 
rotation at the exact moment the 
gunport is aimed at the other Death- 
star. 

And a hit isn't always a kill. At 
times you may knock pieces out of the 
other ship, yet not destroy it. There's a 
lot to keep track of here, with seven 
keys to operate while keeping your 
eyes on the screen. When one ship 
destroys the other, the scores are 



displayed in large numbers on the 
screen. If the ships collide, the play 
starts over and no points are awarded. 

Because this is a real-time game 
that would be too slow if written in 
BASIC, it's in machine language. The 
instructions tell you how to copy this 
game by using TBUG to change the 
data at a couple of addresses, and then 
putting it on tape with P4000 4FFFF. 
Why does Creative Computing tell you 
how to copy its own tape? "Because 
we're good guys," says publisher Dave 
Ahl. 

The second game, Hangman, lets 
you cool down from the excitement of 
a duel in outer space with an intel- 
lectual exercise. For the few readers 
who may not have ever played hang- 
man, the display presents a scaffold, 
the alphabet, a scoreboard and a row 
of dashes, one dash for each letter of 
the word you have to guess. 

You guess a letter and, if it's in the 
word the computer has chosen, the 
letter appears in its correct place in the 
word, and disappears from the alpha- 
bet display. If you guess a letter that's 
not in the word, the head of the hanged 
man appears on the scaffold, then his 
torso, arms, legs, hands, feet, one by 
one as you select wrong letters. You 
can make only nine errors in guessing 
the word, and the computer keeps 
score on how many words you got 
right, and how many wrong, for as long 
as you want to play. 

The program contains 26 words, 5 
to 7 letters long. The instructions tell 
you how to change the word list, if 
you'd like to put in more difficult 
words. 

The third game is Lunar Lander, 
which should NOT be played if you're 
easily overexcited. Because if you are, 
you might just heave your TRS-80 right 
out the window, after the twentieth 
failure to land your ship on the lunar 
surface! 



You start a certain distance from 
the moon's surface, with a limited 
amount of fuel, and you must land 
gently. Use up your fuel too soon, and 




FIGURE A. LUNAR LANDER 

you crash. Use too much, and you start 
moving upwards. Very tricky, and not 
designed for the easily discouraged. 

The Math Race program first asks 
how difficult you want the game to be, 
on a scale of 1 to 10, whether one or 
two people will be playing, their name 
or names and ages. Then eight draw- 
ings are shown, including a giraffe, cat, 
bus and airplane. You pick one to be 



/ # k m 



i yj *+ 



FIGURE B. MATH RACE 

your marker on the race track, as you 
solve math problems in competition 
with a friend or with the computer, and 
try to cross the finish line first. 

The player's age and difficulty 
factor he's chosen will determine what 
math problems are given. The prob- 
lems are given like this: 

3586 + 4389 = ? 

If you're playing against the computer, 
you lose if you make even one mistake, 
because the computer naturally never 
makes a mistake in math. Playing 
against a friend, you've still got a 
chance if you err. 



140 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 





DISK EXPANSION PACKAGE 

This package includes everything necessary to 
add disk capabilities to your TRS-80. To buy 
everything in this package would normally cost 
$1100 at your local Radio Shack store. We start 
with the Radio Shack expansion interface and add 
16K RAM. You also receive a Percom 40-track disk 
drive with a dual drive cable. To start you off right, 
we've added the NEWDOS (40-track) disk 
operating system and a box of BASF diskettes. 
Also, the Percom data separator, the component 
which Radio Shack forgot. 
SAVE $181.00 




6 South Street ■ Milford, New Hampshire 03055 -(603) 673-5144 



SMALL BUSINESS PACKAGE 

An ideal starter package for the small business. 
Includes a TRS-80 with 16K RAM and Level II 
BASIC, an expansion interface with an additional 
16K RAM installed, two Percom disk drives-with 
cable and data separator, NEWDOS disk 
operating system (40 track version) and the Cen- 
tronics 730 line printer. 

SAVE $579.00 



$2799.95 



$899.95 



DELUXE EXPANSION PACKAGE 

This package includes a 32K expansion interface 
with the Percom data separator installed, two Per- 
com TFD-100 disk drives and a 4-drive cable, 
NEWDOS + operating system and 2 boxes of 
BASF diskettes. $1449 95 

SAVE $354 00 





TOLL-FREE 
ORDER 
1-800-258-1790 



TRS-80 COMPUTERS: 

Level-I 4K 

Level-I 16K, w/keypad 

Level-ll 4K 

Level-ll 16K 

Level-ll 16K, w/keypad 

PRINTERS: 

Line Printer III 
Centronics 779-2 
Line Printer II 
Centronics 730 
Centronics P1 * 
Quick Printer II 
QP-II Exp. Int. Cable 
* Cable required 



LIST 
PRICE 

$499 
$729 
$619 

$849 



$1999 

$1598 

$999 

$999 

$499 

$219 

$20 

$39 



OUR USED 
PRICE OFFER 




DELUXE BUSINESS PACKAGE 

Includes all the necessities for a small-to-medium 
size business to become computerized. Includes 
a Level II TRS-80 with 16K RAM installed and 
modified to display upper and lower case letters 
with Electric Pencil, a 32K RAM expansion inter- 
face with the Percom data separator 
installed. three Percom TFD-10 disk drives and a 
4-drive cable, a Centronics 779-2 tractor feed 
printer, a 40-track NEWDOS and Electric Pencil 
Word Processor software. We have even added a 
system desk and printer stand. C37QQ ae 

SAVE $628.00 53799.95 




$449 
$659 
$559 
$669 
$769 



$1849 
$1095 

$899 

$419 

$197 

$18 

$35 



$300 

$350 
$450 
$475 



$655 
$545 
$545 
$275 
$125 



USED 
PRICE 

$400 

$500 
$625 
$675 



$850 
$750 
$750 
$380 
$165 



A* > 

^J^ * 5^C COD orders require 

^jC^ 25% cash deposit 

_OC 5k Prices subject to change 

V <K^ 5fCPrices do not include shipping 



LIST OUR 
EXPANSION INTERFACE: PRICE PRICE OFF 

OK $299 $269 

16K $448 379/403 

32K $597 479/537 



DISK DRIVES: 

Percom, TFD-100, 40-track $399 

Percom, dual TFD-100 $795 

Percom, TFD-200, 77-track $675 

2-drive cable $29 

4-drive cable $39 

Radio Shack, -0 $499 $469 

Radio Shack, -1,2, 3 $399 $459 

ACCESSORIES: 

Telephone Interface $199 $179 

16K Memory Kit $99 

16K Memory Kit for E.I. $95 

RS232-C Interface $99 $89 

TRS-232 Interface $49 

Data Dubber $49 



NO SUBSTITUTIONS ON PACKAGE PRICES 
'Radio Shack and TRS-80 an trademarks ol Tandy Corporation 



USED 


USED 


3FFER 


PRICE 


$165 


$230 


$245 


$340 


$325 


$440 


$290 


$390 


$270 


$370 


$100 


$150 


$55 


$75 



JANUARY 1980 



CIRCLE 1N ON READER SERVICE CARD 



141 






■■ 



fTRS-80 Strings, con't... 

The fifth game is Checkers and, I 
must admit, the computer doesn't play 
a very good game. Sometimes it will 
move its pieces so that you can jump 
two or even three of them! 

There wasn't enough space in the 
program to include routines to check 
on all the opponent's possible moves. 
The instruction sheet notes, "Remem- 
ber to double-check your moves 
before entering them, because this 4K 
program does not include extensive 
error-checking features." The program 
is in two parts, with detailed instruc- 
tions in the first part, including the 
comment, "The capabilities of this 
program are limited by the available 
memory (4K). The program does not 
look ahead, but instead evaluates the 
present situation and makes its moves 
based upon this evaluation. Just the 
same — I hope you have a lot of fun." 

(The limitations of 4K, even for 
games less complex than Checkers, is 
the main reason why most games for 
the TRS-80 computers are being 
written for the 16K Level-ll machine. 
There's already a move to disk for 
some of the really complex games.) 

In several games of Checkers, the 
computer gave me an easy win. In 
some others, the computer kept 
moving a piece back and forth. Never- 
theless, it's an interesting game you 
can enjoy despite its limitations. 

So there you have five games: an 
exciting space duel, an intellectual 
spelling challenge, a highly difficult 
Lunar Lander, a math race for the 
younger set, and a Checkers game you 
can usually beat. 

That's a pretty good combination 
for $7.95. If your local retail store 
doesn't have it, you can order from 
Creative Computing for $7.95 plus $1 
for shipping and handling, plus five 
percent tax if you're a NJ resident. You 
can also order by phone: see the 
Sensational Software ad in this issue. 

At this moment, the Games-1 tape 
is the only Level-I TRS-80 software 
offered by Creative, which is concen- 
trating on the 16K Level-ll games. 

Two Service Manuals 

If your video display isn't working, 
and if you're experienced in repairing 
TV sets, you might want to get the 
service manual. The manual is just 
about like most TV service manuals, 
because, as it notes, "Radio Shack's 
TRS-80 Video Display consists of 
RCA's model AA121S Television set 
which has been modified for use in 
Radio Shack's TRS-80 Microcomputer 
System." Selections of the manual are 
a direct pickup from RCA's Television 
Service Data File 1976 B-2. 

The manual provides safety pre- 
cautions, servicing information, criti- 



cal lead dress, drawings of the chassis 
layout and the circuit boards, list of 
replacement parts, schematic, photos 
of 14 waveforms, and drawings of five 
video-interface waveforms. 

The Video Display is an RCA TV 
set without the tuner, and with an 
added video-interface board. Except 
for that board, all replacement parts 
are available from "your RCA dealer." 

The service manual for the floppy- 
disk drive is a lot thicker, as it contains 
a power-supply schematic and parts 
list, termination-resistor information, 
and the complete three-part Shugart 
"SA400 minifloppy diskette storage 
drive" service manual. 

The Shugart manual includes 21 
pages on theory of operation, very 
helpful and instructive, all about 
recording formats, drive-motor con- 
trol, track accessing, read/write opera- 
tions, etc. The 10-page maintenance 
section covers diagnostic techniques, 
preventive maintenance, removals and 
adjustments, component-location 
photographs, logic drawings, and 
schematics. The third section is an 
illustrated parts catalog. 

To get either manual, go to the 
manager of your local Radio Shack 
store, and ask him to order it for you, 
from National Parts in Fort Worth. 

Be sure to specify the Service 
Manual, because the same stock 
number is used for the product, the 
operator's manual, and the service 
manual. The Video Display Service 
Manual, 26-1201, is $3.00, and the Mini 
Disk Service Manual, 26-1160/1161, is 
$4.50. Plus postage. 

Before you send for either manual, 
please note that, just as with keyboard/ 
computer case, if you open up either 
the video-display case or the disk-drive 
case, you void the Radio Shack 
warranty. 

Final Approach 

Level IV Products Inc. (32238 
Schoolcraft, Suite F4, Livonia, Ml 
48154) sells hardware and software for 
the TRS-80 only. The software in- 
cludes business programs and utilities 
on disk, and games on cassette. From 
the catalog, one of the more interesting 
games seemed to be Final Approach, a 
Level-ll item at $7.50. 

According to one of the Level IV 
information sheets, this is an "aircraft 
landing simulator. You are flying a 
multi-engine jet and your job is to bring 
it down, but . . . there are hazards — 
fire, landing-gear malfunctions, stal- 
ling the plane and more." 

After you load Final Approach, 
you get two screen pages of instruc- 
tions giving you the meanings of the 
abbreviations to be used in the game 
display, such as A/S for airspeed 
indicator, R/D for rate of descent, DME 



for distance-measuring equipment 
(range in miles to the end of the 
runway), ALT for altitude, etc. The 
runway is 10,000 feet long. After the 
second page of instructions, you get 
the cheerful warning that This Aircraft 
Stalls At 110 Knots. 

The game display consists of a 
simple graphics representation of the 
landing field in perspective, the 
readings of eight instruments (these 
initial readings change for every game) 
and a plane, represented (with wheels 
up) as 

-(>!-(>- 

The game requires only two inputs 
from you, A/S and R/D. Seems simple 
enough, yet I crashed plane after 
plane, getting messages such as You 
Pranged It 1056 Feet Short Of Runway, 
followed by Let's Try It Again, Ace. 

Drop below 120 knots, and you're 
likely to stall. Try to keep a proper R/D 
and you don't get low enough to land. 
Too much R/D and you crash. If you 
lower the landing gear too soon, or too 
late, it may malfunction. There's 
always the threat of fire. Very few hints 
are given in the instruction sheet. After 
five or ten crashes, you may feel 
tempted to g ive it up as a game that just 
can't be beaten, or maybe only by a 
professional pilot. 

But hang on. Try to remember 
what sequence of events led to the 
lightest of your crashes, and before 
long you'll develop a strategy that will 
let you take on any combination of 
instrument readings and end up with 

NICELY DONE — 
YOU GREASED IT ON! 

Level IV products runs a basement 
store, at the Livonia address, Tuesday 
through Saturday, from 1 1AM to 7 PM. 
They claim to be Michigan's largest 
software and hardware source for the 
TRS-80, with five employees. They 
have 1500 "bits of software," from 
many sources, the president told me, 
but sell only about 150. The rest either 
haven't been reviewed yet, or are so 
bad he just won't sell them. 

If you're thinking you'd like to run 
such a store, the president of Level IV 
Products works 18 to 20 hours a day, 
seven days a week. 

As this was being written, Level IV 
Products decided to drop all Level-I 
items, because the company hadn't 
had a request for anything in Level-I in 
three months. 

Editor/Assembler 

For a very good look at some of the 
inner workings of the TRS-80 editor/ 
assembler, issue 12.0 of Insiders ($2 
from Insiders, Box 32296, 261 7 42nd St 
NW #2, Washington, DC 20007) carried 
a short article by Ray Soltoff that 



142 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



r e a 1 5 o t t rnv, ™f 3 i >~ - - 

4200 Wisconsin AveNW POBox960° Washington DC. 20016 



taipan 

by Art Canfll from Cybernautics 
This is an Intriguing game set in the 1860's on 
the wild China Coast. George Blank said 1n 
80-US, that he likes "it more than any of the 
other single player games." And Ramon Zamora of 
Recreational Computing found that 1t "is so 
intriguing that I played for over six hours when 
I first received a copy." $9.95. 

pyramid of doom 

by'Scott Adams from Adventure International 
Adventure #8 is now available for you to 
explore. Will you be able to collect the 
treasures from the recently exposed pyramid? 
$14.95 

adventure sampler 

by Scott Adams from Adventure International 
This is a scaled down version to give you a 
taste for adventure. $5.95 

final approach 

by k. H. LUtlefield from Level IV 

You fly a multi-engined plane in for a ground 

controlled landing. Quite challenging. $7.50 

owl tree 

by James Tailey from 80-US 

Can you fill the tree with owls by shooing away 
the bats? A logical, animated puzzle with 
sound, like Android Nim. $9.95 

qreat race 

By Scott Carpenter from 80-US 
One or more players compete with the computer in 
a road race. Outstanding sound effects and 
great graphics. $9.95 



TRS-80 



lyinq chimps „ 

by Roy Groth frim 80-US 



An animated version of the card game "I Doubt 
It" except that you play with three cheating 
chimps. Includes sound effects. $9.95. 

concentration 

by Richard Taylor from 80-US 

This version of the game has sound effects and 

prizes like a line printer or a disk. $9.95. 

scramble 

by Kicnard lay lor from 80-US 
Two players guess each other's words. You ca 
use either the program's words, or select you*' 
own. Includes sound. $9.95. 

opera 

by Richard Taylor from Acorn 
Choose from five operatic selections featuring 
"The William Tell Overture." Let your TRS-80 
play music classics! $9.95. 



word challenge 

by Richard Taylor from Acorn 

Guess a popular phrase, letter by letter. One 

or two players can use either the proqram's 

phrases or select their own. Includes sound. 

$9.95 



SPAINISH 






by Cindy and Andrew Bartorillo 

The advanced, language teaching program contains 

in excess of 500 phrases, 800 word vocabulary 

and 1600 verb conjugation forms. Switch between 

Spanish to English and English to Spanish. 

Print multiple choice question and answer test. 

$19.95 on diskette. 

(German and French may be ready by the time you 

read this.) 

CHECKBOOK PLUS 

PtkSONAL FINANCE MANAGER 

by Andrew Bartorillo 

This highly sophisticated checkbook program for 

disk can handle 700 checks per year. It sorts 

into categories and classifies for ease in tax 

preparation by family or small business. 

$19.95 



This is a small sample of the 
programs we have available. i 
catalog is included with every 

ORDER. 



SYSTEM SAVERS 

by Tom Stibolt from Acorn 

If you ever use the SYSTEM 
command, you should buy this two 
program package. These programs 
allow you to save any system tape on 
tape or disk, plus offer several 
features for machine language 
programmers. 

In Computer Cassettes Magazine, 
Robert Purser said that a tape 
duplication program "should be in 
everyone's library." We agree and 
beleive that System Savers is the 
perfect answer. 

With FLEXL, which is one of the 
two programs, you can make back-up 
copies of any system format tape. 
Most often a cassette that you make 
will load easier than an orginal. 
This also protects the valuable 
copies of your system programs. 

Plus you also find the filename 
on any system tape because it Is 
displayed on the screen. If you 
ever forget to save a program file 
name, just use FLEXL to recover it. 
And at anytime you can stop the 
reading of the tape by simply 
pressing BREAK. 

For any machine language 
programmer, FLEXL offers the 
advantage of producing more 
efficient tapes than the object 
files from the assembler. It is 
also written to Interface directly 
with the Small Systems RSM-1 and 
other monitor programs. And machine 
language tapes can be merged 
following the prompting of the 
program. 

Disk drive owners can use TOISK 
to save any system format tape onto 
disk. Sargon I, Adventure, Airald, 
Editor/Assembler and other programs 
cannot normally be loaded to disk. 
Now, TDISK allows you to save these 
programs onto disk After DOS READY 
you will be able to simply type the 
filename and be up and running. It 
even loads non-contiguous tapes. 
TDISK will greatly increase the 
benifit of owning a disk drive. 

And as a FREE BONUS, Acorn 
Software Products, Inc. also 
provides complete instructions on 
how to load MicroChess 1.5 onto 
disk. A short BASIC program will 
let you play chess directly from 
disk. 

Complete your system with the 
routines not found in either Level 
II or DOS for only $14.95. Order 
your System Savers, today! 

DISASSEMBLER 

by Roy So I toff from Misosys I Acorn 

This two pass Z-80 disassembler 
produces symbolic lables with output 
to either the video monitor, printer 
or tape. Radio Shack's Editor 
Assembler can load the tapes. If 
you own the Editor Assembler, 
complete the package with this 
program. Program on tape for two 
different memory locations. TRS 
Level II $19.95 



BASIC TOOLKIT 

by F. Barry Mulligar. from TBS 

If you program in BASIC, you can use this 
package. This easy-to-use machine language 
utility will save you time and and effort. 

The use of variables in BASIC programming can 
often get rather complicated. While you can 
keep track of where each va rial be is used, why 
not let the computer do that work? Well, this 
program lets the computer do just that. It 
produces a "map" alphabetically listing the 
variables In any of your BASIC programs and 
gives the line number where they are used. 

In addition, the program displays a listing 
of each line number jumped to followed by the 
lines from which the jumps are made. This 
Includes all GOTO's, GOSUB's and RESUMES. This 
can be especially important when trying to limit 
the number of lines in a program or before 
making any changes to a subroutine. 

Esides these two 'tools' you can also merge 
BASIC programs from cassette, recover any 
programs 'lost' by an accidental NEW, and test, 
the computer's memory. And all of these 
functions are available from a single keystroke 
while you are working on your BASIC program. 

For these features and more, order your 
'Toolkit' today! $19.80. 

oy Coltage Software 

This is the ultimate editing tool for BASIC; 
program lines. There are five commands which 
allow easier reading of 8ASIC programs and more 
efficient execution by the computer. 

The 'unpack' command breaks multiple 
statement lines Into single statement lines with 
extra spaces for easier reading and editing. 
The 'short' command deletes any unnecessary 
words like LET and all REMarks. 

The 'pack' commmand compresses lines into 
multiple statement lines up to the maximum 
length you specify while maintaining complete 
program logic. This can easily reduce the 
memory requirement by more than 33%! As you can 
imagine this also speeds up execution of a 
program, saves time in loading a program from 
either tape or disk and saves disk space. 

With the 'renumb' command you can renumber 
your BASIC lines. And the 'move' command 
allows you to move any section of your program 
to a new location. 

So 1f your programs need more memory, or you 
need more time, order your 'packer'! 16k, 32k 
and 48k versions supplied on two cassettes for 
$29.95. gj^ 



Credit card callers may phone us 24-hours a day. 



Or cup'this coupon and mail your order today! 

oaooaaaoooooaaooaooarjoanoaoaanoaoooaanana 

THE PROGRAM STORE 
4200 Wisconsin Ave NW 
PO Box 9609 Dept R5 
Washington, D.C. 20016 



QYES Please 


send 


me 


these TRS-80 programs: 


title 






price 








name: 






postaqe: S 1.00 
total: 


address: 


city, state 
& code 









DCheck payable to The Program Store 
□MASTERCHARGE mc bank code: 
□VISA exp date: 

card number: 

signature: 
CIRCLE 124 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 Strings,con't... 

should interest computerniks who 
understand sentences such as "The 
E/A uses address 5CF9 as the start of 
the text buffer." 

Soltoff writes, in part, "The E/A 
was designed to work with both a Level 
I and a Level II machine. This is 
possible because the package in- 
cludes essentially a duplicate of the 
routines found in a Level II ROM for 
output to Video and Printer, Keyboard 
input and input/output of Cassette. 
Thus, once loaded, the program is 
independent of Level I or II. The one 
drawback of this operation for Level II 
users, is that the program loads 
partially in a region of memory re- 
served for Level II RAM variables. It is 
for this reason that a RESET operation 
will 'destroy' your program and neces- 
sitate a reload. What happens is that a 
RESET will result in BASIC'S reinitiali- 
zation of variables which occur in a 
RAM area also used by the E/A's 
variables." 

For more on the subject, see issue 
12.0, which also has a brief article on 
some of the intricacies of using USR in 
Level II BASIC, such as how to avoid 
hanging up the TRS-80, or wiping out 
your program, once you go to a 
machine-language routine. 

A subscription to Insiders, by the 
way, is $7.50 for six issues; outside 
North America, $15. 

$30 If Unopened 

Many TRS-80 owners may not 
realize that Radio Shack will repair 
their CPU/keyboard units for a flat $30 
if it's out of warranty. That is, if the case 
has not been opened. Even the main 
PC board will be replaced if it's faulty. 
But if the case has been opened, 
replacing that main board could cost 
the user $300. 

The original set price for this out- 
of-warranty service was $24, until 
Radio Shack accumulated enough 
experience with such service to find 
out that they should have been charg- 
ing $30. 

This low-cost flat service fee for 
the CPU/keyboard repair has been in 
effect from the beginning, but it hasn't 
been publicized very much, a Radio 
Shack executive told me. Perhaps by 
the time you read this, it will have been. 
The more TRS-80 owners who know 
about it, the fewer will be tempted to 
tinker inside the case. 

Short Program #6 

Bill White of Twin Falls, Idaho, 
sent this: 

"Here are two short programs you 
might like. Type 1-8 to draw a line in 
these directions: 




Type a "9" and a dot moves, crossing 
its previous step. 

10 CLS:REM DRAWING PROGRAM 
BY BILL WHITE 1979 
20 PRINT @ 896, " ";:INPUT E 
40IFE=1 THENB=1: 

IF E=1 THEN D=-1 
50 IF E=2 THEN B=2: 

IFE=2THEN D=0 
60 IF E=3THEN B=1: 

IF E=3 THEN D=1 
70 IF E=4 THEN B=0: 

IF E=4 THEN D=2 
80IFE=5THENB=-1: 

IF E=5 THEN D=1 
90 IF E =6 THEN B=-2: 

IF E =6 THEN D=0 
100 IF E=7THEN B=-1: 

IF E=7 THEN D=-1 
110 IF E=8 THEN 8=0: 

IF E=8 THEN D=-2 

112 IF E=9 RESET (A+63.C+35) 

113 IF E=9 RESET (A+63-B.C+35-D) 
115 A=A+B:C=C+D:SET(A+63.C+35) 
120 GOTO 20 

You may wish to write in a line or two to 

prevent the line from going 

• ■ t « • • t « 
a • • % 

■ 4 • ■ ■ • «, 



second, solid, as the printout shows. 
The printout, on a Screen Printer, is 
somewhat deceptive, because the 
graphics blocks show as square, not 
rectangular. 

If any 1-9 key is to be used more 
than once at a time, it need not be held 
down to continue the same action; just 
keep depressing ENTER until you 
need to change direction. 

For a simple design, using the first 
program, depress ENTER three times 
for each of these keys: 1 -7-2-1 -3-2-5-3- 
6-5-7-6. Can you figure out which keys 
to use to approximate this same design 
using the second program? 

Lines 40-1 10 contain much repeti- 
tion. Can you reduce or eliminate this? 
Can you do it with an ON/GOTO? 

Tandy to OEM the Model II 

Moving outside its network of over 
6,000 Radio Shack stores, Tandy Corp. 
will sell its TRS-80 Model 1 1 to firms that 
will add software and sell the computer 
under their own name or the Tandy 
label. 

A newly created group, the Tandy 
Contract Marketing Division, will 
market what the division calls, for 
marketing purposes, the "Tandy II," to 
software companies involved in turn- 
key-system sales. 



/\ w 



.... «. , . . •••• • • • •«, 

• ■■■ • ^ • ■ •■•• «■" • "■ 



■ ■ « ■ 



«•■ » « • «. ••■■ 

■ - • • «* • I » 

FIGURE D. 



• • • ■ 

a I w 
■ 



too close to the screen edge." 

Bill's second program is almost 
the same as the first, except that the 
values of B and D in lines 40-110 are 
divided by two, so that line 40, for 



Not only has the name been 
changed for the OEM market, but the 
color of the case has been changed 
from silver to light blue. 

(OEM, when spelled out, is some- 



*■■«««••>■ 



■••■•■#■■•■•■•• 



vVV^' 



FIGURE E 



example, becomes: 

40 IF E=1 THEN B=.5: 
IF E=1 THEN D=-5 

In the first program, the horizontal 
and vertical lines are dotted; in the 



thing of a misnomer, because it stands 
for Original Equipment Manufacturer, 
although most computer OEMs do not 
manufacture the hardware, but only 
add software). □ 



ANOTHER 



FIGURE F. 



144 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




RADIO SHACK COMPUTER OWNERS 
TRS-80 MODEL I AND MODEL II 



TRS 80 



MONTHLY 
NEWSLETTER 



fttfcfc 



PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN OUR FIRST 12 ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 

A COMPLETE INCOME TAX PROGRAM (LONG AND SHORT FORM) 

INVENTORY CONTROL 

STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS 

WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (FOR DISK OR CASSETTE) 

LOWER CASE MODIFICATION FOR YOUR VIDEO MONITOR OR PRINTER 

PAYROLL (FEDERAL TAX WITHHOLDING PROGRAM) 

EXTEND 16 DIGIT ACCURACY TO TRS 80 FUNCTIONS (SUCH AS 

SQUARE ROOTS AND TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS) 

NEW DISK DRIVES FOR YOUR TRS 80 

PRINTER OPTIONS AVAILABLE FOR YOUR TRS^O 

A HORSE SELECTION SYSTEM*"ARITHME"nC TEACHER 

COMPLETE MAILING LIST PROGRAMS (BOTH FOR DISK OR CASSETTE 

SEQUENTIAL AND RANDOM ACCESS) 

RANDOM SAMPLING"*BAR GRAPH 

CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE PROGRAM 

LEVEL II UPDATES***LEVEL II INDEX 

CREDIT CARD INFORMATION STORAGE FILE 

BEGINNERS GUIDE TO MACHINE LANGUAGE AND ASSEMBLY 

LANGUAGE 

LINE RENUMBERING 

AND CASSETTE TIPS. PROGRAM HINTS, LATEST PRODUCTS 

COMING SOON (GENERAL LEDGER. ACCOUNTS PAYABLE AND 
RECEIVABLE. FORTRAN 80. FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS PACKAGE, 
PROGRAMS FOR HOMEOWNERS. MERGE TWO PROGRAMS, 
STATISTICAL AND MATHEMATICAL PROGRAMS (BOTH 
ELEMENTARY AND ADVANCED) . . AND 

WORD PROCESSING PROGRAM (Cassette or Disk) 

For writing letters, text, mailing lists, etc., with each new subscriptions or renewal. 

LEVEL II RAM TEST - 

Checks random access memory to ensure that all memory locations are working properly. 



PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 
BUSINESS 

GAMBLING • GAMES 
EDUCATION 
PERSONAL FINANCE 
BEGINNER'S CORNER 
NEW PRODUCTS 
SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 
MARKET PLACE 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 



SEND FOR OUR 36 PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG (INCLUDING LISTINGS OF HUNDREDS OF TRS 80 PROGRAMS AVAILABLE 
ON CASSETTE AND DISKETTE) $2.00 OR FREE WITH EACH SUBSCRIPTION OR SAMPLE ISSUE 



•CQMRJTHQNICSi 



Boi 149 N«w City, NM Voft 10*56 

ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $24 

TWO YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 

SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE $ 4 

START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE 

(#1 - July 1978 • #7 - January 1979 • #12 • June 1979) 

NEW SUBSCRIPTION RENEWAL 




9fe\ 24 



HOUR 
ORDER 
LINE 
(914) 425-1535 




CREDIT CARD NUMBER 
SIGNATURE 



EXP DATE . 



NAME 

ADDRESS 

*" ADD S6/YEAR. (CANADA. MEXICO) ADD 112/YEAR AIR MAIL OUTSIDE OF USA. CANADA & MEXICO ' 

CIRCLE 11* ON READER SERVICE CARD 

JANUARY 1980 145 



M 



I 
I 



Data Acquisition Modules (Ib) 






& 




The world we live in is full of variables we want to 
measure. These include weight, temperature, pressure, 
humidity, speed and fluid level. These variables are 
continuous and their values may be represented by a 
voltage. This voltage is the analog of the physical varia- 
ble. A device which converts a physical, mechanical or 
chemical quantity to a voltage is called a sensor. 

Computers do not understand voltages: They under- 
stand bits. Bits are digital signals. A device which con- 
verts voltages to bits is an analog-to-digital converter. 
Our AIM16 (Analog Input Module) is a 16 input analog- 
to-digital converter. 

The goal of Connecticut microcomputer in designing 
the DAM SYSTEMS is to produce easy to use, low cost 
data acquisition modules for small computers. As the 
line grows we will add control modules to the system. 
These acquisition and control modules will include 
digital input sensing (e.g. switches), analog input sens- 
ing (e.g. temperature, humidity), digital output control 
(e.g. lamps, motors, alarms), and analog output control 
(e.g. X-Y plotters, or oscilloscopes). 



VE VT%E *J U MWM.MMMM- 



««« » W 



ae^M 



lHt>t>tM«jm««M-KVKHltJtKmt«-mtXXTC!g i 



Connectors 



/ 




- 



sap 



The AIM 16 requires connections to its input port 
(analog inputs) and its output port (computer inter- 
face). The ICON (Input CONnector) is a 20 pin, solder 
eyelet, edge connector for connecting inputs to each of 
the AIM 1 6's 1 6 channels. The OCON (Output CONnec- 
tor) is a 20 pin, solder eyelet edge connector for con- 
necting the computer's input and output ports to the 
AIM 16. 

The MANMOD1 (MANifold MODule) replaces the 
ICON. It has screw terminals and barrier strips for all 1 6 
inputs for connecting pots, joysticks, voltage sources, 
etc. 

CABLE A24 (24 inch interconnect cable has an inter- 
face connector on one end and an OCON equivalent on 
the other. This cable provides connections between the 
DAM SYSTEMS computer interfaces and the AIM 16 or 
XPANDR1 and between the XPANDR1 and up to eight 
AIM 16s. 



ICON 
OCON 
MANMOD1 . 
CABLE A24 . 



vn««mnf 



- -^ -^* ** ^ - — H ** ' 



. . S 9.95 
. . S 9.95 
.. $59.95 
.. S19.95 

■MUM JJ-U-»M 



I Analog Input Module I 




The AIM 16 is a 16 channel analog to digital converter 
designed to work with most microcomputers. The 
AIM 16 is connected to the host computer through the 
computer's 8 bit input port and 8 bit output port, or 
through one of the DAM SYSTEMS special interfaces. 

The input voltage range is to 5.12 volts. The input 
voltage is converted to a count between and 255 (00 
and FF hex). Resolution is 20 millivolts per count. Ac- 
curacy is 0.5% ± 1 bit. Conversion time is less than 100 
microseconds per channel. All 16 channels can be 
scanned in less than 1.5 milliseconds. 

Power requirements are 12 volts DC at 60 ma. 

The POW1 is the power module for the AIM 16. One 
POW1 supplies enough power for one AIM 16, one 
MANMOD1, sixteen sensors, one XPANDR1 and one 
computer interface. The POW1 comes in an American 
version (POW1a) for 110 VAC and in a European ver- 
sion (POW1e) for 230 VAC. 



AIM16. 
POW1a 

POW1e 



$179.00 
$ 14.95 
$ 24.95 



v«itv«nnnmimm>m»mKVK« x. ■M^-XZJ* ' 



L5E2C 



r»nr 



wuvvuvifvMwvvvu Vf %i.%rwv 



XPANDR1 




The XPANDR1 allows up to eight AIM 16 modules to be 
connected to a computer at one time. The XPANDR1 is 
connected to the computer in place of the AIM 16. Up to 
eight AIM 16 modules are then connected to each of the 
eight ports provided using a CABLE A24 for each 
module. Power for the XPANDR1 is derived from the 
AIM 16 connected to the first port. 

XPANDR1 . . . $59.95 



i i 

' 

i l 

I 

I 

I I 



TEMPSENS 





This module provides two temperature probes for use 
by the AIM16. This module should be used with the 
MANMOD1 for ease of hookup. The MANMOD1 will 
support up to 16 probes (eight TEMPSENS modules). 
Resolution for each probe is 1°F. 

$49.95 



TEMPSENS2P1 (-10°F to 120°F) 



^sssss^^s: 



sa: 



■'} 



146 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Computer Interfaces 
and Sets 




For your convenience the AIM 16 comes as part of a 
number of sets. The minimum configuration for a usable 
system is the AIM 16 Starter Set 1. This set includes 
one AIM16, one POW1 , one ICON and one OCON. The 
AIM 16 Starter Set 2 includes a MANMOD1 in place of 
the ICON. Both of these sets require that you have a 
hardware knowledge of your computer and of computer 
interfacing. 

For simple plug compatible systems we also offer 
computer interfaces and sets for several home com- 
puters. 

The PETMOD plugs into the back of the Commodore 
PET computer and provides two PET IEEE ports, one 
user port and one DAM SYSTEMS port. The PETMOD is 
connected to the AIM 16 or XPANDR1 with CABLE A24. 
The PETSET1 includes one PETMOD, one CABLE A24, 
one AIM 16. one POW1 and one MANMOD1. To read 
and display a single AIM 16 channel (N) using the 
PETSET1 the BASIC statements 

C0kt59426tN:F , 0hESV42e»2SS:X«fttM:,?4/l ) IfU INI 'CHANNEL "N"-"X 

are all that is needed. 

The KIMMOD plugs into the COMMODORE KIM ap- 
plications connector and provides one application con- 
nector and one DAM SYSTEM'S port. The KIMMOD is 
connected to the AIM 16 or XPANDR1 with CABLE A24. 
Assembly and machine language programs for reading 
and displaying data are included. The KIMSET1 in- 
cludes one KIMMOD, one CABLE A24, one AIM16, one 
POW1 and one MANMOD 1 . 

All sets come in American and European versions. 



AIM1 6 Starter Set 1a (110 VAC). 
AIM1 6 Starter Set 1 e (230 VAC) . 
AIM1 6 Starter Set 2a (110 VAC). 
AIM1 6 Starter Set 2e (230 VAC) . 

PETMOD . 
KIMMOD . 

PETSETIa. 

PETSETTe. 

KIMSETIa. 

KIMSETIe. 



S 189.00 
$199.00 
S 259.00 
$269.00 
$ 49.95 
$ 39.95 
S 295.00 
$305.00 
$285.00 
$295.00 



JSJ&JJ fl 



Our Guarantee of Satisfaction 



Our customers are our most important asset. We want 
you to be pleased with whatever you purchase from us. 
We strive to offer top quality products at reasonable 
prices. We believe you should see an item before you 
spend your hard earned cash for it. 

Ask for a demonstration at your local computer store 
so you can be sure our products perform as you want 
them to perform. Your dealer is a valued source of infor- 
mation and advice. 

If you cannot see our products in advance, and order 
direct from us, we offer a money back guarantee. If our 
products don't perform as you expect, return the mer- 
chandise to us within 30 days, in its original condition, 
and we will refund the purchase price. 

Our standard warranty for all our products is 90 days. 



'"""'" "V""* 



Coming Soon 



TEMPSENS-2P with other temperature ranges. Inter- 
faces for TRS-80. APPLE. AIM65. Light sensors. Out- 
put modules. Contact us for price and availability. 



*C M 3* M U M U M_Jt J*. » ' 



=ri>1 



fcj>cvcteas 



■VTW' 



Dealers 



Give your potential customers a reason for buying your 
computers. We offer excellent discounts to legitimate 
dealers. Contact us for our dealer pack. 



vw %i %t mm; 



.M..M. »m » it » x-*r- 



=A 



1 

1 
1 


ivKVvMV««WMWsrx>f>t^^nn 


■ 

IM 2W 2*9 


MMMMMV^I 












* ^a>*>»»> ' ••■■■■-. 




rwwwvwvrwrv- 





w»= 



JVVVV 



MMVirg. 



uu m uauug 



Order Form 



CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTf R , Inc. 
150 POCONO ROAD 
BR0OKFIEL0. CONNECTICUT 06804 
TEL: (203) 775-9659 TWX: 710-4560052 



QUANTITY 


DESCRIPTION 


PRICE 


TOTAL 


































































































SUBTOTAL 




Handling and shipping — add par order 


S3 00 


Foreign ordi 
Connecticu 


>r» add 10% (or AIR postage 




residents add 7% sales tax 




TOTAL ENCLOSED 





COMPANY 
ADDRESS 



CITY_ 
STATE 



ZIP 



VISA O M/C O Expiration date . 
Card number 



-grvr: 



WWVMHV? 



JANUARY 1980 



147 



CIRCLE 1*7 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



fersonal 

Electronic 

Transactions 

by Gregory Yob 

I am happy to hear from you. and encourage 
your correspondence I will try to acknowledge all 
correspondence, and a SASE makes things easier 
for both ol us Please send your letters to 
"Personal Electronic Transactions" c/o PO Box 
354, Palo Alto. CA 94301 




A Quickie for You 

Some of you know of a program- 
ming language called APL. In APL, 
programs can be written very precisely 
— and among APL programmers there 
is the "One-Line Program Syndrome." 
One programmer will write a line of 
heiroglyphics and hand this to another 
programmer, along with the statement: 
"Guess what this does!" 

The PET permits some interesting 
short programs in BASIC, and if you 
come up with something interesting, 
and shorter than 10 lines, send it in. 
(The PET User Notes, PO Box 371, 
Montgomery ville. PA 18936, often 
prints 4-line or shorter programs, and I 
am happy to indulge in "Imitation is the 
best form of flattery.") Dan Rubis sent 
me a 3-liner that can be of some use: 

10 D I HAS 1 1 6) :F0RI-1T016:KEA0AS(I> :N€»T 
20 INPUTHS:C>t:F0RI-1T0t:F0RJ-lT0lt:IF 

HIOSIHS. I . I )-AS (J)TNCNC-C» ( It t O- I ) ) * (J- 1 ) 
30 Nt«TJ :NE»TI : PP. I NIC :G0T020 : DATA 0, 1 ,2 .3.* .5 .t , 

7.8.9.A.I.C.D.E.F 

This critter asks for a 4 digit hexa- 
decimal number and prints the decimal 
result. For example: 

•UN 
7 1000 
MM 

? FfFF 
tSS35 

That's fine — and Dan cautioned 
me that this program likes 4 digit 
entries. If you try entering just "1", you 
get 4096 back! A little bit of fiddling 
makes everything well, however: 

10 G-lt:OIHAS(C) :F0RI-1T0G:REA0AS(I) :NE>T 
20 INPUIM$ FOm-ITOLEN(MS) :FOAJ-ITOC: If Ml OS 

(MS . I . I )-AS (J)TMENC-C"C»J- I 
30 NEXTJ.I :PKIKTC:C-O:C.OTO2O:0ATA 0.1. 2.3.*. 

5,t,7.t.9.A.«.C,0.E.F 

Fool with this one for a while — it is 
much more tolerant of input errors! 
(And runs a shade faster too.) Here are 
the tricks I used: 

1) I converted the value 16 into the 
variable G — this was mostly to save 
some room in Line 20 which was 
getting a bit crowded! 

2) The FOR I loop was changed to 



look at all of the characters in H$ — and 
if H$ was short, the I loop would only 
look that far. 

3) When a hexadecimal digit was 
found, just multiply the current value 
by 16, and add the new digit — which is 
simpler than the first method, and 
permits the ignorance of "junk" char- 
acters without increasing the value of 
C. 

4) For the sake of room, I used the 
NEXT J, I form, and moved the C=0 to 
Line 30 to make more space in Line 20. 

If your entry is not the best BASIC 
code in the world, don't worry! I am 
interested in the ideas within a pro- 
gram, and cleaning-up of code is part 
of my meticulous nature. I do so to 
share the "tricks of the trade" with you, 
and to teach programming methods in 
an unobtrusive manner. 

The next project is to do the 
reverse feat of converting a decimal 
number to hexadecimal. (See PET 
User Notes, Nov- Dec 1978, Page 21 for 
one approach.) My result is: 

10 HS-"il23*5t789MCO£F':GOT030 

20 P-l«T(D/lt):0-0-lt*P:AS-HI0S(HS,Q»l,l) 

♦AS:IF P>fTHENO-F:G0T020 
30 PRINTAS:INPUT0:AS-'"':GOTO2O 

Line 20 computes Q to be the re- 
mainder after dividing D by 16. The 
correct character is added to A$, which 
is built left-to-right. When this is 
finished, the result is in AS for your 
viewing. 

A Formatting Program 

Let's take the bull by the horns and 
try to make a reasonably useful 
subroutine for formatting numbers. A 
completely flexible routine would take 
too much space — but a simplified 
version will illustrate what has to be 
done. (If any of you elaborate on this 
routine, send me a copy!) 

The steps to a formatting program 
are: 



1) Decide on how to specify the 
desired format. The various versions of 
"PRINT USING" are a guide for this. 

2) Conver the number that is to be 
printed into a string. (That's easy. Use 
STR$.) 

3) Convert the number's repre- 
sentation into fixed point format. (If the 
PET served up 8.1 2E-04, convert this to 
.000812). 

4) Check the format specification 
to match up the decimal point's loca- 
tion, and then remove any extra less 
significant digits. If the number is too 
large, signal the error. (One way is to 
print asterisks instead of digits.) 

More elaborate routines can go on to: 

5) Check the specification for 
signs and place properly — for ex- 
ample, add "+" to positive numbers, 
and put in the desired column. ( + 123 
vs +123 & so on). 

6) Add leading and trailing zeroes 
as needed. 

7) Decide whether to suppress a 
trailing decimal point for integer 
numbers. (Change 12345. to 12345). 

There are several ways the PET 
displays a number, depending on its 
value: 

Integer 123 

Fixed Point with Decimal 1.23 
Scientific Form 1.23E+15 

First, let's make a short program to 
do Step 2, and to allow entry of test 
numbers: 

10 PRINVclr TEST FORMAT ROUTINE" 

20 INPUT"NUHBEK sp sp sp sp tp sp sp :";N 

30 PRINfPET SEES IT AS:"N 

»0 C0SUI 9000 

SO P«INT"F0BMAT SEES sp sp sp:"«S 

tO PIMNT 

70 GOTO 20 

9000 REN FORMAT ROUTINE 
9010 PEN CONVERT TO STRING 
9020 RS-STRS(N) 
9030 RETURN 

When this is RUN, we get a display 
of the three views of our number: 



148 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



PET,con't... 

MM 

{tcrcen clears) 

TtST FORMAT BOUT I HE 

NUHiEA :J 123 (Vou «il«r 123) 

PET SEES IT AS: 12} 

FORMAT SEES : 123 

NUMBER ll .M«123 
PET SEES IT AS: 1.23£-»* 
FORMAT SEES : l.23E-»* 

When debugging the program 
these three views will prove beneficial. 
As you will notice, the PET likes to 
change your entered number's format, 
so the formatter won't see the number 
you entered in the same way as you do. 

For convenience in handling, I 
chose to have the format routine see a 
number as: 

(Sign)(Mantissa)(Exponent) 

The mantissa would always be a 
fraction — i.e., 8.23 would be seen as: 

(+)(823)(+1) 

Note the mantissa assumes a decimal 
point as the first character. 

The first task is to break the STR$ 
string into these parts: 

9030 REH FETCH SIGN 

90*0 SS-IEFTS(RS.I) 

9050 RS-HIDS(RS.I) 

9060 REM CHECK IF SCIENTIFIC 

9070 F0RJ-1T0 LEH(RS) 

9080 IF HIDS(R$.J.1)-"E"THEN 9210 

9090 NEXT J 

9100 REH NOT SCIENTIFIC FORM 

9110 REH SCAN FOR OEC PT 

9120 FOR J-l TO LEN(RS) 

9130 IF MIDS(RS.J.I)-"." THEH 9180 

91*0 NEXT J 

9190 REH NO DP. HEAHS INTECER 

9160 HS-RS:C-lEN(R$):C0T0 9310 

9170 REH CONVERT FIXED POINT 

9180 E-J-1: IF E-0 THEN 9310 

9185 HS-IEFTS(RS.C)»HI0S(RS,E»2> 

9190 GOTO 9310 

9200 REH SCIENTIFIC FORK 

9210 E-VAMHIDS(R$.J«I))»1 

9220 RS-LEFTS(RS.J-I) 

9230 MS-IEFTS(RS.1)»MI0S(RS.3> 

9300 REH SHOW PARTS 

9310 AS-" SGN:"»SS»" HAMT:"*MS»" EXP :"»STAS(E) 

9320 RETURN 

This complicated code "parses" 
the string R$ into the parts S$ for the 
sign, M$ for the mantissa, and E for the 
exponent. 

A RUN will show some examples: 

TEST FORMAT ROUTINE 
NUHIER :' "3*56 
PET SEES IT AS: 123*56 
FORMAT SEES : SCH 



HANT:123*56 EXP: 6 



NUHIER :? R5.26E-12 

PET SEES IT AS: R.526E-I1 
FORMAT SEES : SON : HAHT:*526 EXP:-10 

This looks pretty good — 1 23456 is 
.123456 times 10 6 and so on. However, 
a test of values like .0345 doesn't work 
very well (Try it!). It is important to try 
all combinations with programs like 
this — or take a lot of embarrassment. 

The first fix is: 

9180 E-J-1: IF E-0 THEN HJ-RS: GOTO 9310 

This gets the mantissa back — but the 
mantissa will still have a leading zero 
for values like .0234. A better fix is: 

9180 t-J-l : IF E>» THEN HS-LEFTS(RS.E)»HI0S(RS.C»2) 

:G0T0 9310 
9189 HS-HIOS(RS.J) 
9187 IF IEFTS(HS.1)-"»"TMEN RS-HS :E-C-1 :GOT0 9185 



Now all is well — and another bug 
(I won't tell what!) has vanished also. A 
look at the code is instructive. 

My approach is to handle the 
formatting as a pure "numbers as 
strings" approach — all tests and 
manipulations are in the form of string 
operations. There are cases where the 
PET won't test numbers accurately, 
and R$ already has the value that the 
PET wants to print. 

Line 9040 takes the first character, 
which will be a space or the minus sign, 
and puts it into S$ for later reference. 
Line 9050 "snips off" this character 
from R$ since we don't need it any 
more. 

Lines 9060 to 9090 look through 
the number for the letter "E" which tells 
us if a number is in Scientific Notation. 
If we have Scientific Notation, the 
number is always in the form: 

D.DDDD . . . E±DD 

In Line 9210 we make E equal to 
the value of the exponent by looking at 
the portion of the string after the "E." 
When we make the mantissa to the 
form desired, a division by 10 will take 
place, forcing the value of E to become 
one more — so this is also done in 
advance in Line 9210. 

9220 removes the part with the "E" 
and the exponent since it isn't needed 
now. Line 9230 rearranges the remain- 
ing digits to remove the decimal point 
— in Scientific form, the decimal point 
is always in the second position. Lines 
9300 to 9320 re-compose R$ as a test 
display for debugging. 

If the number isn't in Scientific 
form, it is either an integer or a fixed 
point number. Lines 9120 to 9140 look 
for the decimal point as a way to telling. 
If a decimal point isn'tfound, Line 9160 
creates the mantissa by just taking the 
digits. Since integers imply a decimal 
point at the right end of the number, 
the exponent is simply the length of the 
digits string! (Nice, huh?) 

Fixed point numbers are a bit 
tricky — we have several kinds: 

123. *56 
1.23*56 
.123*56 
.0123*56 

The first two examples, where a digit 
precedes the decimal point, are 
handled in Line 9180. E is the position 
of the decimal point less one, and the 
string formula removes the decimal 
point from the digits string R$. 

If E is zero, we have one of the two 
remaining cases — the first case is to 
just remove the decimal point in Line 
9185. However, in some cases, the 
number will have a leading zero, which 
is checked for in Line 91 87. By jumping 
to 9185, an unlimited number of 
leading zeroes can be removed, 
though this isn't required for the PET. 



(My real motive is to re-use the code in 
Line 9185 to destroy the zero — and 
why not? It is my program, after all!) 
Now that the number has been 
"crunched," let's take a look at Steps 1 
and 4. As this program is an example, I 
will use the format specifier F$ as: 

FS - "DDDDDD.DD0D0" 

Here the number of leading digits is 
specified by the number of "D"s before 
the decimal, and the number of trailing 
digits by the number of "D"s after the 
decimal. If the letter "S" appears as the 
first letter, the sign will be printed in 
this position. Otherwise, the sign won't 
be printed at all. (Gives you something 
to think about.) 

If a number is too large to fit, 
asterisks will be printed instead. Small 
numbers will have leading zeroes 
added, and trailing zeroes will always 
be added to fill the space after the 
decimal with digits. If no decimal point 
appears in F$, the integer value will be 
printed. 
Whew! Here is the code to add: 

9300 REH ANALYSE FORMAT STRING 

9310 REH PUT SICN IN RS IF NEEDED 

9320 RS-—:F1S-FS 

9330 IF IEFTS(FS.I)<>"S" THEH 9370 

93*0 IF SS-"lp" THEN SS-"»" 

9350 RS-SS:F1S-MI0S(FS,2) 

9360 REH CCT I OF D'S OH 80TM SIDES 

9370 F1S-F1SV!" 

9380 FOR J-l TO LEN(FIS) 

9390 IF HIDS(F1S,J,1)-"0" THEN NEXT J 

9*00 D1-J-1 

9*10 F1S-HIDS(FIS.J»1> 

9*20 D2-IEN(F1S)-1 

Let's have a look at what this does. 
Lines 9310 to 9350 check the format 
string for the letter "S" which means 
that the sign is to appear. Since 
scanning the format string is going to 
take it apart, F1$ is used instead — so 
F$ is preserved. Line 9340 replaces a 
blank with the "+"for positive numbers. 
In Line 9350, F1$ has any "S"s 
removed. 

The next step is to find D1, the 
number of "D"s on the left side, and D2, 
the number of "D"s on the right. The "!" 
is added to F1$ to prevent a disaster 
when the scanning loop goes past the 
end of F1$. (The PET string functions 
hate to see zero as their numeric 
arguments — so devious tricks must be 
done to prevent this awful event.) Note 
the odd construction of the loop — it 
keeps going until a non-"D" is seen 
(This will be "." or "! "). 

When the loop stops, D1 is known 
— see Line 9400. D2 is known in- 
directly — as what's left over. Line 9410 
makes F1$ the "left over" part on the 
right of the decimal (or "!") . Line 9420 is 
a nasty trick. First, it is possible to have 
no decimals on the right, but a decimal 
point, such as "DDDDD." This makes 
D2 zero (Remember that the "!" was 
added to F1$ earlier.) An integer 
format, like "DDDD" makes D2 -1 — 
this is a handy flag for this case for 
later. 

Now for more code. 



JANUARY 1980 



149 




The First 

Computer 

Design 

Coloring 

Book 

by "Design Enterprise". 84 in- 
tricate patterns for creative 
people of all ages. 

Size 10" x 8". Paperbound $4.95, 
now at your bookstore, or send 
check to Crown Publishers, One 
Park Ave., N.Y., N.Y. 10016. N.Y. 
and N.J. residents, add sales tax. 

H-A-R-M-O-N-Y B-O-OK-S 



CIRCLE 1*5 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MEMOREX 

DISKETTES 

& 

CARTRIDGES 

for your computer or word processor 



BUY THE BEST FOR LESS. 
Lowest prices WE WILL 
NOT BE UNDERSOLD!! Buy 

any quantity 1 - 1000. Visa, 
Mastercharge accepted. Call 
free (800) 235-4 137 for prices 
and information. All orders 
sent postage paid. 



PACIFIC 
EXCHANGES 

100 Foothill Blvd 
San Luis Obispo. CA 
93401. (In Ca' call 
(805) 543-1037) 




PET,con't... 



9500 REM BUILD NUMBER AS FIXED PI 

9510 REM RLS-LEFT SIDE 

9520 REH RRS-RICHT SIDE 

9525 RlS-'"':RRS-"" 

9530 REH REH0VE TRAILING ZEROES FROM MS 

95*0 HS-"*"*NS 

9550 IF RIGMTS(HS,l)-"#" THEM HS-LEFT$(MS,IEN(HS)-1) 

:G0T0 9550 

9560 HS-NIDS<HS.2) 

9570 REM SET ZERO FLAG 

9580 ZF-0:IF MS-"" THEN ZF-I 

9590 REH DUIID LEFT SIDE 

9600 REM ADD ANT TRAILING ZEROES 

9610 IF ZF THEN RLS-"(": C0T0 9710 

9620 IF E <• LEN(MS) THEN 9650 

9630 RLS-HS:F0RJ-l TO E-LEN(H») :RIS-RL$V»" 

:NEXT: GOTO 9710 
9640 REH NO TRAIL ZEROES 
9650 IF E<l THEN RLS-"": GOTO 9710 
9660 RLS-LEFTS(MS.E) 
9700 REM WILD RIGHT SIDE 
9710 REM SEE IF ANT RIGHT SIDE 
9720 IF E>- LEN(HS) THEN RRS-"":G0T0 9(20 
9730 REM ADD ANY LEADING ZEROES 
97*0 IF E>-» THEN 9770 
9750 MS-"»"««5:E-E»I:C0T0 97*0 
9760 REM CHOP OFF 
9770 HS-"!"«MS:RRS»«IDS(HS.E*2) 



The objective here is to make two 
strings, RL$ and RR$, which hold the 
number in fixed point form, with any 
leading or trailing zeroes added. We 
begin by noticing that a number like 
1000000 will end up in M$ as "1000000" 
since no precautions were made for 
trailing zeroes. Lines 9540 to 9560 get 
rid of these. If the number originally 
was a true zero, this leaves M$ as a null 
string. Lines 9570 and 9580 take note of 
this by setting a flag, ZF. 

Now it's time to get the left-hand 
side of our number. If the number is 
zero, it's simple — the string is a "0". 
Line 9610 checks this one. 

E, our exponent, is handy for 
locating the position of the decimal 
point in the mantissa. If the mantissa is 
shorter than the value of E, some 
trailing zeroes must be added. (Around 
this time I had to resort to pad and 
pencil to see what's what.) Lines 9620 
and 9640 add any needed zeroes. The 
value E-LEN(MS) tells how many 
zeroes to add. 

If E is less than one, there isn't a 
left-hand side. See Line 9650. Line 
9660 is the "normal" case where all is 
well-behaved. (Hah!) 

Ho Hum, and it's time to do the 
right side. Line 9720 sees if there is one 
at all . . . M$ has to be longer than E 
characters here. In Lines 9740-9750 
the reverse problem of leading zeroes 
is handled. Each leading zero means 
that E is increased by one, and 
eventually E will reach zero — then 
Line 9770 takes the scissors and makes 
the right side at last. 

If you are determined to make all 
this work, use a pencil and pad to draw 
your numbers, mantissas, etc. Dia- 
grams are a great help. 

Now that the number has been 
reconstituted and the format specifica- 
tion analysed, it is time to create the 
formatted result. The value of D2 lets 
us distinguish between pure integers 
without decimal points and fixed point 



values. The pure integer case is 
handled as follows: 



9*00 REH BUILD RESULT FROM ALL THIS 

9810 REH DO PURE INTEGER CASE 

9820 IF D2> -I THEN 9950 

9830 REM OVERFLOW 

9860 IF LEN(RLS)> Dl THEN FOR J-l TO 01: 

RS-RSV'"" :NEXT :RETURN 
9850 REH ADD LEAOING SPACES 

9860 IF LENlRLSI-DI THEN RS-RS-RLS:G0T0 9890 
9870 RLS-">P"»RLS:GOT09S60 
9890 REH FIX FOR ZERO 
9900 IF RIGHTS(RS,l)-"tp" THEN RS-LEFTS 

<RS,LEN(RS)-I)«"f" 
9910 RETURN 



A value of D2 that is -1 means an 
integer is at hand. Line 9820 checks for 
this. If the right-hand result is longer 
than D1, the number of digits allowed 
in the format, the number is too large. 
Line 9840 checks this, and builds the 
rest of R$ into asterisks to indicate the 
problem. There is no use in going 
further in this case, so we RETURN. 

When the result, RL$, fits the 
space in the format, our job is done 
(almost). Lines 9860 and 9870 add 
blanks in front until a fit is found. 

Sometimes the number is a frac- 
tion, like .1 23. When RL$ was created, a 
fraction returns RL$ as a null string — 
now filled with blanks. As far as we are 
concerned, the value of zero, so Line 
9900 checks and the last digit, and 
replaces a space with a zero if needed. 
At last! We are done with the integers. 

The non-integer case is handled 
by this code: 



9920 REH NOT AN INTEGER 

9930 REH LEFT SIDE 

3950 REH OVERFLOW 7 

3960 IF LEH(RLS)>DI THEN FOR J-l TO 01*02*1 

: RS-RS*""" :NEXT :RETURN 
3970 REH ADO LEADING SPACES 

9980 IF LEN(RLS)-01 THEN RS-RS»RlS :C0T0 10010 
9990 RLS-"»p"»RLS:C0T0 9980 
10000 REH RIGHT SIDE 
10010 RS-RS-".":IF 02-* THEN RETURN 
10020 REH TRAILING ZEROES 
10030 IF D2<LEN(RRS) THEN 10050 
10060 RRS-RRS-'C: GOTO 10030 
10050 RS-RS*LEFTS(RR5.02) 
10060 RETURN 



Lines 9920 to 9990 act in the same 
way as Lines 9840 to 9870. Note that 
the filling with asterisks must fill the 
entire format specification, D1+D2+1 
(recall the decimal point!) 

Line 10010 adds the decimal point, 
and if there is no right side, we are 
done. In 10030 to 10040, the length of 
the right side RR$ is checked, and 
zeroes are added until RR$ is longer 
than the right-side format. Line 10050 
trims off the excess, and we are done! 

To test these formats, insert: 

15 INPUT"F0RHAT STRING:";FS 

Take this routine and use it in your 
programs — and see if it is of any use to 
you. A lot of "shrinking" can be applied 
— my approach was to do everything in 
tiny steps so I knew how my bugs 
worked! □ 



CIRCLE 130 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



150 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 




* COMP^ 

TRS-80 PET SIOO 
APPLE KIM AIM65 



INEXPENSIVE CONTROL SOLUTION FOR 

HOME SECURITY • ENERGY CONSERVATION 

GREENHOUSES • ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL 

INDUSTRIAL CONTROL • LABORATORIES 

CmC's aiDAC system now Includes an interlace to the BSR X- 10 remote 
control modules These low-cost modules allow control over lamps, 
motors and appliances With the CmC X-10 interlace your computer can 
control 256 separate devices Lamps can be turned on or oft. dimmed or 
brightened Alarms, kitchen appliances, hi-lis. TVs. motors, pumps, 
heaters and more can be put under your computer's control 

Direct plug-in and software for most computers 

Circle the reader service number, call or write for our latest catalog 



CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER , Inc. 

1 ■ p* 750 POCONO ROAD 

La BROOKFIELD, CONNECTICUT 06904 

TEL (203) 775-9659 TWX 710-4560052 



«««"" « MKJUmKMII MKmm nimim MMli 



PET Word Processor 




8K 

and 

16/32K 

PET 

versions 



This program permits composing and printing letters, 
flyers, advertisements, manuscripts, etc., using the 
COMMODORE PET and a printer. 

Printing directives include line length, line spacing, 
left margin, centering and skip. Edit commands allow 
you to insert lines, delete lines, move lines and 
paragraphs, change strings, save files onto and load 
files from cassette (can be modified for disk), move up, 
move down, print and type. 

Added features for the 16/32K version include string 
search for editing, keyboard entry during printing for 
letter salutations, justification, multiple printing and 
more. 

A thirty page instruction manual is included. 

The CmC Word Processor Program for the 8K PET is 
$29.50. The 16/32K version is $39.50. 

Order direct or contact your local computer store. 

VISA AND M'C ACCEPTED — SEND ACCOUNT NUMBER EKPIRATlON DATE AND SKIN ORDER 
ADO II PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING 1 HANDLING — FOREIGN ORDERS ADD ION FOR AIR POSTAGE 

CONNECTICUT microCOMPUTER, Inc. 

150 POCONO ROAD 
BROOKFIELD. CONNECTICUT 06904 

TEL (203) 775-9659 TWX 710-456-0052 



»""»" " " »■—- 



»»««- 



""" kmkjM 



CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 197 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ifttc 




Creative's own out- 
rageous Blonic Toad in 
dark blue on a light blue 
shirt for kids and adults. 



Computer Bum — black 
design by cartoonist 
Monte Wolverton on gray 
denim-look skirt with 
black neckband and 
cuffs. 



I'd rather be playing 
spacewars — black 

with white spaceships 
and lettering. 



Plotter display of PI to 
625 Places in dark brown 
on a tan shirt. 



Creative Computing — 

Albert Einstein in black on 
a red denim-look shirt 
with red neckband and 
cuffs 



T-shirts available in adult sizes S, M, L, XL; and in chil- 
dren's sizes (Bionic Toad and Spacewar) S, M, L. When 
ordering, specify design and size. Made in USA. $5.00 
postpaid in USA ; $6.00 postpaid, foreign. 



In a Hurry? Creative Computing T-Shlrts 

Call your Visa or Master/Charge order in to: p q g ox 789-IVI 

800-631-8112 (In NJ. call 201-540-0445) Morristown, N J 07960 

creative corepafcircg 



JANUARY 1980 



151 




run 



The comments and opinions of the 
author are given for educational 
purposes only and are not meant to 
be legal advice. Specific legal 
questions should be referred to 
your personal attorney. 



Copyright Infringement Versus 
Permissible Use 



Harold LNovick 



t 



Excitement is in the air! This is 
the holiday season and the courts, 
following the custom during this 
period, have provided us with some 
gifts in the form of two new 
decisions in the area of copyright 
infringement. The decisions are ei- 
ther good news or bad news, 
depending, respectively, upon whe- 
ther one is the copier or the "copiee. " 
(There is no such word, of course; 
but that fits in with there being no 
clear guidelines in the area of 
software protection.) 

In the first decision, a Federal 
District Court judge, speaking only 
for the Central District of California, 
held that it is not a copyright 
infringement to copy television pro- 
grams, including movies, broadcast 
over the airways with a videotape 
recorder for non-commercial use in a 
person's home. This is the well 
known Betamax case (Universal City 
Studios, Inc. v. Sony Corp., 203 
USPQ656). 

The second copyright case was 
decided by a Chicago judge who held 
that an "object computer program" 
stored in a ROM is a mechanical tool 
or a machine part, but is not a "copy" 
of the source program. This is the 
CompuChess case, and it said that 
there is no copyright infringement in 
duplicating a ROM from the Compu- 
Chess computerized chess game and 
using it in another computer chess 
game. (Data Cash Systems, Inc. v. 
JS&A Group, Inc., 203 USPQ 735. 

Copyright infringement is the 
violation of the copyright owner's 
exclusive rights by the unauthorized 

Harold L. Novick, Patent Attorney, LARSON, 
TAYLOR & HINDS. Arlington, VA 22202 



copying, preparing of derivative 
works, distributing copies, publicly 
performing or publicly displaying the 
copyrighted work. The October, 1979 
Software Legal Forum discussed 
copyright infringement and also men- 
tioned, without elaboration, that 
these five exclusive rights had six 
limitations and six restrictions on the 
scope of the rights. 

The limitations on the rights are 
"fair use" of the copyrighted work; 
reproduction by libraries and ar- 
chives of the copyrighted work; sale 
or display by a legal owner of a 
copyrighted work; performance or 
display of a copyrighted work by a 
non-profit educational, religious, or 
governmental insitution; certain se- 
condary transmissions (e.g., re- 
broadcasts); and certain ephemeral 
recordings (e.g., archival copies). 
The particular restrictions on the 
scope of the rights, however, are 
extremely detailed. In general and 
with some limitations, they permit 
anyone to do the following for the 
specified categories of copyrighted 
works: perform and imitate the 
sounds captured in sound record- 
ings; make and distribute phono- 
records of nondramatic musical 
works upon the payment of a set fee; 
publicly perform sound recordings in 
coin-operated phonorecord players 
(e.g., juke boxes); and use certain 
works in connection with non-com- 
mercial, broadcastings. The two re- 
maining restrictions state that the 
new copyright law does not cover the 
making of a useful article portrayed 
in pictorial, graphic and sculptural 
works and the use of a copyrighted 



work "in conjunction with" computer 
systems. 

The Betamax and CompuChess 
cases illustrate applications of these 
limitations and restrictions. In the 
Betamax case, the court permitted 
home use recording of broadcasted 
programs on the basis of the "fair 
use" limitation. "Fair use" is the 
ability of someone other than the 
copyright owner to use the copy- 
righted material in a reasonable 
manner without the owner's consent. 
In the computer software area, an 
example of "fair use," in this author's 
opinion, is the making of back-up 
copies of software stored on floppy 
diskettes. 

In the CompuChess case, the 
court held that the copying of the 
ROM was not a copyright infringe- 
ment because the new Copyright Act 
was limited in the scope of its 
coverage and did not encompass the 
use of a work in a computer. The 
copying may, however, be unlawful 
under the state doctrine of unfair 
competition, so no one should rush 
out and start copying programs from 
ROM's. 

The judge in the CompuChess 
case also made the astonishing 
statement that object programs "can- 
not be understood by even the most 
highly trained programmers." Then, 
contrary to the assumptions of the 
parties in the law suit, the judge 
followed with the unbelievable hold- 
ing that, "While the ROM is the 
mechanical embodiment of the source 
program, it is not a 'copy' of it." 
Amazing! With this type of judicial 
decision making, how can one 



152 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Legal Forum, con't... 

criticize Michael Shrayer Inc. for not 
suing Vector Graphics under the 
copyright laws? (see Dec. 1979 
Forum ) 

The CompuChess case, however, 
can be used as an example to help 
answer Mr. Norman Whaland's ques- 
tion asked in last month's Forum. He 
wanted to Know the difference be- 
tween "derivative works," which are 
modifications of a copyrightable 
work and are protectable, and ideas, 
procedures and concepts which are 
not protectable by copyrights. The 
judge cited an earlier case which held 
that "a completed building is not a 
copy of the architectual plans upon 
which the building is based." Blue- 
prints are expressions of an idea and 
are capable of being copied in the 
copyright sense only by similar 
technical writings. The ideas em- 
bodied in the blueprints are used to 
build the building. To extend copy- 
right coverage to the building itself 
would be to extend the copyright 
from the written expression of the 
ideas to the ideas themselves. 

Another example, closer to per- 
sonal computing, is that an electrical 
schematic is the expression (copy- 
rightable), whereas the circuit built 
using the schematic is the object 
itself (not copyrightable). In the 
CompuChess case, the judge held, in 
effect, that the ROM is analogous to 
a hand wired circuit and the source 
program and flow charts are analo- 
gous to an electrical schematic. One 
more example. A book describing the 
input format for data to be entered 
into a computer is copyrightable. 
One cannot copy the book. But the 
copyrighting of the expression of the 
procedure in the book cannot prevent 
someone from adopting the same 
procedure. For example, someone 
can write an interactive computer 
program which asks prompting ques- 
tions to enter into the computer the 
same data that is called for by the 
book without infringing the book's 
copyright. The writing describing the 
procedure is protectable, the proce- 
dure itself is not. The use of the 
procedure is different from the 
rewriting of the written expression of 
the procedure. Has the point been 
cleared up Norman, or has it been 
further obfuscated? 

So where does this leave us? 
What is fair use and what is a copy of 
a computer program? The commend- 
able Betamax decision adopted a 
practical solution. But it certainly 



does not end the controversy. Maur- 
ice Nunas of Dynamic Information 
Technologies, Dieppe, NB, Canada 
continues the controversy by sug- 
gesting another "practical solution" 
to the problem of providing machine 
readable software. His lengthy letter, 
and Steve North's response conclude 
this month's forum. Query, is Maur- 
ice's "solution" a copyright infringe- 
ment? 



Dear Creative Computing : 

I've been reading with interest the 
letters and editorials that you have 
been publishing concerning the "pi- 
racy" of software. While for the most 
part, I agree with your stance, our 
views part company to some extent 
where CP/M is concerned. 

Our company sells CP/M busi- 
ness systems. In addition, most of 
us at DIT are "dyed-in-the-wool" 
hobbyists. Thus, being close to both 
worlds, I can see a case for both 
sides. 

Software companies such as your 
own, individuals who write software 
for distribution, and systems com- 
panies such as our own require 
protection against the theft of our 
products. In order to have this 
protection it seems to me that a 
special set of copyright regulations 
must be promulgated. The existing 
copyright legislation is simply not up 
to date with advances in the state of 
the art. On the other hand, I have 
sympathy for the computerist who 
may have difficulty in obtaining 
software in machine readable format 
for his machine. Certainly, we need 
the listings in the magazines for 
many reasons but surely manually 
"banging-in" thousands of lines each 
is not what a new set of copyright 
regulations should mean. In the 
computer world surely there is some 
onus on the distributor/writer/copy- 
right holder. 

Your software catalog, for ex- 
ample, lists only six CP/M disks of 
games; no business programs, no 
CAI, no printergraphics, no word/ 
processing, no statistics, no simula- 
tions, etc. Yet, in your magazine you 
have published many such programs 
and your software arm sells some for 
other systems. I conclude that 
nobody should be allowed to steal 
your products but I have serious 
doubts about extending this reason- 
ing to protect that which you don't 
sell. Let me assure you that I am only 
refering to the programs on machine- 
readable media, not the documenta- 
tion ; the user should have to buy the 



publication or your re-print to get 
that. 

I issue you a sincere-challenge. I 
already own all of your back issues. I 
have many more requirements for 
software other than games. Much of 
it you have published in your 
magazine. I don't intend to enter 
them all by hand-my machine is 
supposed to work for me, not the 
contrary! If you produce what I need, 
I'll gladly purchase' it. If you don't 
and someone else fills the vacuum by 
keying it all in and charging a 
reasonable fee for that service, I 
think my choice is obvious. 

There are no doubt arguments in 
rebutt of several of the points I have 
raised. Consider only the main line I 
am presenting and decide whether it 
makes sense. You are ideally situat- 
ed to provide an immeasurable 
service to the home computerist and 
perhaps to those of us who are 
commercially involved as well. I'm 
sure that if you don't distribute 
software on as wide a basis as 
possible that others will step in to fill 
the gap; it's happening already. This 
is a diverse and growing industry in 
which you are one of the leaders. 
There are profits to be made by all 
and, providing we don't expect to 
make them immediately, this hobby/ 
business should advance smoothly 
for a good number of years. The 
in-again-out-again quick profit takers 
will not and should not survive. As a 
leader in the field, please-for all our 
sakes-don't fumble the ball now. 

M.K. Nunas 

V.P. Expansion 

Dynamic Info. Tech 

224 Gaspe Street 

Dieppe, NB, Canada 



Response: 

Mr. Nunas makes some interest- 
ing comments but does not directly 
address the issue of who actually 
owns software. (Surely it is not 
logical that Creative Computing 
yield the rights to distribute software 
In any arbitrary format to everyone 
else when it chooses not to do so 
itself!) As far as users are concerned, 
we realize the hardship of having to 
key in thousands of lines of code, 
and may decide to release the rights 
to some of our published software, 
which we are not interested in 
selling, to a national CP/M User 
Group currently under reorganiza- 
tion. SN 

(This issue will be discussed 
further In future Software Legal 
Forum columns). 



JANUARY 1980 



153 



Conpleat 



Computer 
Catalog 




We welcome entries from readers for the 
"Compleat Computer Catalogue" on any 
item related, even distantly, to computers. 
Please include the name of the item, a brief 
evaluative description, price, and complete 
source data. If it is an item you obtained 
over one year ago. please check with the 
source to make sure it is still available at the 
quoted price. 

Send contributions to "The Compleat 
Computer Catalogue," Creative Com- 
puting, P.O. Box 789-M. Morristown, NJ 
07960. 



COMPUTERS 




8u 68 SYSTEM X 
ICROPROCESSOR 

ASCI Marketing Group has intro- 
duced the M/< 68 System X Micropro- 
cessor. 

Based on the Motorola 6800 micro- 
processor, System X was designed for 
technicians, engineers, and scientists. 

Features include two 86 pin card 
edge connectors, one is for the CPU 
board, and the other for the memory 
board and lab series board. It is totally 
compatibla with the Motorola Exorcisor 
bus. 

ASCI Marketing Group, Suite 101, 
27439 Holiday Lane. Perrysburg, OH 
43551. (419) 874-1991. 

CIRCLE 2M ON READER SERVICE CARD 

ARCHIVES INTRODUCES 
BUSINESS COMPUTER 

Archives Incorporated introduces 
the Archives Business Computer, a desk 
top microcomputer designed for small 
businesses or a single department in a 
large corporation. Standard specifica- 
tions include a Z80A processor at a full 4 
MHz. 64K RAM, dual 77 track drives 
with 372K bytes of storage per drive, a 
12" green phosphor monitor and a 
detachable microprocessor keyboard. 

The drives use 5 "A" soft sectored 
unformatted disks. The CRT has 25 x 80 
characters, 240 x 100 graphics format, 
inverse video, blink and underline in any 
of eight intensities. The selectric style 
keyboard totaling 104 keys features a 



lefthand function keycluster, a righthand 
numeric keycluster and 23 relegendable 
function keys. 

Both serial and parallel I/O ports are 
standard along with a real time clock 
with battery back up. The Archives 
Business Computer offers a 2K monitor 
and CP/M operating system as standard. 
Optional software includes word pro- 
cessing, general ledger, accounts receiv- 
able and payable, payroll, inventory, 
Microsoft Basic and Fortran and CBasic 2. 
$6500. 

Archives Incorporated, 404 West 
35th Street, Davenport, IA 52806. 
319/386-7400. 

CIRCLE 207 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



HEMMIM Hill | 

■e CMC Hi fifiBifr 

■ iimiimmiiii ri 

■MM ■ I I I mi 
u mm] Imi 

«|| ■IIDflLfBcr 



SINGLE BOARD COMPUTER 
SUPPORTS PASCAL 

DOSC, Inc. has announced its TCB-85, 
a single board microcomputer capable of 
supporting CP/M and Pascal. 

The functionally dense 64K board is 
compatible with Intel's Multibus and 
combines the following features in one 
package: dual density floppy disk con- 
troller that supports up to four disk 
drives or two double sided disks, CRT 
controller with up to 80 characters by 25 
lines, RS-232 serial I/O port, parallel 
printer interface, strobed or scanned 
keyboard interface. $1,495. 

DOSC, Inc., 500 Fifth Ave, New 
York, NY 10033. (212) 398-9810 

CIRCLE 208 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




FIVE DATA SYSTEMS 
PRODUCTS 

Zenith Data Systems has announced 
the availability of the first group of its 
H/S Data Systems products. 

The WH89 Packaged Computer in- 
corporates two Z80 microprocessors, a 
built-in 5 1/4" floppy drive, a profession- 
al video terminal, a two-port serial I/O 
accessory and 16K bytes of RAM $2,295. 

The WH19 "Smart" Video Terminal 
is a Z80 microprocessor-controlled ter- 
minal with a 25 x 80 character display 
format and commercial typewriter-style 
keyboard. All functions are controlled by 
keyboard or software and direct cursor 
addressing allows for editing and cor- 
rections at any location on the screen. 
$995. 

Also introduced is the WH14 Line 
Printer that prints the standard 96-char- 
acter ASCII set (upper and lower case) 
on a 5 x 7 dot matrix print head. The 
microprocessor-controlled WH14 fea- 
tures sprocket feed, adjustable paper 
width, variable pitch and lines per inch 
and selectable baud rates from 110 to 
4800. $895. 

The WH11A is a 16-bit computer is 
DEC PDP-11/03 compatible with up to 
64K bytes of memory and comes 
complete with power supply and back- 
plane. Its disk operating system sup- 
ports Basic, Fortran and Assembler 
languages. $1,895. 

The WH27 is the Floppy Disk System 
designed for use with the H11A. It 
incorporates a Z80 microprocessor-based 
controller and has two 8-inch drives with 
a total capacity of 512K bytes. $2,595. 

Zenith Data Systems, Hilltop Road, 
St. Joseph, MI 49085. 

CIRCLE 20S ON READER SERVICE CARD 






154 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



COMPUTERS 




Z-PLUS MICROCOMPUTER 
SYSTEM 

Micromation Incorporated announces 
the Z-Plus complete microcomputer sys- 
tem. The computer features a Z-80A 
CPU running at a full 4 MHz, 64k bytes 
Dynamic RAM memory, 1 megabyte 
floppy disk storage, complete I/O capa- 
bilities for serial and parallel input/out- 
put, a constant voltage power supply, 
and a rack mount enclosure. 

The Z-Plus is a three-board comput- 
er .incorporating S-100 boards. A Hard 
Disk Subsystem is also available , 
providing up to 28 additional megabytes 
of storage. 

The Micromation Z-64 CPU board 
provides the central processor and 64k 
bytes of dynamic RAM on a single board, 
and the Doubler disk controller and two 
Shugart 8 disk drive provides up to 1 
megabyte of reliable floppy disk storage. 

The Micromation Complete I/O Board 
Provides total Input/Output capability, 
with 2 serial ports and 6 parallel ports, 
plus optional interface and software 
drivers for parallel daisy wheel printers. 
$4295. 

Micromation Inc., 1620 Montgomery 
St, San Fransisco, CA 94111. (415) 
398 0289 

CIRCLE 210 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




QUAY 900 

Quay Corporation's desktop micro- 
computer system, the Quay 900, pro- 
vides the OEM, business and industrial 
system designer with a high perfor- 
mance flexible disk based computer, at 
low cost. 

Utilizing Z80-based single board com- 
puter, packaged with two quad-density 
8000 hour MTBF flexible disks, the Quay 
900 features the CP/M disk operating 



system with prom-resident boot pro- 
gram; an RS232C or 20m a serial port 
and, a Centronics-compatible line printer 
interface. 

In addition to the application soft- 
ware compatible with CP/M; high-level 
languages including: Basic, Fortran and 
Cobol are also available. 

The Quay 900 system is priced at less 
than $4,000. 

Quay Corporation, P.O. Box 386, 
Freehold, NJ 07728. 201/681-8700 

CIRCLE 211 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PASCAL COMPUTER SYSTEM 

The ACI-90 is an advanced 16-bit 
Pascal computer system (Microengine 
equipped) which incorporates up to 
2Mbytes of mass storage with two 
built-in Shugart 8-inch floppy disk drives. 

It is said to provide Pascal compiling 
speeds in excess of 1200 lines a minute 
and execution enhancements of 4 to 25 
times over comparable micro/mini com- 
puter implementations. 

Also included with each system is a 
complete Professional Business Soft- 
ware Package in Pascal. 

The ACI-90 is available in either 
single or double density operation with 
either two Shugart 800 single sided or 
two Shugart 850 double sided floppy disk 
drives. 




The Professional Business Software 
Package in Pascal contains interactive 
programs in real-time and accounts 
receivable/payable, payroll with cost 
accounting, order entry inventory con- 
trol and general ledger. 

Associated Computer Industries, 
17952 Sky Park Circle, Suite A, Irvine 
CA 92714. (714) 557-0560. 

CIRCLE 212 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




(16KT\ 




CS-4002 

ncludes the Following: 



Torpedo Alley 
Darts 
Slalom 



BATTER UP 



Take the field. Mix up your 
pitches to keep the batter off 
balance. If he hits it, move your 
fielders to snag the ball before he 
gets to first. Balls and strikes 
double plays, force outs and 
errors. It's the great American 
computer game. 

To order, send payment plus $1 .00 shipping or bankcard number to Creative 
Computing Software, P.O. Box 789-M. Morristown, NJ 07960. Or call loll- 
free 800/631-8112 (In NJ 201 / 540-0445) 



creative 

compatiRg 

software 



V 



155 



BOOKS AND 
BOOKLETS 



NASA REPORT 

Spinoff 1979, An Annual Report, is a 
fascinating document published by the 
National Aeronatics and Space Admin- 
istration detailing the "spinoff benefits 
which stem from NASA's research. 

Advances resulting from both the 
direct application of technology and from 



the transfer of aerospace technology to 
other sectors of tne economy are 
described in layman's terms and illust- 
rated wih full color photographs. 

According to Spinoff, NASA has 
been involved in the design of heaters 
for tennis courts and liquid-cooled gar- 
ments for victims of rare diseases, 
modernization of cable cars, drying of 
water-logged books and the inspiration 
of an art form along with its better 
known space shuttle and weather study 
pro jets. 

The book is divided into three parts: 
Section 1 summarizes NASA's mainline 



5-10 times faster... 
and more! 

Meet l\is< ,il Z, the fast, flexible compiler will i 
higher speed greater efficienc\ and improved debugging 

■ True Z-80 native (ode Pascal compiler 5 I0X faster 
than < ompeting P < ode implementations DO interpreter 

required. 

m The only multi-tasking Pascal produces ROMable 
ntrant < ode 

■ Optimized tor fastest exe< ution re< ognizes <m<] 

exploits spec ial ( ,lses 

■ Easily transportable all hooks to your system made 
through support library 

■ Includes IEEE standard 110,111111; point pa< kage 
Single < OpV on ( I' M ( ompatible disk in< ludes ( ompiler. 

< ompanion ma< ro-assembler & sour< e of the library $275 
( )l M Ik enses available \\ rite or i all tor more information 



iinrii^ii^vv^i^iini^ 



Ithac .i Intersystems ln< lf> r >(> Hanshaw K<i.«<l PO 
Ithaca n> 14850 lUh 






CIRCLE 202 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



programs, Section 2 describes spinoff 
porducts and processes employed in 
various aspects of everyday life, and 
Section 3 details the mechanisms of the 
technology transfer process. The entire 
document offers an unusual opportunity 
to feel good about the way one's tax 

dollars are spent. EBS 

NASA, P.0.Box 8756, Baltimore 
-Washington Intl Airport, MD 21240. 

BUSINESS SOFTWARE REPORT 

Business Computing Press has pub- 
lished a new report entitled "Evaluating 
Small Business Software." Directed 
toward end users, consultants, and 
systems houses, this 34 page report 
discusses the general considerations and 
specific criteria that must be examined 
when selecting software packages for 
small business applications. 

Specific applications addressed by 
the report are general ledger, accounts 
receivable, accounts payable, payroll, 
and inventory. Evaluation criteria are 
established that define the required 
functions, reports, capacity, and sup- 
porting information for each application 
and how they should relate to the needs 
of a particular business. $15. 

BusinessComputing Press, P.O. Box 
55056, Valencia, CA, 91355. 

CIRCLE 213 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

COMPUTER LAW READING LIST 

A 16-page reading list, covering 40 
periodicals, books and government doc- 
uments in various areas of computer law 
is now available from the Computer/Law 
Journal. 

The list was designed to enable 
lawyers, computer scientists, business 
persons and students to locate materials 
on various topical areas of computer law. 
The list is organized topically under the 
headings General Publications; Com- 
munications; Contracts; Crimes and 
Security; Electronic Funds Transfer; 
Evidence; Patents, Copyrights and 
Trade Secrets; Privacy; and Use of 
Computers in the Legal Profession. 

Single copies of the reading list are 
available free of charge from Compu- 
ter/Law Journal. 530 West Sixth Street- 
10th Floor, Los Angeles, 90014. 

CIRCLE 215 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




By: 

Darin 
McCreary 



8080 SIMULATOR on cassette 
-KIM 1 version $19.95 
-APPLE II version $19.95 

turn your 6502 into an 8080 



TO ORDER: 

I (41 5) 8484233 Visa. MC. Am... 



8080 

(KIM too!) 



■con Express 
■y M«ll: Indicate quantity desires. Include 

payment. 
Shipping: Add $1 SO per book (UPS), or 75c 

(4th class - allow 4 weeks delivery). 

and use the wealth of 8080 software tax: m California, add tax 



2020 Mi I via Street, Dept.CCl 
Berkeley, California 94704 



CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Apple-Doc 

By Roger Wagner 

An Aid to the Development 
and Documentation of Applesoft Programs 

This 3 program set is a must to anyone writing or using programs 
in Applesoft! It not only provides valuable info, on each of your 
programs, but allows you to change any element throughout the 
listing almost as easily as you would change a single line!! 

With Apple-Doc you can produce a list of every variable in your 
program and the lines each is used on, each line called by a GOTO, 
GOSUB, etc., in fact, every occurence of almost anything! 

You can rename variables, change constants and referenced line 
If s, or do local or global replacement editing on your listing. 

In fact, we guarantee that after purchase, if you don't feel 
APPLE DOC is one of the most valuable programs in your library 
we will even refund your money! (Upon return of product.) 

Unheard of? Yes! But that's how good APPLE DOC really is! 

That's not all!! Send for free info, or visit your nearest Apple 
dealer. 

Only $19.95 Please specify diskette or tape. 

(Calif, residents add 6% Sales Tax) 

Available from your local computer store or: 

Southwestern Data Systems 
P.O. Box 582-C2 
Santee, CA 92071 
(714) S62-3670 

(Dealer inquiries invited) 
CIRCLE 133 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CHESS * BACKGAMMON * MORE! 

TRS-80 

NEW MACHINE LANGUAGE GAMES' 



row UK LEVEL II 



z-ocss 

Play the classic game of CHESS using the 
TRS-m graphics Seven levels of difficulty 
(uf to six levels of "look ahead") provioe 

A CHALLENGING GAME FOR ALL AlFHA-BeTA 

PRUNING AND MOVE SORTING ARE EMPLOYED TO 
KEEf RESPONSE TIMES TO A MINIMUM. SETUP 
MODE ALLOWS THE BOARD TO BE ARRANGED AS 

desireo. Plays all moves including CAST- 
LING and EN PASSANT captures. Numbered 

SQUARES SIMPLIFY MOVE INPUT. POSSIBLY THE 
FASTEST GOOD STRATEGY CHESS GAME AVAILABLE! 

S I9.M 




BACK-40 




A SUPERIOR OPPONENT WHICH MAKES EXTENSIVE 
USE OF THE TRS-M GRAPHICS TO DISPLAY A 
REGULATION STYLE BACKGAMMON BOARD 
OF UNRIVALEO QUALITY AND CLARITY INCLUDING 

the dice! BACK-40 DOUBLES if it stands a 

GOOD CHANCE OF (WINNING WHICH IT USUALLY 

does! Every feature of a regulation BACK- 
gammon match is included even keeps 
score! 

BIA.M 



DR. CHIPS 

A FASCINATING PROGRAM BASED ON THE FAMOUS 

"DOCTOR" and "ELIZA"programs. Simply 
"TALK"(er."TYPE") to your computer 
OR CHIPS WILL ANALYZE your sentences and 
"TALK" back to you - immediately! Although 
DR CHIPS' responses should not be taken 
seriously, he is the ultimate computer 
introduction for the family and friends 
ano a super "conversationalist" at parties! 

1 14 n 



IMMEDIATE 

SHIPMENT BY 

FIRST CLASS 

MAIL 

TEXAS RESIDENTS 

ADD S*. 

ORDER BY MAIL OR 

___ PHONE ^ 



Tho Sof ti 



Assoc i at i on 



P. O BOX MM,-i 



MOUSIIIN 



'EX AS > '(>•>• 



■ CIRCLE 131 ON READER SERVICE CARD- 



SIMUTEK PRESENTS 

• TRS-80 • 

GAMES 

!!! WHOLESALE!!! 



PACKAGE ONE 



GRAPHIC-TREK "2000" Thit full <iraphics, real time game it full of 1**1. exciting action' t .pJrjdinq 
photon torpedo** and phatert firs the icrstn' You mutt actually navigate the enterprise to dock with the 
giant space ttationt at wall at to avoid klingon torpedoes' Hat shields, galactic mrmory raadoul. dame** 
reports, long ranga sensors, ate' Hat 3 lavalt lor beginning, average, or expert playaft' • INVASION 
WORG Iimi 3099. Place: Earth'* Solar Syttam Mittion: At general ol Earth's torcat. your job it lo 
ttop th* Worq invasion and dattroy their outpottt on Mart. Vanut, Saturn, Napiuna. etc' Earth'. I 
Androldt Spaca Fighters - Later Cannon Nauir.no Blasters' Worg Forces: Robot* Sauceis - 
Disintegrators - Proton Oeitroyersl Muiti lavai aims latt you advance to a mora complicated gama at you 
gal better' * STAR WARS Manuavar your tpaca lighter d**p into lha nuclaut ol tha (Math Star 1 Drop 
your Oomo. than atcapa via tha only Exit. Tnit graphic! gama it raaiiy fun' May lha Forca be will) 
you' a SPACE target Shoot at anamy Shipt with your missile*, if thay aiact m a parachuta. 
captura tham - or If you're cruel, dattroy them' Full graphics, raal tlma gama' a SAUCERS Thit fett 
action graphic* gam* hat a tlma limit' Can you Da tha command*' to win lha dlttingu'thad cot*' 
Maquira* tptit tacond liming to win? Watch out 1 



PACKAGE TWO 



CHECKERS 2.1 Finally' A checkers program thai will challanga avaryona' Expert at wall at amaiaur* 

wt 3-ply traa taarcn to lind oast pottibia move. Pick* randomly between aguai movat to attura you ol 

v#r having identical gamat. a POKER FACE Tha compultr u*a* psychology a* wail at logic to try 

d Mat you at poker. Cardt ara displayed using trs-SO's lull graphict. Computar raitat, caiit, and 

somatimas even folds? Graat practice for your Saturday night poker match' (Plays S card 

draw), a PSYCHIC Tall lha computar a litlla about yoursalt and ha'll pradicl things about you, you 

won't believe' A raal mind bandar* Oraat jmuitmmi for parties a TANGLE MANIA try and forca 

your opponent into an immobll* position But watch out. they're domg the tarn* to you' Thit graphic! 

ktme IS 'or 2 people and hat been used to end tlupid argument!. (And occasionally starts 

hem!) * WORD SCRAMBLE This game is loi two or more people. One parson inputs a word to the 

:omputer while the others look away Tha computar scramble! the word, then keeps track of wrong 

guesses. 



PACKAGE THREE 



POETRY — This program latt you choose the tubrect as wen at the mood o* in* poem you want You 
gtve TRS 80 certain nouns or names, than the mood, and It does the rest' It hat a 1000-word • vocabulary 
lount, verbs, adiecttyes and adverbs' * ELECTRIC ARTIST — Manual: draw, grate, move as wen as. 
Auto: draw, erase end move. Uses graphics bit! noi Dytes. Saves drawing on tape or disk* * GALACTIC 
BATTLE Tha Swineu! enemy nave long ranga pnaters but cannot travel at warp speed! You can, but 
only nn^ Short range pheteri' Can you blitzkrieg the enemy without getting destroyed' Full graphic! — 
real time' e WORD MANIA Can you gue!l the computer's words using your human intuitive and 
logical abilities* You'll need to, to beat the computer' * AIR COMMAND - Battle the Kamikaze pilots. 
Requires spin second timing. This it a r AST action arcade gam*. 



-PACKAGE FOUR - 



LIFE This /-so machine language program uses full graphic!' Over 100 generations per minute make it 
jiy animated' You make your starting pattern, the computer does the rest' Program can be stopped and 
enges made' Watch it grow' a SPACE LANDER Tr>.* r u n graphics simulator let* you pick what 

planet, asteroid or moon you wish to land on' Mas 3 skin levels that make il tun for everyone. • GREED 
Multi-level gama is fun and challenging' Beat the computer at this dice game using your knowledge ol 
odds and luck' Computer keeps track of hit winnings and yours Quick fait action Thit game it not 
eaty' e THE PHARAOH Rule the ancient city of Alexandria' Buy or sell land. Keep your people from 
evoHing 1 Stop the rampaging ratt. Require! a true political personality to become good' • ROBOT 
HUNTER A group ol renegade robots have escaped and are spotted in an old ghost town on Mars' voui 
lob as "Robot Hunter" it lo destroy the pirate machines before tney kill any more semen' Excitingl 
Hanging' Full graphics' 



i PACKAGE FIVE 



SUPER HORSERACE - Make your bets just like al IM real racetrack' 6 norses rac* in this spectacular 
graphic display' Up to 9 people can play' Uses real odds but has that element ol chance you see in real 

1 Keeps track of everyone's winnings and losses. This is one of the few computer simulations that can 
actually get a room of people cheering' • MAZE MOUSE The mouse with a mind' The computer 

generates random mazes of whatever sua you specify, than search*! lor a way out' The second time, he'll 
always go fastest route? A true display of artificial intelligence' Full graphic!, mates 4 

uses' e AMOEBA KILLER — You command a on* man submarine that hat be*n shrunken to the size 
ot bacteria in thit exciting graphic adventure? injected into the president's bloodstream, your mission is to 
destroy the deadly amoeba infection ravaging his body' • LOGIC — This popular game is based on 
Mastermind but utilizes tactics that make it more exciting and challenging has 2 levels of play to make 
it fun tor everyone. • SUBMARINER - Shoot torpedoes al the enemy ships to get points fast action 
graphics, arcade type game is exciting and fun for everybody' 



PACKAGE SIX 



20 HOME FINANCIAL PROGRAMS figures amortization, annuities, depreciation rates, interest 

tables, earned interest on savings and much, much more. Thes* programs will get used again and again. A 
mutt lor the contoent.out, inflation minded person. 



PACKAGE SEVEN 



BACKGAMMON SO 2 different tkiii leveit make thit game a challenge lo average or advanced playert. 
(Not recommended for beginners). Looks tor best possible move to beat you' FANTASTIC GRAPHICS. 
Plays doubles and uses international rules, e SPEED READING Increases your reading speed. Also 
checks for comprehension of malarial. Great tor teenagers and adults to improve reading skills. • FT IPS 
Drop depth chaigei on moving subs. Lower depths get higher points in this fast action graphics 
Itm*. e YAHTZEE Play Yehlzee with the computer. This popular game is even more lun and 

challenging against a TRS-tOl • WALL STREET Can you turn your SSO.000 into a million dollars' 
That's tha object of this great gam*. Simulates an actual stock market? 



NOT AVAILABLE AT RETAIL STORES ANYWHERE 



INSTRUCTION BOOK WITH EACH PKG. 



ONLY 12.95 EACH!!!! 



ALL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED TO LOAD 
CASSETTE PACKAGES REQUIRE 16K LEVEL II 
PACKAGES ON DISKETTE (32K) $5.00 EXTRA 

jjF Send check. Money Order or Bank Card # 

TO: SIMUTEK, P.O. BOX 35298 

TUCSON, ARIZONA 85740 

(602) 882-3948 



PHONE ORDERS WELCOME! 



[PLEASE ADD $2.50 POSTAGE & HANDLING PER ORDEf 
3 OR MORE PACKAGES GET 10% DISCOUNT 

CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



WORD PROCESSING 



WORD PROCESSING SYSTEM 

Alpha Micro announces the release of 
a new word processing system consist- 
ing of two components: AlphaVUE, a 
high speed, two-dimensional editor, cap- 
able of editing large files by displaying 
one page at a time, and TXTFMT, used 
in conjunction with AlphaVUE to pro- 
duce formatted documents. 

Word processing features include: 
screen-oriented, two-dimensional editor, 
automatic page numbering, automatic 
table of contents and index production, 
automatic backup file protection, high 
processing speed, and left/right justifi- 
cation. 

The system hardware requirements 
are an Alpha Micro AM 100 based 
computer system and a CRT with direct 
cursor addressing and erase-to-end-of- 
line capability. 

The word processing system is 
available as a standard feature of all 
Alpha Micro computers systems at no 
additional cost. 

Alpha Micro, 17881 Sky Park North, 
Irvine. CA 92714. (714) 957-1404. 

CIRCLE 21* ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MEMORY 



VENDOR 
LITERATURE 





6800 SINGLE BOARD 
MEMORY SYSTEM 

Phoenix Digital Corporation intro- 
duces a single card 16K RAM + 32K 
EPROM and /or ROM Memory Board, 
the PCM 16-32 Memory Board System. 

The PCM 16-32 is compatible with 
M6800, 6802, 6801, 6809 and 650 X series 
microcomputers and replaces 2 or more 
cards in the Motorola Exorciser and 
Exorterm type products. 

Industrial and commercial tempera- 
ture versions are available for a variety 
of environmental applications. $450. 

Phoenix Digital Corporation, 3027 N. 
33rd Dr., Phoenix, AZ 85017, (602) 
278-3591. 

CIRCLE 217 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



COMPUTERS IN EDUCATION 

Creative Publications has released a 
full-color newsletter/catalog of compu- 
ters in education which includes a 
feature story, two classroom computer 
activities, and a series of products 
selected with an emphasis on education. 

The firm has also announced plans to 
publish educational computer materials, 
and to conduct computer workshops at 
its Creative Teaching Center in Moun- 
tain View, California. 

Creative Publications, P.O. Box 10328, 
Palo Alto, CA 94303. (415) 968-1101. 

CIRCLE 218 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

COMPUTER BOOK CATALOG 

A new catalog featuring computer 
and computer-related titles has been 
released by Howard W. Sams. 

Organized into five areas-Basics, 
Programming, Computer Technology, 
Reference and Computer-Related-the 
catalog lists books that are directed to 
wide range of people and interests, from 
the home hobbyist to the technically-or- 
iented professional. 

Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc., 4300 W. 
62nd Street, P.O. Bos 558, Indianapolis, 
IN 46206. 

CIRCLE 21» UN READER SERVICE CARD 



CP/M 2.0 




Expand the horizons of your TRS-80 
model II with the industry standard oper- 
ating system, CP/M version 2.0, and get 
these advantages over TRSDOS: 

• compatible with hundreds of existing 
software packages 

• wide choice of programming 
languages: BASIC, PASCAL, FORTRAN, 
COBOL, C, ASSEMBLER, and others 

• faster disk access 

• more storage per diskette 

• assembler, editor, file handler, and 
dynamic debugger Included with 
the operating system 



Introductory price: $175 including manuals 



H 
30 

00 

o 

O 
O 






For full details about how CP/M 2.0 can ^^^ 
improve the performance of your TRS-80 
model II, contact: 

PICKLES & TROUT 

PO BOX 1206. GOLETA. CA 93017. (805) 967-')S63 



CP/M is a trademark of Digital Research Inc. TRS-80 is a trademark ot Tandy Corp. 
CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Z80 Disk software 




an,, •* •»• l0—» *»H modta tor ■MIS*" ,*tocMNM 0* aMotuM COO* lor Pv» SOW Oa*-g I and N «uil W on a ZtO Put •-« 

wmtim cm —m o t*. CP -sr or pp-po. ^xm^^m***, iwnmomxt pkra ***,, bow. 2*0 **o sow com IM *» 

M* dto Option*!*. •■•Men |Mrcn a* out tOL-ZSO o.lanfona riMMM *X**tt 14 I APPLE 

oarr.TPM'1 con*Hon*J» . 1«MHn«C0M*0» MpMv*> * /oo mnm »-> «*•*, rnonrMr 

•or TrH-M' CW (Mod* On. ) OOP 1 1 «r,Hwn«r< v>g<» optrtMKM KxW fw „-, & ,**«* H3C» Put *M MOUr 

•OrS C» 'M top*) pactorod Mnap. •MM**) on* f**oS* P**-ftCP* tno«-na Mn ■—."g ,a*d and wMO IO I O port* na.rnptn prooa- 

tor >V CMI |ao« ml»H Ni.pli IWM H eapab.ht, PHP. opt.oai IMM and ^ ^^ ^^ ,„ .^^ f-d »„« 

tor »V Nor* ftia. CP M («OtrMo «oMNy> P.aorrrb to "* 00 pcrrrortul youM I*"-* 4 * ^^ p^ $)tfs A(#ft &tmlVm , „ ^., 






i |4«fA 



(lACIAtand I PIAilMW 

SMB il bora board to* t* 

O* PiA and lour 7415744* (Or t 



A fKr***t^ andfa*t£S0loo< HMorprWor 
rr.tr> (OlT PkfNUMMR THACC PrWNt 
US4NO a.Mrxe 1 1 lonqjuoao •«•*•"*"• Cuppndt upon Macro I. i.rm.na. 

movoMal tICMAMQE rtllL LHKC INPUT mm, p>«oroo> komg pfcra to loao lull on»,*f«tM ^^ 

orror -rraMCOpI »POAr»rrMi Mp nondt-ng *n amomap. pi rho opt-onai Lmaor »no a 

both ASCII •*«•» fcrrwjry format* and roux* |«io arM «Mo lurtciroo t>«» Soom arMPd and ™ r 

mwctimorp NrvnamaMMOoortJItantf,! r , - ,- . , ,.,n - iminujas MOW A Nf»V /SO **• oporaiwr. «,!»•«■■ Tn.* 

i An i.cawar.1 chorea to. »ompt •»—t"PP" i ^J^| w "" wmw * o >« V/M' KtMW-TM.tir.Moro. 

any provrorn •rwf" run. «"l" CPM* Ou* 
• rt on. O* tn. IMM oxx.nO "T" ™ ?.T?-T T*..T?? :JT «**• CP'M' »•*• OParat.nfl oyotpm •« 

onnart apootcaP> tor thp ZtO' and tofcoa 

•l^I - l.r .'.^ Ot #\ #«!'. po**"'^' ."Wtl#t- 

l>or>»Ot in otnor rroro. ■•■ not •ormod o*or 

SOSOCOOW A^rUPJO'or TRS-SO' TarttoO 

."-T? t— D» M tBSr»anMrropr>tnoa«roM.ea«h. ^q,, ««,„, oOoc SO Soto VJR&A 

'. . „ *^we^ •»< p**""— » COmparaSilo to « LOPVnr North «Mr IS04DO) andO-p** 

— — — — -— ■— — — - ----- I— * rm^rnj m o iVoPi tool lanauiao Svt rrn* aP lt t, , „, t_ M -n- tall 

ir^rra.dnrrrochlawpr^or.1 IM« PMapiod O- ^oWrnPrrW^a SO «OI In. ' ^^r^JJioLL 

r.C.Ol L n.orand.lrxirrf.t.ngpnHjrarM Tnp QaSama pattaga Uron-nCUMJ 
? draka |74 tS Rao. | fS go 

ACCT« NC ACCTS P*V 




coM^oioIoaVr^ar^'rr^H^'hori M H O*., »n»^. Prpn IKy^hlhoy .no, S^^rO Ptap^tC MP( IMM 
d^l^>»^rnPpnorwocapa»l»ly.rrl»yKrl •*"•' PWtPPto •owW) to WMor and * 

k*o* To ptom asaornbrr lancjn 

aaaioo drrntirl 10 wwrjarpiarid and toWO* aa ft .owiiod lor OMwrono pottwaro SSttS 

___ to* p» Somg a rwafraroarp >o dobwg WW* MonoPJ •rtcM — 

__~5I\._ — _ _ not an*! prpp.r looM lr»o OoOug I PP«h OPtCnl 

i* Cnarga PdCODOK To 




158 



Conta.n» M MPuo r.a m ar. and 10 Mat ^ ^ t ^" 

corornanda foti otnap womo) ZMI MS OS ^ - ^^ ^| ^^^i^ tiao and 'or nimm ■ rOf PPrOHP O'OP'S only CPtl MM trOP 

TOP condnwn* occur) AHo ,r«.^.*.^, — , 1-MO-S27-»1t1 Est «tt 

A {SO To.1 Oulptrf Procoaaor •rtwh an* bt *M*»4 Ptf .NCtKM ■wroOHtli Tr.i It.npl Hand.) 

do IQrt to.rwa4Wi B tor rn anwonv aoCMP nonaa moao* it pp»r to toorn no* MPMuCt^n. Ov | SPS |)] Till I I »T« (Paartdat 

an* Mai ad-tor OOOO prMrkuMon po«0 Ptpjr And a PlAOt ■ limcl^n adorn Chang fprjaaaMHal ar>dSO* f*a*MSfaPaW0 I ■grfMt 

nuropof.ng and "rad>"a» apaonp mq botoaon ASC" bmor* docwkai nt, ***■ ' ■p*"'*^ SrPC»P>iI I lr*Pa#» 

c onooTiTW). and much owro> $4d *J fJcl- , ,^n«d Pp c omjI «r ppM ocmi i 



CIRCLE 1S4 ON READER SERVICE CARD 






DISK SYSTEMS 




90-MEGABYTE DISK 
SUBSYSTEM 

Alpha Micro has announced the 
additon of the model AM 410, an S-100 
bus compatible 90-megabyte disk sub- 
system based on the CDC "Phoenix" 
drive tied to a dual-board controller and 
interconnecting cables. 

Up to four drives can be connected to 
one controller for a total storage 
capacity of 360 million bytes of data. 
Although the AM 410 was designed to 



work with Alpha Micro's AMOS operat- 
ing system, it may be used with other 
operating systems on either the 8 or the 
16-bit S-100 bus. 

Alpha Micro, 17881 Sky Park North, 
Irvine. CA 92714. 714-957-1404. 

CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



PERIPHERALS 



GRAPHICS DISPLAY 

Objective Design announces the 
G-Box, a peripheral device which can be 
used with any computer to add high 
density graphics. The video image 
output by the G-Box is a matrix of 
512x240 dot positions with the capability 
of expansion using larger memories. 

Connection to a host computer is via 
an RS-232 serial link and interfaces for 
joysticks, serial and parallel ports, a 
light pen interface, and other options are 
built into the G-Box. 

Versions of the G-Box can be adapted 
through use of different connectors to 
work with any type of computer includ- 
ing S-100, TRS-80, Heath, Commodore, 
North Star, minicomputers, and others. 

Objective Design, Inc., P.O. Box 
20325, Tallahassee, FL 32304. (904) 
224-5545. 

CIRCLE 221 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TERMINALS & I/O 




INTELLIGENT WIDE-CARRIAGE 
PRINTER 

Qume Corporation has introduced 
the Sprint 5 WideTrack printer. 

An industry-standard RS-232-C in- 
terface and internal programming allow 
the Sprint 5 WideTrack printer to offer 
all of the capabilities of the Qume Sprint 
5 RO (receive only) smart terminal. It 
combines a 264-column printing area and 
40-character-per-second speed. $3,995. 

Qume Corporation, 2350 Qume Dr., 
P.O. Box 50039. San Jose, CA 95150. 
(408)942-4000. 

CIRCLE 222 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

PACKER: Automatically edits all or part of your Basic 
program to ease editing, run faster.or save memory 
Has S sections: 1 UNPACK — unpacks multiple state 
Basic program lines into single statements main- 
taining program logic Also inserts spaces and re- 
numbers lines lor easier editing 2 SHORT — 
shortens your Basic program by editing out all REM 
statements, unnecessary words and spaces. 3. PACK 
— executes UNPACK and SHORT, then packs lines 
into multiple statement lines. Maintains program 
logic 4 RENUM — renumbers program lines in- 
cluding alt GOTO's. etc. You specify increment. 
5 MOVE — moves any line or block of lines to any 
new location in the program and renumbers lines. 
Written in machine language, supplied on tape in 3 
versions for 16K. 32K. and 48K systems. Works under 
Level II and Disk Basic $2995 

DISASSEMBLER: Read, write, and copy system tapes 
Display and modify memory contents Disassemble 
ROM. DOS. and system tapes into Z80 Mnemonics 
Search tor strings in memory. Much more'! Includes 
32 pages of documentation and other information. 
For 16K Level II $1995 

SYSTEM TAPE DUPLICATOR: Copy your system format 
tapes. Includes verify routine. 
For any Level II $12 95 

MICROSOFT FORTRAN: includes Fortran compiler, 
loader, editor, and library of scientific functions. 
For 32K Level II and 1 Disk $90 00 

MICROSOFT ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT 

SYSTEM: includes EDIT-SO Text Editor. MACRO-80 As- 
sembler. CREF-80 Cross Reference facility, and 
LINK-80 Linking Loader 
For 32K Level II and 1 Disk $90 00 

MICRO-BACKGAMMON by Carl Fowler 

For all Level I or Level II $19 95 

MANY MORE items available. Write or call for free 

catalogue. 

INSTRUCTION MANUALS for any program, except 
Microsoft's and Micro-Backgammon, are available 
for 20% of list price of program Refundable when 
program Is purchased 

DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 

Kansas residents add 3% state sales tax 

Call our 24 hour number 316-683-481 1 or write 

COTTAGE SOFTWARE 

614 N. Harding 

Wichita. KS 67208 

CIRCLE 203 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

JANUARY 1980 



BABE RUTH LIVES AGAIN . . . 

on your TRS-80 (16K) 

An interactive Baseball simulator with 
you as manager of six famous teams. Many 
unusual features including each player's 
peformance based on his statistics for the 
year. No data entry required. Probability 
interface between batter & pitcher. 
7 entertaining programs: 1 - Top Teams of 
last 20 years with '71 Pirates, '61 Yankees, 
'63 Giants, '66 Orioles, '76 Reds; 2 - Nat'l 
60's; 3 - American 60's; 4 - Nat'l 70's; 5 - 
American 70s; 6- ALLTIME GREATEST; 
7 - Your choice of 6 teams. Program 1 ■ 
S9.95; 2 thru 6 - $14.95; 7 - $29.95. Check 
or Money Order to: Robert Mernick, 1060 
Randolph St., San Francisco, CA 94132. 



PROCESSOR TECHNOLOGY Sol, 
Cuts, or Helios owners: PROTEUS is 
your user's association, established 
1977. Software, bimonthly journal, 
discounts, hardware updates, etc. 
Dues for 1980: $18 in U.S., Canada, or 
Mexico; otherwise U.S. $26. Send $1 
for sample issue. Proteus, 1690 
Woodside Road, Suite 219, Redwood 
City, CA 94061. 



CIRCLE 1SS ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CIRCLE 200 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



The "DATA DUBBER" f 



DUPLICATES ANY 
PROGRAM TAPE 



TRS-80 



Yes, even those in machine language! Feed your cassette into the Data Dubber and 
get out exact repbcas of the TRS-80 CSAVE data pulses. Obtain perfect CLOAD s even 
from tapes with hum, distortion, or minor dropouts. . and without constantly adjusting 
the volume. Connect a second cassette to the Data Dubber' and make perfect 
reproductions, just as if the data had come from the TRS-80 

The Dubber works with Level lor II and costs only $48.96 postage paid Start your 
own software business. Pays for itself in time saved and reduced tape cost Order the 
Data Dubber today! If you are not completely satisfied with its performance simpry 
return it for full refund 

P.O. Box 524-CC 




THE PERIPHERAL PEOPLE 



PO Box 524, Mercer Island. WA 98040 



159 



CIRCLE 183 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



MISCELLANEOUS 




LIE DETECTOR 
MONITORS THE VOICE 

The Truth Machine is a new micro- 
computer that pinpoints deception by 
analyzing inaudible microtremors in the 
human voice. 

A digital display indicates stress in 
the speaker's voice. $149. 

Telestar, Inc., 200 South Front St.. 
Wormleysburg.PA 17043. (717)763-7882. 

CIRCLE 223 ON READER SERVICE CARD 





FORMS CADDIES 

To facilitate the handling of forms on 
the printer, Computer Resources has 
introduced two new rolling forms cad- 
dies which are said to reduce printer 
downtime, simplify and speed forms 
changeover. 

Model 1114 has inside dimensions of 
12 V«" x 15%. $46.50. Model 914 is 9" x 
15 >/«. $42.25. 

Computer Resources Company of 
New York, Suite 1500 ■ 2 Penn Plaza, 
New York, NY 10001, (800) 523-9350. 

CIRCLE 224 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




CARD CAGES 

Cromemco introduces three new, 
S-100 bus, card cages. The cages are 
available in 8-slot (10-7/8" wide x T long 
x 6-5/8" high), 12-slot (10-7/8" wide x 
10-1/4" long x 6-5/8" high) or 21-slot 
(10-7/8" wide x 16-3/4" long x 6-5/8" 
high) versions. 

The back planes include a full set of 
edge connectors wave-soldered in place 
on Cromemco's Blitz Bus. 

The 8-slot card cage (Model CC-8) is 
available for $195; the 12-slot card cage 
(Model CC-12), for $245; and the 21-slot 
card cage (Model CC-21 ), for $395. 

Cromemco, Inc., 280 Bernardo Ave- 
nue. Mountain View, CA 94043. (415) 
964-7400. 

CIRCLE 225 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



— Professional — 

Real Estate Programs 

available on cassette or diskette 

for Apple & TRS-80 II 

Proper!) Management System 

• Kinicr InliMm.iiion Rcpon 

• Ki-ni.il Income li.Kkmj: 

• I .iic Rem Reporting 

• I \pen*e Anjlwi\ b\ Ruilding 

• ( t>mp.inmc I lilitlti Reporting 

• Year I) louh foi I.i\ Reporting 

• I a>> O.it.i f ntrv and I Jit me 

System w/ Manual $225.00 
Manual $10.00 

Program Modules: 

h Home I'urvha** Anjlwi% 

2» Income Property Castillo* I rtcrafc 

*» ( 'onsiruflion I ml IVohI 

4i l.t\ IVk'rrctl I whan-ec 

<l M'K I nan \n*l\-.» 

Price Per Module $20.00 

Add SS.00 for Programs on Diskette 



fl 



loftw- 



ottware 



\i Computet Store*. 

c\cr%«hcrti »»r call 

iliji r; >*ji9 

lot ( o n 



■altyllom 



ompany 



'114 s Manhattan \tr . ili-rmovi Beach. ( \ 902M 



CIRCLE ISO ON READER SERVICE CARD 




TRS-80 

SAVE 10%, 15% 

and more on computers, peripherals, soft- 
ware, and other Radio Shack® products. 

Offered Exclusively By 

PAN AMERICAN ELECTRONICS, INC. 
A 

Radio /haek 

Authorized Sales Center 
1117 CONWAY MISSION, TX 78572 

EAST 212/283 0534 

WEST 213/564 5463 
NORTH CENTRAL 312/666 6098 
SOUTH CENTRAL 512/581-2765 

^(013111 telephone number! . . 
H 



NO TAXES on out-of-state shipments. 
FREE delivery available on minimum orders. 
WARRANTIES honored by Radio Shack® . 

CIRCLE 11* ON READER SERVICE CARD 

160 



I STOCK MARKET • TRADER 
ENTREPRENEUR 

OPTION ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

TIM «MM> « «,««, to Ha mart* «UM> Wartlaa 



options . Jwdopmsn t by thp Analyst 



bwt buys from nor mot* 
tsraqprrdd For * 35.00 



TRS OO LEVEL Q and PC T 

STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

Ttctoical anntysn. 12 doily and IS «Mfti v •n*oaMn, for ths 
tiocfc tnortwt waHmim I Ttws sytlpm vgroM-d its* Oct TR 
doboclo Far » 23 OO you racstv* two sragrom* pfcr* doto bOM 
and 27poB«aM«»><l .fiSTTiJctwiPTionMOl 
TRS SO LEVEL Z or I K K and PET 

FIN ANCI AL ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

Incfciost two prapramt Oho hprd copy •nsfrMCt»ons for bsffor con* 
trol of your ttochandapfMn transaction for* 2O00 you neon* 
*rtwonwi***r*o*drY**mui*m T*eoftNs«fOut«Mart 



comi—ratton phpn to la 
TftSfOLCVCLI *K or PETRK 

ACCOUNTING ANALYSIS SYSTEM 

MctwdM two programs ond hord copyinstruclionoforosmoll 
cosh •AHrBfntM Framyotar doio tnno Prof rt and Lot* SMtO- 
mpnt oswsiiosoBaMnc* Snoot oraproPwcsd in add i ion si mp* 
bwdpst campprtspnsprpwiPPS Pts«Mr«Nt*2000«Mmans*» 
TRS BO LEVEL I «K or PCT RK 



Th» program for TRS 80 ownorsmP. pr inters GowroWs tsfrt 
to diffsrsri individuals witti rhosoms body Cos isws fits Worps 
noma* and sddrassss Romit * (5 00 

I DrttributPd by STEVEN E SMAW, PC 
PO Bos 1707 
Tompp , Florida 55*01 



CIRCLE 108 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



NEWSLETTER 



REPORT ON "TELETEXT" 

The Institute for the Future is a 
non-profit corporation dedicated to sys- 
tematic and comprehensive studies of 
the long-range future. A recent special 
issue of its Newsletter is devoted to 
reporting on a workshop held in June 
1979 to identify issues associated with 
the introduction of teletext and video- 
text in the U.S. 

"Teletext," explain the editors, "is a 
generic term for the broadcast of text 
and graphics as part of a television 
signal. Video text. ..(is) the term for the 
generic class of services that provides 
transmission on an interactive basis, 
typically through a telephone connection 
between a television and a computer." 

Copies of the publication are avail- 
able from the Institute without charge. 

Institute for the Future, 2740 Sand 
Hill Rd., Menlo Park, CA 94025. (415) 
854-6322. 

CIRCLE 226 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 



FANTASY ADVENTURE 

The Datestones of Ryn is a solo 
fantasy adventure from Automated 
Simulations. Another in the Dunjon- 
quest series, the Datestones of Ryn is 
Microquest number 1 - a dark and deadly 
labyrinth of caves and tunnels where 
Rex has hidden the date stones stolen 
from the ducal calendar of Ryn. 

The player competes against friends, 
family or himself in a race against time 
to see who can rescue the stones before 
Time itself stops. 

The Datestones of Ryn is available 
for the PET with 16K RAM and cassette 
drive and for the TRS-80, Level LI, 16K, 
with cassette or disk. $14.95. 

Automated Simulations, P.O. Box 
4232, Mountain View, CA, 94040. 

CIRCLE 237 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

TAX PREPARATION PROGRAM 

Microtax is a set of programs from 
Computer Strategies. The basic input 
program prompts the tax consultant 
with the exact wording of each line from 
the federal forms. It branches from the 
1040 form to take the dividends and 
exclusions, and again for itemized de- 
ductions. 

It asks the minimum of questions to 
generate income averaging and offers 
the consultant the choice of averaging or 
continuing with the regular tax compu- 
tation. State forms and other federal 
forms require answering only a few 
more questions. 

At any time, any figure can be 
changed to see the effect of such change 
on the total tax picture, or to correct 
typing mistakes. Unnecessary questions 
can be skipped. 



JANUARY 1980 



North Star Doc 



DOCUMENTATION • PnnU formatted L _ 

StSStrtsd sparing, titling, dating, and aato 
maOr paffinc) 

• PnnU cross ntmnct table of all procram 

• Pnnu croaa rafrrenc* labia of all -GOTO' 
typ* atauaenta 

• C os>c«»na m short linaa into ma I U pi* 
atalamamt Itnaa of aarr aaWrtod knajlh 
iMaa-JBA chars 'linai 

a Faster rxacatran of GOTO' type slat* 
nwnU lap to 79* redaction in the namber 
of lines of coding allows baa*c to locate the 
diatinattstt of a GOTO' type statement 



OPTIMIZATION 

SPEED 



m 

• Faat efficient sabroabne to implement 
GOTO N' type statement 

• Typically redares program sue by 35% 

a Removes all blanks not enctoeed in qaotet 



• ■rept theor that are the Unret of a 
GOTOt: 



CONFIDENTIALITY • Optionally tnhib U the correct fancbon 
mf of the North Star Basic list' and 'edit' 
' i if theaaer specified linelenfth 
133 chare I in* 



DOC nana on releaae 4 or ft of North Star Baste, staff I* or aWsibla 
deneity drives Minimara of 33K memory reo aired 0M.00 price 
include* diskette and instructional manual Order yoair copy 



Maul Essoinee s Systems 
P.O. Bos ISMT 
Salt Lake City. Utah Ml lft 
PH: (Mil 447-1371 



CIRCLE 129 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



mumD mnNT 

16K UPGRADE KIT FOR TRS-80. AP- 
PLE. PET. SORCERER $70 Mostek 4215-3 
200ns 16Kx 1 RAMs 

MICROPOLIS 8" HARD DISK DRIVE with 
Power, S- 100 controller 

9 Megabyte $3995 

27 Megabyte $4495 

45 Megabyte $4995 

APPLE II PLUS 16K $995 

DISCOUNTS on EXIDY SORCERER. 
PET. most other systems, peripherals, 
software 

MICROCOMPUTERS, 

PERIPHERALS 

AMD SOFTWARE 

1015 NAVARRO 

SAN ANTONIO. TEXAS 78205 

512/222 1427 



CIRCLE 173 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



TRS-80 Model I and II quality software 

mu us await mew s» 

Yw cat w it to m*Mw lUitiil posict iejom **■( ay 
aoa<»a»ag (Mac Me pastas Itttat tetuts oa -lite rotates key 
iiasoai atcm let raeiti key son lieM wit ******* teat Kg 
MOO « msm eitt m>e taw 50 I m m utt SIS 

WOWS KQIVMIE «CI II S69 

Ok or mat aim (Her tatty ukalitB sales tai slajeaai HMat hi 
mitiaet items Cn*t tttciiag wag salts auiysis ia««ces sutemeats 
jarjiroam «i aaaaiH u most ofc< »'» oanuaHastdtyttctsn sure 
imiuobs etc MOO H ttrsaja SIM 

NOMJFMHSSOII H* S39 M M9 MOO II S49 

fust ami protBsm seatiltath, tesajatfj tw IV IRS 00 ttiat asn l«l 
sloijgttoilot Wiittea la MSC fc sate.* aateae »«) ten land Use to 
Kfters auaurs I leaom 3» msoa tenures apaa/loaet UK aaMtat 
tateae cluage Ml aarltia* ratal teit Iries 
MAIM IIS! ahiacd MM V SM 

FastssftbyiaylcM Melts* I** tad reams **gil setxtioa cost aee 
no osteal screes aaajt haeteyturl ptmrW retort miter MOOHSS 

IWIIMY ItV V $99 

»«ajit apruremeiK key to Iki key taasM axess hsajits <KMe order 
■at) aaloraiau samaury etc Ucautt 1 Poamtal report aatlet MOO 

W artanars m oe-liae laWKInt rjarjora axess virtnaNy tag tree 
oe c aaa e at t Oalidrwil-oa teas SOU remits MOOS We ckleaaeal 



soltawe aeadtus M 

tHosekigk-pHtefaac^ 
rmaaal aalSlO to MOM 



km cost auauh so yta eta caastre at Mad 

tluse t>o>-«<cta1 aaajocaaimteel ee-areaay aroa/aats Seael SS toe t MOO I 

iutv ' 



MOO II artaraas w enensnehi rateiM asaaateef to laa «itl I yea 
aearsletta 1 annates 10\ Ml to assise, awe tiua I MOO- II aragian 

MICRO ARCHITECT 

96 Dothan St . Arlington. MA 02174 



CaiiiPuCauEi.' 




COVER YOUR INVESTMENT 



* Corn Sacked Nauoair<r*» Vmyi 

• WWarprM* 4 Dutlrxool 
■ LonffV III* 



• tiwm OaecaM. CoMrt 
taddM Tan • Elactfa Blu* ■ Slack 

wajnjifnMi ttat 
aiai aajMj »«■ an 

1* tMMTawM »« 

NT <•■ 



tin 



Sand chack or mon*y-ordar to: 

I ndutfo SI .00 lor poalago and handllno , 

OEALEK INOUIKIES INVITED 



P O Box 324 (Dopl. B) 
Mory Eitrior. FL 32560 
Phono (904) 243-5703 



CIRCLE 1S2 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



Save Mors Than 20% 

MOUTH STAR -INTERTUBE 
THINKER TOYS—MICROTEK 

THE SMARTEST COMPUTERS AT 
SMARTEST PRICE 
QUAD 1 DOUBLE DENSITY 

list 
Horieoo-1-32K-DKit 1999 

Horieon-2-3:K-DKit 2399 

Aasombled & Tostod 2766 

Horieon-2-32K Kit Quod 2799 

Assembled a Testad 3219 

PascAl lor North Stay on cask 
Powerful North Star Basic 
TEI PT 21 2 Computer i MHZ 
Thinker Toys Discus/20 AST 
Discus/2»2 1 2 Megabytes AST 
Measurement System Memory AS T 4MHZ 64K 
Godbout Memory 
Intertube II Smart Terminal 
Microtek Printer 
Anadex Printer 
Florida Data Printer 600 CPS 
Maryellen Word Processor 
Teitwriter III 

EZ-80 Tutorial Learn Machine Language 
PCS lor North Star Better than CP/M 
Compiler lor Horizon Secret Superfast Code 
10%OII Software Prices with Computers 
Verbatim the Best Diskettes Boa of 10 29 

Which Computers Are Best? Brochure Free 

North Star Documentation Refundable 

w/HRZ 20 

AMERICAN SOUARE COMPUTERS 

KIVETT OR' JAMESTOWN NC 272(2 

[919I-SS3-1105 

I— CIRCLE 1SI ON READER SERVICE CARD— 1 



Your Best Buy 



Only 
1585 
1905 
2196 
2225 



1149 9*9 

1649 1299 

640 
Call lor Price 
995 746 

7S0 675 

995 675 

4300 Call lor Price 
38 
125 
25 
99 
100 



CIRCLE 172 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

161 



K«3ralO aflld^K oeaiea 

MICRO 

MANAGEMENT 

SYSTEMS 

Up To 1 5% Discount 
on 

TRS-80's 

MICRO-COMPUTER SPECIALIST 

LARRY OWENS 

COMPUTER CENTER 



MINI MALL 

DOWNTOWN SHOPPING CENTER 

CAIRO. GEORGIA 31 728 

912-377-71 20 

CIRCLE 107 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



YOU THINK YOU'VE SEEN WORD 
PROCESSING SOFTWARE? 



MAGIC 



TM 



Word Processing 



The 

System offers you the best features of any system 

in the micro market 



FEATURES INCLUDE: 

Full-screen text editor 

Simple, control key operation 
Edit programs as well as text 

Assemble, compile or run programs 

without modification 
Files larger than memory 

Files up to 256K 
Library files 

Merge part or all done file with 

another 
Spool printing 

Print a file while editing another 
Easy page formatting 

Simple commands set margins, page 

length, etc 
Override commands at run-time 

Give any command from the key- 
board as well as in file 
Variable pitch control 

Change pitch in mid-line, even 

mid-word 
Up to 128 user-defined variables 

String, numeric or dollar format 
Form letter generation from external 
data files 

Compatible with both sequential and 

fixed -record files 
Conditional commands 

Any command may be conditional 
Print to disk and /or printer 

Save all or part of output on disk 
Switch from specialty printer to CP/M 
list device 

Print the same file on either specialty 

or standard printer 



EASE OF OPERATION 

With all its power, the MAGIC WAND is 
remarkably easy to use. This is no acci- 
dent. The command structure is designed 
to be flexible and logical so that you can 
perform basic functions with a minimum of 
commands. 

We have included in the manual a step- 
by-step instructional program, for the per- 
son who has ne"ver used a word-proces- 
sor before The trainee uses sample files 
from the system disk and compares his 
work to simulated screens and printouts 

In addition to the lessons, the manual 
has a complete documentation of the 
command structure, special notes for pro- 
grammers, an introduction to CP/M for 
non-programmers and a glossary The 
manual is typeset, rather than typewritten, 
for greater legibility 

We have written the manual in non- 
technical English, because we want you 
to read 1. We don't overload you with a 
bunch of jargon that could confuse even a 
PhD in Computer Sciences. 

We send out newsletters so that users 
of the MAGIC WAND can learn special 
applications of the print commands. For 
example, we might show you how to cre- 
ate a mailing list or set up an index for 
a file 

In short, we've done everything we can 
to make things easy for you Because the 
best software in the world is just a bunch 
of code if you can't use it 



For more information , call or write: 

scooXV business aftftca&oas. Vac. 

3220 Louisiana • Suite 205 • Houston, Texas 77006 • 713-528-5158 






■ t v*t**\ «™-.»"- !■> C"tJ 




CIRCLE 201 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



SOFTWARE 



The client file is saved for "batch" 
print-out at a later time or can be printed 
immediately. 

Computer Strategies, Inc., 300 N. 
Main Street (Hillcrest Professional Bldg.), 
Spring Valley, NY 10977. (914) 356-7770. 

CIRCLE 22S ON READER SERVICE CARD 

EDUCATIONAL 

Reading Comprehension: What's Differ- 
ent? for the PET is a set of ten programs 
which present logical problems where 
the student picks the one word in four 
which does not belong. In Minicrossword 
for Apple or TRS-80 the computer makes 
a crossword puzzle from its word list. 
Word Skills 1— Prefixes for the PET 
presents common prefixes and the words 
in which they appear. Program Design, 
Inc., 11 Idar Ct.. Greenwich, CT 06830. 
(203) 661-8799. 

CIRCLE 229 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

AMCT-80 (Automated Morse Code 
Teacher) is a program for the TRS-80 
which is designed to teach and build 
proficiency in receiving Morse code. 
$14.95. Cost Effective Computer Ser- 
vices, 728 S. 10th St., Suite #2, Grand 
Junction, CO 81501. 

CIRCLE 230 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

The Visual Instructional Computer 
uses the TRS-80 display to teach basic 
computer architecture plus assembly 
and machine languages to the casual or 
beginning student. The Carta Lesson 
Library is a three-part package of study 
and test material with the capability of 
asking questions in a variety of formats 
and m timed test sequences. Carta 
Associates, Inc., Education Products 
Division, 640 Lancaster Ave., Frazer, 
PA 19355. 

CIRCLE 231 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Among the educational programs 
available for the TRS-80 in Level I are: 

V J 



-4- SIMULATOR 



By: 
Dann 

McCreary 



8080 SIMULATOR on cassette 
•KIM 1 version $19.95 
•APPLE II version 5 19.95 

turn your 6502 into an 8080 

and use the wealth of 8080 software tax: in California, odd to. 



TO ORDER: 

■y Phono: (4 IS) 848.8233 V.io. MC. Amer 

icon EMpress 
■y Mall: Indicate quantity dotirat. Include 

poymont. 
Inlo.lna: Add $1 50 pat booh (UPS), ot 11K 

(4th clatt - allow 4 weeks delivery ) 



8080 

(KIM too!) 

2020 Milvta Street, Dept.CCl 
Berkeley, California 94704 



CIRCLE 190 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



162 



CREATIVE COM PUTING 



I 



SOFTWARE 



Level I Bask Course, a program that 
teaches the user how to program; Math 
1, designed to aid the user in learning 
basic math operations; and Algebra 1, 
designed to teach the basics of algebra. 
A Level II Basic Course in two parts is 
also offered. Radio Shack, 205 NW 7th 
St., Fort Worth, TX 76106. 

CIRCLE 233 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Typing Instructor is a cassette for 
APF Electronics' Imagination Machine 
which becomes a private tutor adjusting 
to the level of the user. The Personal 
Performance Response within the pro- 
gram responds to the individual's level of 
typing skill. APF Electronics, Inc., 444 
Madison Ave., New York, NY 10022. 
(212) 758-7550. 

CIRCLE 234 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

A Microcomputing Assembly Lan- 
guage self-instruction program designed 
to free the computer user from depen- 
dence on "canned" software has been 
released by Heath Company. While 
written to support Heath's H8 or H89 
computers, the program is applicable to 
any computer using 8080, 8085, or Z80 
microprocessors. $49.95. Heath Com- 
pany, Dept. 350-900, Benton Harbor. MI 
49022. 

CIRCLE 235 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



HOME MANAGEMENT/ 
BUDGETING/ETC. 

Electric Phone II for the Level II 
TRS-80 is an automatic phone dialer 
program that will dial a phone number 
when the user types the name of the 
party to be called. $14.95. Cost Effective 
Computer Services, 728 S. 10th St., 
Suite # Grand Junction. CO 81501. 

CIRCLE 236 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Household Finance is a disk-based 
program in Applesoft II which allows the 
user to select up to 16 categories for 
budget entries and give each a + or - 
value. $24.95. Arthur G. Michel. 2131 N. 
Hudson Ave.. Chicago, IL 60614. 

CIRCLE 237 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

Real Estate in volumes 1, 2 and 3, 
provides the user with computerized 
analysis of mortgage data, interest, 
resale analysis, income and expense 
projection. Radio Shack. 205 NW 7th St., 
Fort Worth, TX 76106. 

CIRCLE 23* ON READER SERVICE CARD 

R & S Investments offers four 
investment programs for the PET. 
Discount determines the discount or 
yield on the purchase or sale of contract 
for deeds or mortgages with or without 
prepayments. $8.95. Amortization Sche- 
dule provides a monthly table of inter- 
est, principal and balance on a mortgage 
or contract. $7.95. Time Value of Money 
generates the present worth, future 



JANUARY 1980 



worth and annuity calculations to de- 
termine the relative value of invest- 
ments, loans, mortgages, etc. $7.95. 
Internal Bate of Return provides an 
analysis of potential purchases or sales 
of real property segmented into cash 
flow, tax effect, and sale impact. $18.95. 
R & S Investments, c/o D.R. Romain, 
P.E., 405 Reflection Rd., Apple Valley, 
MN 55124. 



UTILITIES 

The Stat Pac program for the Apple 
H, which has a built-in data base system, 
handles most general statistics, statisti- 
cal tests, random number generation, 
and curve fitting. $70. Creative Discount 
Software, 256 S. Robertson, Suite 2156, 
Beverly Hills, CA 90211. (800) 824-7888; 
in California (800) 852-7777; in Alaska 
and Hawaii (800) 824-7919. 

CIRCLE 242 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




MICRO COMPOSER 

Designed by Hal Chamberlin 

'and MicroTechnology Unlimited 

tor the folks at M.M.I, and You! 

Great Fun! The Micro Composer comes com- 
plete with an instruction manual, software disk 
or cassette — in either Integer or Applesoft 
ROM BASIC, and the MICRO MUSIC DAC 
music card. Just plug the MICRO MUSIC DAC 
into the APPLE extension slot and connect the 
audio cable to a speaker, no mpufier deeded 

• PUT UP TO 4 SIMULTANEOUS VOICES' 

• ENTER MUSIC NOTES IT * FAST SIMPLE 
WELL-TESTED CODING SYSTEM 

• PROGRAM THE PITCH. RHYTHM AND TIMBRE OF THE 
MUSIC TEMPO IS VARIED IY THE APPLE PADDLE. 

•COMPOSE. EDIT. DISPLAY AND PUT MUSIC THROUGH 
AN INTERACTIVE. COMMANO-ORIYEN LANGUAGE 

• SATE YOUR NUSIC ON DISK OR CASSETE. 

EACH VOICE SOUND CAN RE CHANGEO TO REER. 
IRASS. STRING OR 0R6AN! 

COMPUTER CORNER .,V,MeV, e e. 
pViTWi u 0F «" JIMIT (2011835-7080 

07444 'APPIE II is a registered trademark o< Apple CoinpulW. hx 



$220. 




CIRCLE 103 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



rnrr I up to SI 7Q in merchandise 
rHtt ! with purchase ol PET-CBM item' 



PET I6K Imp Keytar* s 995 SI30 
PET 32K UrM Keftunj S129S SI70 
PET IK Unt Xtrknri IDtol $ 795 SUM 

PET 2040 Owl Disk |343K| $1295 SI70 
PET 2023 Prieter (pes ft«l % 849 SI 10 / i 
PET 2022 Printer tine Ml $ 99S JI30'_ 

KIM-1 USD IWIlllrtacM SYM-IJ701D0 

AXIOM EI-R0I Prteter-PET S 47700 
2II4L4S0U 535 24/4 95 100/445 

27I6EPR0M ISVK1I 3900 

6550 RAM H.r SK Pell 12 70 

PET 4 ««ce Miuc true* |Kl-4M| 29 50 

U leeks ee4 Sertoli 15% OFF 

LeeeeilMee 100 12 Metitv 111.00 

««tersetJece»iei 141 Jehetric ImI 101500 

HeM NH-II TeraM Heel iwl 77000 

HatlNH-14 PrieterllKI isnl 73500 

PretiMatrs Teetkit ■ PET ROM Utilities 44 90 

Micnckets 2 ler PET ei APPLE 17 90 

PET Wert Precesuf - Meckiee Uhiik 24 00 



3M Scotch 8 Disks 
3M Scotch 5 Disks 
VertitiiK 5 Disks 
Disk Stonii Piges 



.*%£*>! t**S la" tatMts jitiMnippfli Premtum q. , 
ex>i*e» m 5 SCN-Mr loui-ny uvrth i*bol*. AGFA K 611 

C 10 1 0/5 95 50 25 00 'OO 48 00 

esc 'oroo so. 30 oo iQtwoo 

Add S t per order tot UPS shipping 
Ask (or 6502. TRS-60 and S-1QO Proouct L«*l 



A B Computers m^,™^*" 

I2ISI 699 8386 



CIRCLE 101 ON READER SERVICE CARD 

163 



for Radio Shack 
computers 

• SUPER DISC 

— 70 PROGRAMS $13.95 

• BUSINESS 

• FINANCE 

• MATH/STATISTICS 

• GAMES 

r 14 PAGE CATALOG 
Write to Elliot Kleiman 
National Software Marketing 
4701 McKinley Street 
Hollywood, Florida 33021 

CIRCLE 1M ON READER SERVICE CARD 




DOES YOUR COMPUTER 

SOMETIMES COUGH, SNEEZE OR 

HAVE A SEIZURE? 

It may be suffering from Transiet Qlltchitis, 

acureable digestive disorder. The Blitz Bug 

can bring fast relief from these symptoms in 

less than 50 nano seconds. Available 

without prescription. Use only as directed. 

* No Computer Should Be 

Without One* 

Blitz Bug protects your entire circuit, 

and plugs into any outlet. 

$1».»S, Two lor $35.00 

N.J. Residents add 5*. sales tax 

Add $1 .50 shipping ".handling delivery from stock 

Omni Communications Co., Inc. 
Jackson, New Jersey 08527 



CIRCLE 10S ON READER SERVICE CARD 



HEWLETT- PACKARD'S HP-41C. 
A CALCULATOR. ASY5TEM. 
A WHOLE NEW STANDARD. 



TThrnr*. HP4HT fr.*n 
H*»kii PacfceveJ e*. a 

puwrrtui (urmramrn a We 

i DM DMRMD >>v*i 1 i-*'xit-» 




nAffoejram 

npenlaWce, U« rtyrsam 
■j ■ ■.. | ■■■ pRDDJH ■■' 
letter* jpl.i*>knK.p"»ub 



i(i|l k**l ««d gW-heJ 



I tpriKiKf 19m rrettcrfcatjer inin ,i 
**<w.i>Cpn»f»m»*->eld*i» an Hire enrew TV nr» HP *l( fmm Hcwlrti 
Vtwt Caret Rcadrr a Prtew** that Packard A takuUtue- A ivtDren A 

prww* iMpprt and to**t ta*« alpha wttokr new MaweaWd 
phn •perctal . Kat 



"\ 



MDMM DJ9MI 
bet code- It** 




»*-. l««Ol Appier, 




Wti.ta Plaint Mall. 700 Hamtten Ave 
Wnrta Plaint NT I00O1 
(tMN*HT0«TA 



CIRCLE 104 ON READER SERVICE CARD 




the 
master's vol 



Hugh B. Brous, Jr. 



"The technique is quite simple, 
General," Parker said trying to display 
a patience he didn't feel. Some times 
high moguls have to be treated almost 
like children, he thought. And this 
bemedalled hero had been inexcus- 
ably late and had missed the formal 
briefing with all his beautiful charts 
and slides. In the background he could 
hear the jet fighter with the test equip- 
ment screaming down the runway for 
takeoff. 

"The idea came to me one day 
some time ago as I stood on this apron 
and listened to that speaker over 
there," he said and nodded in the 
direction of a pole mounted speaker 



corrective thrust adjustments." 

The general nodded as if he under- 
stood, then wandered over to join the 
rest of the VIP observers, shaking his 
head as if he didn't. 

Parker joined his staff heads who 
were waiting for him by the micro- 
phone in front of the assembled guests 
and observers. 

- "Ladies and gentlemen," he began 

officiously, "you are about to witness a 
degree of control in firing accuracy 
dreamed of by man since the invention 
of the spear. With the techniques 
developed by Project Talk our pilots 
will be able to talk a missile through the 
bung hole of the proverbial pickle 



spilling the chatter of tower and pilots. barrel " 

"We were running tests on heat A few con descending smiles met 



seeking missiles, and we could hear 
the pilot as he watched his bird racing 
toward the target drone. 'Up a little,' he 
said. 'More to the left, not too much - 
steady - steady,' and so forth. So the 
thought came to me, suppose the 
target was not a heat source, or was not 
resolvable on a radar scope, what 



Parker's attempt at humor. 

"Far out over there across the run- 
way you can see our black plywood 
and tar paper shack which is the first of 
today's ground targets." 

"Turning onto approach track," 
the speaker crackled. 

"Roger," from the tower, 
then? Thus the concept of Proiecl^lfc^^^o^ pilot wi|| fjre his miss|)e on a 

path far to the right of the target and 



"LEFT. HARD LEFT!" the speaker 
yelled. "MAKE A DAMN U-TURN IF 
YOU CAN. YOU STINKING . . 

The last part of the pilot's com- 
mand was lost in a sputter of static. 

The missile ignored the verbal 

commands and continued its gentle 

glide, terminating it on a distant 

is^ilteide with a beautiful orange flash 

and a lovely puff of smoke. 

Disgustedly from the speaker, 

w I think I'll go buzz that damn 
shack and knock it down with, my 
landing gear." 

"Negative. Repeat, negative," from 
the tower. 

Behind him Parker heard a few 
snickers and harumphs as the VlP's 
shuffled off the platform and back to 
the headquarters building. His face 
turned red and his neck started to swell 
as he turned to his staff. 

"All right, who screwed up?" 

They all started at once, each 
vowing that his particular module of 
the equipment had been thoroughly 
and personally tested, both before 
installation and after, and thoroughly 
again just before takeoff, and that the 
only piece of gear in the entire lash-up 
that was not a simple adaptation of 
standard off the shelf hardware was the 
verbal translator, and that . . . 

Parker felt faint and looked for a 
seat when he heard Dr. Meier enter the 
argument. ""~"--«Z^~-~-^^ 

"Chust ein minute, chentlemens. I 
mineself checked der tranzlator mit 
mein own vorts, und it vas ..." G 



"An ingenious idea," the general 
said. 

"It was pure genius," Parker ad- 
mitted with his usual modesty. "The 
toughest problem was getting DOD's 
approval and financing. And you have 
no idea of what all I had to do to get the 
right staff for this project. Especially, 
Dr. Meier." 

"I'm well aware of all of that," the 
general said. 

Parker ignored the general's scowl 
of disapproval and continued. "The 
system works like this," he said 
beginning to sketch a flow chart in the 
air with his forefinger. "After the pilot 
has released his missile he observes Its 



with a climbing attitude. He will 
then 

"Coming up to firing point.' 

". . . put it directly onto the target 
with a few simple verbal commands." 

"Test one released." 

"Roger, and tracking." 

High overhead a small black speck 
with a furious tail of fire and smoke 
darted upward for the heavens. 

"Down a little, left a little," came 
from the speaker. 

"Now ladies and gentlemen," 
Parker beamed confidently, "prepare 
yourselves for a miracle." 

"Down, down - left left - DOWN. 
DOWN!" came from the speaker. 

The black speck continued on- 
ward, upward. Its fire went out, it 



corrections into his mike. A small 
onboard computer/translator, that was 
Dr. Meier's magnificent work, converts 
his speech into appropriate digital 
signals, which are then transmitted to 
the missile. Now, here, aboard the 
missile the signals are received, 
passed through digital to analog con- 
verters, then through amplifiers to the 
controlling servos that make the 






coasted to its peak, then began a long 
glide toward the hills in the distance. 



Hugh B. Brous, Jr., 22427 Statler Blvd. 
Clair Shores, Ml 48081 



164 



St. 




€[ 



cy 



Have You Been 

Bitten By The 

Computer Bug? 



.^•.^..^v^ ,^..^..<^^^v^-.^-.^\^v^v^v^v^v^v^'.^^^<^<^ -^. -<^ ^ 



Basic Computer Games 

Edited by David Ahl, this book con- 
tains 101 imaginative and challenging 
games for one, two, or more players — 
Basketball, Craps, Gomoko, Blackjack, 
Even Wins, Super Star Trek, Bombs 
Away, Horserace. Simulate lunar land- 
ings. Play the stock market. Write poetry. 
Draw pictures. 

All programs are complete with listing 
in Microsoft Basic, sample run and 
description. Basic conversion table in- 
cluded. 125,000 copies in print. 192 pages 
softbound.[6C]$7.50. 





The Best of 
Creative Computing 

The first two years of Creative Com- 
puting magazine have been edited into 
two big blockbuster books. American 
Vocational Journal said of Volume 1, 
"This book is the 'Whole Earth Catalog' of 
computers." [6A] Volume 2 continues in 
the same tradition. "Non-technical in 
approach, its pages are filled with infor- 
mation, articles, games and activities. 
Fun layout." —American Libraries. [6B] 
Each volume $6.95. 



More Basic 
Computer Games 

Contains 84 fascinating and enter- 
taining games for solo and group play — 
evade a man-eating rabbit, crack a safe, 
tame a wild horse, become a millionaire, 
race your Ferrari, joust with a knight, trek 
across the desert on your camel, navigate 
in deep space. 

All games come complete with pro- 
gram listing in Microsoft Basic, sample 
run and description. 192 pages soft- 
bound. [6C2)$7.50. 



■S3 




?«6 




Problems for 

Computer 

Solution 



Problem* for Computer Solution by 

Stephen J. Rogowski is an excellent 
source of exercises in research and 
problem solving for students and self- 
learners. Problems like the Faulty Speed- 
ometer Spotter make learning fun and 
easy. 104 pages, softbound,[9Z)$4.95. 



The 

Colossal 

Computer 

r* Cartoon 

Book 



The best collection of computer cartoons 
ever! 15 chapters of several hundred car- 
toons about robots, computer dating, 
computers in the office, etc. Great gift item. 
128 pp softbound $4.95 [6G] 



Be A Computer 
Literate 

A first introduction to the computer 
world for children age 10 to 14. Full color 
diagrams, drawings, photos and large 
type make this book easy to read and 
understand. Written by Marion J. Ball 
and Sylvia Charp. This informative 62- 
page book is used in many school 
systems. Softbound [6H] $3.95. 




Computer Coin Games 

Computer Coin Games by Joe Weis- 
becker aids newcomers to the field of 
computers by simplifying the concepts of 
computer circuitry through games which 
can be played with a few pennies and full 
sized playing boards in the book. 
Enhanced by outrageous cartoons, 
teachers, students and self-learners of all 
ages will enjoy this 96 page softbound 
book.[10R)$3.95. 

» e)e) > e)e) » e) » e)i » e)— — 9®<sxs® 




Artist and 
Computer 

This unique book by Ruth Leavitt 
covers the latest techniques in computer 
art, animation and sculpture. In its pages 
35 artists explain how they use compu- 
ters as a new means of self-expression. 
The San Francisco Review of Books said 
"Get yourself a copy of this book if you 
enjoy feeding your mind a diet of 
tantalizing high-impact information." O- 
ver 160 illustrations, some in full color. 
121 pages hardbound [6EJ $10.00. Soft- 
bound [6D] $4.95. 






VISA 



To Order 



Send your check for books plus $2.00 
shipping and handling per order to 
Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, 
Morristown, NJ 07960. NJ residents add 
5% sales tax. Visa, Master Charge or 
American Express are also acceptable. 
For faster service, call in your bank card 
order toll free to 

800-631-8112 
(in NJ, call 201-540-0445) 



creative 
corapufcirtg 



Box 789-M, Morristown. NJ 07960 j 



JANUARY 1980 



165 



SUPER SPECIAL 

Apple II 16K 

$999.99 



wHT * The Paper Tigen 

' nM ** /K $950.00 

With Graphics $1090.00 




INTRODUCTORY 
OFFER 

TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 
Tl 99/4 



16K RAMS for 
APPLE II 

TRS-80 




CIRCLE 141 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



{•©bet raM,y 




Robot Rabbit T-Shirt 

Roll down the block with this little black monster (on a 
bright orange T-shirt) on your chest and you can Intimidate 
every carrot, radish or cuke in your way. Watch your enemies 
scurry for cover when they see this cute III' bionic bunny 
aiming to nip their toes. Specify size: adult S.M.L.XL. Only $5 
postpaid ($6 foreign) to : 

Creative Computing T-Shirts, 
P.O. BOX789-M, Morristown, NJ 07960. 




Stephen B. Gray 



166 



Free-Lance Software Publishing, by Benjamin J. 
Kem. Kern Publications, Box H211, Littleton, MA 
01460. 106 pages, paperback $10. 1979. 

"Many independent software writers are making a 
good deal of money selling their own programs," says 
the information sheet accompanying this book, which 
drops names such as Adam Osborne, Michael Shrayer 
ana Joe Cullinane. 

Adam Osborne is said to sell more than 1000 copies 
of Payroll and Cost Accounting every month: 
Michael Shrayer "wrote a program for personal 
computers that does word processing. He sells it 
through computer stores for $175 a copy;" and Joe 
Cullinane "started in 1968 with a program called 
CULPRIT; a simple information retrieval system. 
Today, Joe is president of the . . . Cullinane Corp., with 
gross annual sales in 1979 of $8,920,545 and net profit 
of $1,043,810." 

The foreword says "there are three unique aspects 
to free-lance software publishing that make it an ideal 
business for the individual: (1) You can do it either full- 
time or part-time as an adjunct to regular employment. 
(2) It requires little capital investment compared to 
other business with similar profit potential. (3) The 
potential profits are practically limitless." 

Dr. Kern provides a lot of practical information, 
starting with "Direct Sale of Major Software," in 
which he discusses advertising, sales presentations, 
running a benchmark, negotiating a contract, etc. He 
goes into details such as the advantage of making a 
sales call in the early afternoon, and the best people to 
reach. 

Later chapters look at selling through a service 
bureau, leasing private tapes, selling through inter- 
mediaries such as consulting firms, selling software in 
book form, pricing software, the user's manual, 
software theft, business structure, etc. 

A dozen case studies describe programs written by 
a graduate student from Belmont, Mass., who "has a 
set of subroutines that perform matrix operations very 
efficiently. He charges $15,000." Eleven success stories 
are balanced by one "of an individual who failed trying 
to computerize the real-estate business in eastern 
Massachusetts." 

Kem is realistic to the point of offering Selling 
Techniques that talk about clothes, demeanor, prompt- 
ness, making your software tangible, avoiding trie 
hard sell, etc. For $10 you can read about many things 
you'd otherwise have to learn the hard way. Several of 
the chapters, such as Selling Techniques, or Selling 
Low-Cost Software, could alone be worth $10 to the 
beginner. 

If you want to get into "making big bucks" by 
selling software, you can learn a great deal from these 
106 pages. You may not get rich, but Kern can make 
the trip easier. 

CREATIVE COM PUTING 






Computer Capers, by Thomas Whiteside. The New 
American Library, Inc., New York. 173 pages, paper- 
back $2.25. 1979. 

This is the paperback version of the 1978 hard- 
cover book based on the New Yorker series of articles, 
and might must serve as a blueprint for certain people 
looking to supplement their incomes with a little 
overtime. 

The subtitle is "Tales of Electronic Thievery, 
Embezzlement, and Fraud." In this handbook of 
computer crime, you learn all about the Equity 
Funding fraud, in which fake insurance records were 
generated on people who didn't exist, and the 
supposedly genuine policies were then sold to other 
insurance companies. 

The story of the Union Dime embezzlement shows 
how to juggle bank passbooks. The chapter on 
"Electronic Thieves' Market" tells, among various fine 
schemes, how to rob a bank without a gun, by printing 
up deposit slips with MICR characters that route the 
deposit to your account. Then you just add these forms 
to the piles of blank deposit slips in the trays at the 
bank. The same chapter also details Jerry Neal 
Schneider's fun and games with AT&T, ordering 
truckloads of telephone equipment by knowing the 
proper ordering codes. 

The subsequent chapters describe more complex 
computer crimes, and are a goldmine for the sticky- 
fingered. My favorite is the ploy Donn Parker also 
described in his Crime By Computer, another fine 
handbook: the salami or thin-slice-at-a-time technique, 
"reliance on tiny increments, sometimes literally only 
a fraction of a penny at a time." One way is to round 
down instead of up, and then divert the fraction of an 
penny to your account. "Quietly accumulating year in 
and year out, these fractional sums can mount 
handsomely." 

Most of us, alas, don't work in areas where we can 
make useful application of the principles Whiteside 
describes. But for those who do work within electronic 
reach of the moolah, this book is a small investment 
tbat could be worth literally millions. 



From the Counter to the Bottom Line, by Carl 
Warren & Merl Miller. Dilithium Press, Box 92, Forest 
Grove, OR 97116. 306 pages, paperback $12.95. 1979. 

The back cover says this book "is written for the 
businessman wbo is attempting to find out what micro- 
computers can and cannot do for him." Almost a third 
of the text, 124 pages, is devoted to describing five 
basic accounting systems in detail: inventory and 
purchasing, billing, accounts receivable, accounts 
payable and general ledger. These five chapters are 
written in very plain English, with comments on 
various ways of solving accounting problems, and 
illustrated with many printouts made to look like CRT 
displays. 

The first chapter, Should You Automate?, contains 
several questionnaires, with almost 100 questions, to 
help a businessman decide how to answer the question. 

After a chapter on how a typical small business 
installed a computer, there's a chapter giving an 
overall view of data processing and of the five 
accounting systems, and a chapter on converting from 
a manual to a computerized system. 

The appendices provide flowcharts and some 
menus for the five accounting systems, a long 
assembly-language routine for output to a reader/ 
punch, various short routines, an index to hardware 
and software suppliers and a dozen pages on initializ- 
ing a MECA operating system. 

This may well be the best book at this price on 
acquainting the businessman with the ABCs of 
computerization, aside from the appendices, which are 
mostly 80 pages of filler. 

JANUARY 1980 167 




CIRCLE 142 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



STOCK MARKET ANALYSIS PROGRAM 
OJI WEEKLY AVERAGE 1897-1980 



ANA1 (ANALYSIS I) is a set of BASIC Programs which enables the user to 
perlorm analyses on the Dow Jones Industrial weekly average data From 6 
months to 5 years ol user selected OJI data can be plotted on the entire screen 
in one of 5 colors using Apples High Resolution capabilities The OJI data can 
be transformed into different colored graphic representations called transforms 
They are user specified moving averages a least squares linear fit (best straight 
linel filters for time, magnitude or percentage changes and user created rela- 
tionships between the OJI data a transform, or a constant using • ■ x / operators 
Colored lines can be drawn between graphic points Graphic data values or 
their dates ol occurrence can be displayed in text on the screen Any graph or 
text can be outputted to a users printer The Grid Scale is automatically set to 
the range ol the graphs or can be user changed As many colored graphs as 
wanted can be plotted on the screen and cleared at any time The user can code 
routines to operate on the DJI/transform data or create his own disk die data 
base ANAt commands can be used with his routines or data base An Update 
program allows the user to easily update the OJI file with current OJI weekly 
data 

The ANA1 two letter user commands are CA ■ Calculate, no graph CG - Clear 
Graphs, leave Grids CK ■ Checking out program, known data CO ■ Color ol next 
graph (red green violet, white bluel CS ■ Clear Screen 0L ■ Draw Line between 
points Fl ■ Filter data lor time, magnitude or percent change FU - Data trans- 
form, or constant Function with '.-.%. I operator GD ■ Graphic mode, display 
all Graph Data on screen GR - Graph data to screen GS ■ Set Grid Scale HE - Help, 
summary of any commands usage LD ■ Load Data from disk file from inputted 
date to memory LG > Leave Graphs automatic Grid reseating L0 ■ Look select 
a range of the LD data and GR. All commands can now be used on this range 
LS - Least squares linear lil ol the data MA ■ Moving Average of the data NS ■ 
No Scale, next graph on screen does not use Grid Scale NT ■ No Trace PR - User 
implimented Printer routine TD - Text mode, display Text Data on screen Tl = 
Time number to date or vice versa TR = Trace TS ■ Text Stop for number of lines 
outpulted to screen when in TO U1/U2 ■ User 1/2 implimented routines VD - 
Values ol Data outputted in text VG ■ Values ot Grid low/high /delta VT ■ Values 
of Transform outpulted in text 



APPLE' II. 48 K. APPLESOFT 
ROM CARD. DISK II DOS 3.2 
ANA1 DISK & MANUAL . . . S49.95 
(CA residents add 6% sales tax) 



GALAXY 
OEPT. CCI 
P.O. BOX 22072 
SAN DIEGO. C A 92122 



CIRCLE 144 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



iM 





Disc/3 

MART, INC. 

DO IT YOURSELF 

LOW-LOW PRICES 

ANADEX Printer, DP 8000 $ 845.00 

CENTRONIX 730 Matrix Printer 825.00 

(with 4 free zip pack ribbons) 

HAZELTINE 1520 1319.00 

IMS 16K RAM Memory Board 350.00 

SOROCIQ 120 TERMINAL Assembled 795.00 

Tl "SILENT 700" PORTABLE PRINTERS 

TI743(RO) 1095.00 

TI743(KSR) 1250.00 

Tl 994 Personal Computer 1150.00 

CARTRIDGES • DISKETTES • MAG TAPE 
ACCESSORIES 

ADDS, CENTRONICS, HAZELTINE, IMSAI, LEAR 

SIEGLER, TECHTRAN, Tl, VECTOR GRAPHICS 

AND OTHERS 

STORE HOURS: 9 A.M. - 5:30 P.M. Mon. through Fri. 

Call or write for quotes or information. 

161* /^ 1840 LINCOLN BLVD., 

■■ l"W ™ SANTA MONICA, CA 90404 
MART, INC. (213)450 5911 

CIRCLE US ON READER SERVICE CARD 




A recording was made of the festival and is now available 
on a 12" LP record. It features eight different computer music 
synthesizers programmed to play the music of J.S. Bach, J. 
Pachelbel, Rimsky-korsakov, Scott Joplin, Neil Diamond, 
Lennon & McCartney and seven others. The music ranges from 
baroque to rock, traditional to rag and even Includes an 
historic 1963 computerized singing demonstration by Bell 
Labs. 

The record is available for $6.00 postpaid ($7.00 foreign) 
from Creative Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, NJ 
07960. 



Z-80 And 8080 Assembly Language Program- 
ming, by Kathe Spracklen. Hayden Book Co., Inc., 
Rochelle Park, NJ. 174 pages, paperback $7.95. 1979. 

Kathe ana Dan Spracklen may be best known as 
the authors of Sargon, the computer chess program. 
According to the preface of her nook, "we wanted to 
share what we had done in creating Sargon, and for 
many potentially gifted programmers there seemed to 
be a desperate lack of suitable introductory material . . . 
What I wanted was a book that taught Z-80 assembly 
language as a first assembly language." 

And yet, after two elementary chapters, on 
introductory remarks and binary arithmetic, she gets 
right into flags and the stack pointer, without much 
preliminary text at all, in a chapter on Where Is My 
Variable? By the fifth page, she presents the full chart 
of op codes for all register-to-register moves, and is 
moving so fast that unless you already know some- 
thing about assembler, you may well get lost by page 
24. 

The remaining chapters are on logical operators, 
jumps and loops, Bit Fiddling and Message making, 
data structures, BCD arithmetic and When Time Is 
Important. This last is a short chapter on optimizing 
program development time and on minimizing 
machine execution time. When mnemonics are shown, 
they're given in both 8080 and Z-80 mnemonics. 

The remaining 66 pages are appendices that 

Srovide an instruction summary, 8080 and Z-80 
isassemblers. answers to the exercises given at the 
end of each chapter and an index. 

Although this book has some good material, a 
better one by far is Lance A. Leventhal's Z80 
Assembly Language Programming, published by 
Osborne & Associates at $9.50, and to be reviewed here 
at a later date. In Dr. Leventhal's book, you get 650 
pages of lean meat, as compared with Mrs. Spracklen's 
102 pages of so-so-text and 63 pages of filler. 

By the way, even Intel uses both Z80 and Z-80. 

SWIKTRAN, by C. Kevin McCabe. Dilithium Press, 
ox 92, Portland, OR 97116. 235 pages, paperback 
$8 95 1979 

' This book's subtitle is "Quick FORTRAN for 
Micros, Minis and Mainframes." QWIKTRAN is 
described in the book's glossary as "A minimal subset 
of ANSI FORTRAN IV allowing simple programs 
using a small number of command types." Nothing is 
said about who originated QWIKTRAN; presumably it 
wasn't the author. 

The book starts simply, introducing Fundamental 
Concepts such as algorithms and flowcharts, in a 
conversational and colloquial style. After short 
chapters on Programming Languages and Numeric 
Processing, Simple Programming is introduced, 
starting with a short program that finds the grade 
average for each of 250 students. Subsequent chapters, 
on Input/Output and Using QUIKTRAN, present 
more commands along with short programs using 
them. 

The following six chapters are on QWIKTRAN +, a 
"slightly larger subset" of FORTRAN IV, getting into 
Numeric Forms And Initialization, Character Manipu- 
lation, Subscribed Variables, Automatic Loops, Sub 
{>rograms and Multi-Dimension Arrays. Here, also, the 
anguage is kept simple and the programs short. 

The last three chapters present several additional 
commands that can simplify what would otherwise be 
complicated QWIKTRAN+ routines. The chapters are 
on Additional FORTRAN Statements (computed 
GOTO, arithmetic IF, blank COMMON, etc.), Logical 
And Complex Variables and Advanced I/O. 

For a well-written, easily understood work on 
QWIKTRAN, this would be hard to beat. The book has 
very few program outputs, but this is a minor short- 
coming in comparison with its many virtues. 



168 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



The First Computer Design Coloring Book, by 

Stanley Baxendale. Harmony Books, div. of Crown 
Publishers, Inc., New York. 85 pages, paperback $4.95. 
1979. 

You can give this book to a child and let him color 
the designs, which were produced on a plotter 
controlled by a Tektronix 4051 and programs in BASIC 
but, unless he has a very steady hand and a great eye 
for color, the results won't come anywhere near the 
nine colored designs on the cover, which are quite 
pretty. Or you can appreciate the designs as fine 
examples of computer art. Or try to copy them on your 
system, if you've got a plotter with good resolution. 

The designs are of eight different types: planetary 
motion: orbits (single continuous curves); planetary 
motion: patterns (three-dimensional); logarithmic 
spirals (multiple growth-curves); spherical mapping 
(graph paper with hemispherical bulges); tesselation 
(mosaic patterns)* kaleidoscope (complex polygons); 
variations on traditional Japanese motifs; and circles 
in squares. 

The book might be of more interest to computer 
enthusiasts if the programs for creating the 85 designs 
were included, but that would probably double or triple 
the size — and the price — of this attractive book that 
looks just as good on your coffee table as in the 
children's playroom. 

The designer/author is a professor of mathe- 
matics, statistics and computer science, and currently 
teaches graduate courses in computer graphics at 
Rutgers University. 



Guidelines for Selecting and Implementing 
Small Business Computers, by Phinp M. Wolfe, 
William E. Dickson, ana Lee W. McMorries. School of 
Ind. Eng. & Mgmt., Oklahoma State Univ., Stillwater, 
OK 74074. 109 pages, paperback $4.95. 1979. 

The preface notes that "this text is written to be an 
aid for the small businessman in understanding 
computers ... It is not meant to be a comprehensive 
text on computers. Rather, it is intended as a short 
concise book for those who do not have time to read one 
that is more thorough." 

The ten chapters of this 8M--hy-ll-inch book 
present a clear picture, in simple, non-technical 
language, of what computers are all about Large 
drawings are used to show, for example, just how 
golfball, daisywheel and dot-matrix print mechanisms 
work. 

The chapters cover computer systems, system 
software, application programs, evaluation of software 
packages, system justification, implementation con- 
siderations, turnkey systems, service bureaus and 
timesharing, use of consultants and future technology. 

The first appendix provides a helpful system- 
selection checklist; the second, a glossary of computer 
technology. 

Reasons are given for selecting various alterna- 
tives, such as timesharing versus a service bureau. The 
book is full of helpful advice such as "Bigger is not 
necessarily better in terms of small computer vendors." 

The text is enlivened by the use of 20 cartoons 
taken from Creative Computing's Colossal Com- 
puter Cartoon Book. The book was partly financed 
by program IMPACT of the Higher Education Act of 
1965: Title I, and is sold on a non-profit basis at the cost 
of reproduction. Checks should be made out to the 
university, not to the authors. 

Every small businessman considering the use of a 
computer can profit from this book. Any of the ten 
chapters is alone worth several times the price of the 
whole book. 



Profe sionally written soft v. 

• APPLE • CP/M • 



USMAIL torCf/M 

USMAIl is by far the best mailing list program available! 
Written completely in machine language. Only requires 32K. 
Easy to ute, Interactive, command driven, comes with 2 demos 
that automatically show how to use it. Supports up to 1927 
entries. There are commands to SORT, SEARCH. ADO, DELETE, 
CHANGE, COPY, MERGE. LIST, produce LABELS (many different 
ways), and more. Professionally designed and developed by an 
expert in data base management systems. Special introductory 
price: $95 for diskette and manual. $20 for manual only. 

APPLE 

yf^yj* ASTROAPPLE - An astrological package that pro- 
l,-^l*\k duces natal horoscopes, 30 day forecasts, and com. 
U"??-,] patability ratings. Includes an 18 page manual. 

xyj > .j 



32K APPLE 



$15 CASSETTE $20 DISKETTE 



BENEATH APPLE MANOR - Explore an underground 
labyrinth, fighting monsters and finding magical 
treasures. Uses color graphics for floor plans. 
16K APPLE $15 CASSETTE $20 DISKETTE 

Ijffljli BABBLE - Teach your APPLE to create its own sto- 

i f ries, poetry, music, and color displays. Includes 

(V- ' -i editor, compiler, interpreter and demo programs. 

*»V ' 16K APPLE $15 CASSETTE $20 DISKETTE 

AVAILABLE BY MAIL OR AT YOUR LOCAL COMPUTER STORE 
CALIFORNIA RESIDENTS ADO 6% SALES TAX 

CP/M and APPLE il are registered trademarks of 
Digital Research and the APPLE Computer Co. 



Software Factory 

P.O. BOX 904 CHATSWORTH CA 91311 



CIRCLE 152 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



ATTENTION APPLE II OWNERS 

Southeastern Software 

"NEWSLETTER" 

For Apple II Owners 

NOW IN OUR SECOND YEAR OF PUBLICATION 

If you ewe an experienced programmer and un- 
deratand all that you read regarding your Apple 
U then the "NEWSLETTER" to not for you. 

BUT — If you find that you are having a problem 
understanding many of the thlnge written for or 
about your Apple II thea yon might apend $10.00 
for a one year. 10 Issue subscription and give H a 
try. 

If yon would Ilka to receive back toaaaa they are 
available at $1.00 each. 

One other option to available. Send no money 
and receive no Issues. We hope yon will pick one 
of the former choices. 

SOUTHEASTERN SOFTWARE 

7270 CULPEPPER DRIVE 

NEW ORLEANS, LA. 70126 

504/246-8438 



CIRCLE 117 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



JANUARY 1980 



169 







Sat of • computer Myth* Explained by Monte Wolverton. On 
heavy stock, large 12x17" size, suitable for framing, dressing 
up that drab line printer or file cabinet. Only $3.00 postpaid in 
USA, $4-00 foreign. A real megabargain! Send to Creative 
Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, Morristown, N.J. 07960. 
Residents of the Garden State add 5% tax. Orders must be 
prepaid. 



Introduction to Personal Computing, by Alltech 
Publishing Co., 212 Cooper Center, NorthPark Drive & 
Browning Road, Pennsauken, NJ 08109. 76 pages, 
paperback $25. 1978. 

The subtitle is "A Special Business Automation 
Report," Alltech being publishers of Business Auto- 
mation, a reference service. 

This is a collection of data about personal 
computers that you could assemble yourself from 
catalogs. But Alltech has done the work for you, 
providing, on 8'/2-by-l 1-inch pages, "product profiles of 
selected personal computing vendors," about 70 of 
them. Some make computers, including Commodore, 
Heath and Vector Graphic. Others make peripherals, 
including Axion, Braemar and Micro-Term. And a few 
others are no longer in business. 

The material is presented without comment, giving 
specifications ana prices of hardware, available 
software and the firm s address and telephone number. 
The entries are from several paragraphs to several 
pages long, without photos. 

The profiles are preceded by a four-page table 
showing which of the firms offer products in five 
categories. Three pages list publications, including 
"computer-industry trade magazines" such as Data- 
mation and Spectrum, "personal computing trade 
magazines" such as Creative Computing, newsletters 
such as ON-LINE, and a dozen publishers of books and 
texts. The last five pages are a directory of the vendors, 
repeating the names, addresses and phone numbers 
given in the profiles. 

The $25 price is high, even though a lot of 
information is provided in handy form. Most com- 
puterniks have at least half this material in the form of 
manufacturers' literature. With photographs (there 
isn't a single one in these 76 pages), the report might be 
worth about $10, maybe $15. 



Looking for a Wonderful Gift for a Child? 
Invite Katie Home for a Visit 



ut 

Finally. A delightful picture book adventure that 
explains how a computer works to a child. A new 
concept in children's literature, Katie and trie 
Computer is both an exciting story that a child will 
want to read again and again and a simple exploration 
of computers. 

Katie is a little girl who takes a journey through the 
imaginary world inside her Daddy's home computer. 
Katie's adventure closely parallels the way a home 
computer actually works. The "Software Colonel" who 
guides her on the exciting trip explains the computer 
as the workings of Cybernia. 




Thrill with your children as they join the Flower 
Bytes on a bobsled race to the CPU. Share Katie's 
excitement as she meets up with the mean Bug that 
lassoes her plane and spins her in a terrifying loop. 
Laugh at the madcap race she takes with the Flower 
Painters by bus to the CRT. 

The story's information is augmented by easy to 
understand factual material. A significant publication 
in its ability to explain computers to children, Katie 
and the Computer is 44 pages, hard cover, 8Vix11 
inches, fully illustrated in color. Just published by 
Creative Computing Press. $6.95 and .75 shipping. 




Matching Program Bug T-Shirt 

T-shirts in a deep purple design on a beige shirt. 
Available in children's S, M, L. (Or treat yourself to one 
of these monsters in Adult's S, M, L, XL.) Specify shirt 
size when ordering. Bug t-shirt $5 postpaid, USA; $6 
postpaid, foreign. Katie and the Computer $6.95, plus 
. 75 shipping postpaid in USA ; $1 .50 postpaid, foreign. 
Visa, American Express and Mastercharge cards 
welcome. Bank card orders may be called in toll free to 
800-631-81 12 (in NJ call 201-540-0445.) 

Creative Computing 
P.O. Box 789-M Morristown, NJ 07960 




170 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



GPeafcive GompatiRg 
book service 



Programming in BASIC 



BASIC and the Personal 
Computer 

Dwyer and Critchtield This book will 
get you involved with personal corn- 
puting, writing programs and ex- 
panding the use of your computer by 
showing the great diversity of ap- 
plications possible on any micro- 
computer. One of the most compre- 
hensive presentations of BASIC ever. 
As a text or addition to your personal 
library, this book will tell you all you 
ever wanted to know about BASIC 
350 pp. $12 95 (9F). 



It 

I 

% 

X 



«v 




.*• * 



yg» 




* % 



A Guided Tour of 
Computer Programming 
In BASIC 

Dwyer and Kaufman This book tops 
all introductory texts on BASIC 
Filled with detail and examples, it 
includes sample programs for many 
simulations, several games, reserva- 
tions systems and payroll Aimed at 
the novice, but of value to everyone 
156 pp $5.20 [8L] 



"You can 

ask me for 

anything you 

like, except 

time." 



*% m ■»' 




BASIC Programming, 2nd 
Edition 

Kemeny A Kurtz. An introduction to 
computer programming through the 
language of BASIC. The authors 
include in-depth discussions of many 
applications including files and text 
processing. 150 pp. $10.95 ( 7E ! 




Basic For Home 
Computers 




Albrecht, Finkel. & Brown. This book 
shows you how to read, write, and 
understand the BASIC programming 
language used in the new personal- 
size microcomputers. Includes 
detailed descriptions of everything 
you need to know to make your 
computer work for you — includes 
how to get started, numerous 
applications and games, lists of 
resources, much more. 332 pp $8.95 
[7G] 



To Order 



Use the bound-in order form or send 
your check for books plus $2.00 
shipping and handling per order 
(Foreign: $1 .25 per book) to Creative 
Computing. P.O. Box 789-M. 
Morristown. NJ 07960. NJ residents 
add 5% sales tax. Visa or 
MasterCharge are acceptable also. 
For faster service, call in your bank 
card order toll free to: 

800-631-8112 



(in NJ call 201 540-0445) 




Programming in 
Other Languages 

Programming in PASCAL 

Peter Grogono. This book is an 
excellent introduction to one of the 
fastest growing programming 
languages today. The text is arrang- 
ed as a tutorial containing both 
examples and exercises to increase 
reader proficiency in PASCAL. Con- 
tains sections on procedures, files, 
and dynamic data structures such as 
trees and linked lists 359 pp. $10 95 
[10A| 




PASCAL User Manual and 
Report (2nd Edition) 

Jensen A Wirth. This book consists of 
two parts: the User Manual and the 
Revised Report. The Manual is 
directed to those who have some 
familiarity with computer program- 
ming and who wish to get acquainted 
with the PASCAL language. The 
Report is a concise reference for both 
programmers and implementors. It 
defines Standard PASCAL, which 
constitutes a common base between 
various implementations of the 
language $7.90 [10B] 



A Fortran Coloring Book 

Dr. Roger Kaufman. This book is one 
of the most entertaining computer 
programming books around. Learn 
computer programming the "painful- 
ly funny way " Filled with examples 
and illustrations plus a light sprink- 
ling of jokes. Guaranteed to teach 
you FORTRAN. 273 pp $6.95 (4D) 



A Simplified Guide to 
Fortran Programming 

Daniel McCracken. A thorough first 
text in Fortran Covers all basic 
statements and quickly gets into case 
studies ranging from simple (printing 
columns) to challenging (craps 
games simulation) 278 pp S12.96 
[7F| 



Problem Analysis and 
Programming Style 



How to Solve Problems 

Wayne Wickelgren This helpful book 
analyzes and systematizes some of 
the basic methods of solving 
mathematical problems Illustrative 
examples include chess problems, 
logical puzzles, railroad switching 
problems and ones from science and 
engineering For each, the author 
provides hints for the reader to tackle 
the problem and then a complete 
solution is given Want to solve a 
complex problem with a computer? 
Begin here 262 pp $7.50 |7Y) 

The Thinking Computer. 
Mind Inside Matter 

Bertram Raphael. Artificial in- 
telligence, or Al. is the branch of 
computer science concerned with 
making computers "smarter " With a 
minimum of technical jargon, this 
book discusses the capabilities of 
modern digital computers and how 
they are being used in contemporary 
Al research. Discusses the progress 
of Al. the goals, and the variety of 
current approaches to making the 
computer more intelligent $8.95 
[7X] 



The Little Book of BASIC 
Style: How To Write a 
Program You Can Read 

John U. Nevison. Learn how to write 
better, easy-to-follow programs with 
Nevison's rules of style and turn out 
legible, correct programs Two hours 
of BASIC programming is all that is 
necessary to profit by this book Con- 
cepts of problem-solving and struc- 
tured programming are included 160 
pp $5 95 [9V| 

The Art of Computer 
Programming 

Donald Knuth. The purpose of this 
series is to provide a unified, read- 
able, and theoretically sound sum- 
mary of the present knowledge con- 
cerning computer programming 
techniques, along with their histori- 
cal development For the sake of 
clarity, many carefully checked com- 
puter procedures are expressed both 
in formal and informal language A 
classic series Vol I: Fundamental 
Algorithms. 634 pp $22.50 [7RJ Vol. 
2 Seminumencai Algorithms. 624 pp 
$22.50 |7S] Vol 3 Sorting and 
Searching 722 pp $22.50 (7T) 



JANUARY 1980 



171 



creative compatiRg book service 




ft 

V 



^♦♦••*« 



"Every why 

hath a 
wherefore." , 

. S 




Education & Self Teaching 



Using BASIC in the 
Classroom 

Donald D. Spencer. A teacher's guide 
that makes every phase of teaching 
computer programming more 
productive and enjoyable. It gives 
you tresh but proven ideas for 
presenting computer and program- 
ming topics, scheduling terminal 
time, purchasing a microcomputer or 
minicomputer, running the second- 
ary school instructional computer 
facility, and giving assignments that 
arouse enthusiasm in your students 
22<PP- $11.96 [10E] 




Problems For 

Computer 

Solution 

Gruenberg & Jattray. A collection of 
92 problems in engineering, busi- 
ness, social science and mathe- 
matics The problems are presented 
in depth and cover a wide range of 
difficulty Oriented to Fortran but 
good for any language A classic 401 
PP $12.90 I7A) 

Problems For 
Computer Solution 

Sieve Rogowski The Student Edition 
is designed to encourage research 
and preliminary investigation on the 
part of the student The problems are 
ordered by subject and can be 
expanded or shortened. 
Mathematical problems that have 
never been solved are also posed to 
challenge and sharpen the student's 
awareness. 98 pp S4.95 [9Z|. Also 
available is the Teacher's Edition 
which contains solutions, programs 
and analysis of the problems. 271 pp. 
$995 (9y] Both books are highly 
recommended for any high school or 
college computer-oriented course 



Be A Computer Literate 

Marion Ball A Sylvia Charp. This 
introductory book is extensively 
illustrated with full-color drawings, 
diagrams, and photos. Takes the 
reader through kinds of computers, 
how they work, input/output, and 
writing a simple program in BASIC 
Aimed at ages 10-14 but beginners of 
all ages will find it informative. 62 pp. 
$3 95 [6HJ 

Problem Solving With The 
Computer 

Ted Sage. Used in conjunction with 
the traditional high school math 
curriculum, this book stresses 
problem analysis in algebra and 
geometry This is the most widely 
adopted text in computer 
mathematics. 244 pp $8.95 [8J] 

Sixty Challenging 
Problems with BASIC 
Solution 

Donald Spencer. This book is a ve- 
hicle for computer programmers to 
measure their skills against some in- 
teresting problems that lend them- 
selves to computer solution It in- 
cludes games, puzzles, mathematical 
recreations and science and 
business problems— some hard, 
some easy. The book will compli- 
ment any computer-oriented course 
in secondary school or college 
BASIC program solutions included 
80 pp $6 95 [9W] 

The Calculus With 
Analytic Geometry 
Handbook 

Jason Taylor. Ideal for a HS or 
college introductory calculus course 
or for self-learning Five chapters 
include analytic geometry; functions 
and derivatives; integration techni- 
ques; vectors and functions of more 
than one variable, and sequences 
and series Widely acclaimed by 
educators, this book is fast becoming 
the standard calculus reference text. 
Handy reference for scientists, 
engineers, and mathematicians too 
Large format. 68 pp $2.95 |7Q| 



Getting Started 




An Introduction to 
Microcomputers, Vol - 
The Beginners Book 

Adam Osborne. Parts of a com- 
puter and a complete system; binary, 
octal and hexadecimal number 
systems; computer logic; addressing 
and other terminology are discussed 
in a language the absolute beginner 
can understand. Hundreds of il- 
lustrations and photographs. 220 pp. 
$7 95 [9T] 

An Introduction to 
Microcomputers, Vol 1 - 
Basic Concepts 

Adam Osborne. Thoroughly explains 
hardware and programming con- 
cepts common to all micro- 
processors: memory organization, 
instruction execution, interrupts. I/O. 
instruction sets and assembly pro- 
gramming. One of the best selling 
computer texts worldwide. 350 pp. 
S9.50 [9K] 

Vol 2 - Some Real 
Microprocessors. Vol 3 - 
Real Support Devices 

Adam Osborne. These volumes com- 
plement Volume 1. Vol. 2 discusses 
the operation of each of the following 
MPUS in detail: F8. SC/MP. 8080A. 
Z80, 6800, PPS-8. 2650, COS MAC, 
9002, 6100 and seven others. Also 
information on selecting a micro. Vol. 
3 discusses various support and I/O 
chips. 895 pp. 
Vol.2-<9L) $25.00 
VC4.3-00Q) $20.00 

Beginner's Guide To 
Microprocessors 

Charles M Gilmore. No background 
in electronics is necessary to under- 
stand this book. It was written for 
those with no prior knowledge what- 
soever of microprocessors or per- 
sonal computing. Gilmore takes you 
from what a microprocessor is. how it 
works and what it's used for to how 
they're programmed to perform de- 
sired functions in microwave ovens. 
TV games, calculators, etc 175 pp. 
$5.95 [7U) 




Microprocessors: From 
Chips to Systems 

Rodnay Zaks. A complete and 
detailed introduction to 
microprocessors and microcom- 
puter systems. Some of the topics 
presented are: a comparative evalua- 
tion of all major microprocessors, a 
journey inside a microprocessor 
chip, how to assemble a system, 
applications, interfacing (including 
the S-100 bus) and programming and 
system development. 416 pp. $9 95 

The First Book of ,10S1 
Microcomputers 

Robert Moody. Tells what personal 
computers are and what you can do 
with them in a light entertaining style. 
Starts with the basics and then covers 
the technical aspects such as how a 
personal computer is constructed 
and how it works. Includes such 
things as home protection, keeping 
track of budgets and bills, game 
playing, inventory management and 
tax calculations. 139 pp. $4.95 [10T] 

Consumers Guide to 
Personal Computing and 
Microcomputers 

Freiberger and Chew. Here are two 
valuable books in one: an introduc- 
tion to the principles of microcom- 
puters that assumes no previous 
knowledge on the reader's part, and a 
review of 64 microcomputer products 
from over 50 manufacturers. Also, 
extensive illustrations and best-buy 
tips for each type of microcomputer 
product. 176 pp $7 95 [10U1 



Getting Involved 
WUh Your Own 

Computer 
A Guide for 
Beginners 



Getting Involved With 
Your Own Computer 

Solomon and Viet. One of the first 
books on microcomputers that re- 
quires no previous knowledge of 
electronics or computer program- 
ming. Tells you where to find infor- 
mation, explains basic concepts and 
summarizes existing systems. Good 
place for the neophyte to begin. 
216 pp $5 95 (9NJ 

Microcomputer Design 

Donald P. Martin. This book is well- 
suited for the engineer who's design- 
ing microcomprocessors into his 
company's products. Not just block 
diagrams or vague theory, but 
dozens of practical circuits with 
schematics for CPUs based on 8008 
chips. Includes interfacing to A/O. 
D/A. LED digits. UARTs. teletype- 
writers Over 400 pp $14.95 (9P). 



172 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



Learn with Computer Games 



Basic Computer Games 

David Ahl. Here are 101 classic 
games all in Microsoft Basic for your 
TRS-80. PET, Apple. Sorcerer, etc. 
Every one is complete with large 
legible listing, sample run. and 
descriptive notes. Has all the best 
games: Super Star Trek, Football. 
Blackjack, Lunar Lander. Tic Tac 
Toe, Nim, Life. Basketball, Boxing. 
Golf. Hockey, Craps. Roulette. Awari. 
Bagels. Mastermind. Hammurabi. 
Fur Trader, Splat and many, many 
more. Now in its 5th printing. 200 pp. 
$7.50. [6C] 

Game Playing with BASIC 

Donald D. Spencer. Enjoy the 
challenge of competition with your 
personal computer. Amuse yourself 
with such computer games and 
puzzles as 3-D Tic-Tac-Toe. Rou- 
lette. Baccarat, and more. Includes 
rules of each game, how each game 
works, illustrations and the output 
produced by each program. The last 
chapter contains 26 games lor reader 
solution. 176 pp. $7.95 [10D] 

Chess and Computers 

David Levy. This book is loaded with 
chess games— computer versus 
computer and computer versus 
human. Settle down with this book, 
set up your chess board, and play the 
games. As with any good chess book, 
half the enjoyment is found in playing 
along, duplicating the moves and 
reading the authors comments. 145 
pp $9.05 [10C] 



Fun With Computers and 
Basic 

Donald D. Spencer. Mathematical 
recreations and games are an ex- 
cellent medium for teaching com- 
puter programming. The reader 
learns the BASIC programming 
language during the process of 
learning to program fun type 
problems. The book introduces the 
reader to flowcharting, and the 
BASIC programming language. In- 
cludes many BASIC programs, car- 
toons, and drawings. Written 
specifically for use by junior high 
school students. 96 pp. $7.95i 10FJ 




What to Do After You Hit 
Return 

Another collection of games and sim- 
ulations— all in BASIC— including 
number guessing games, word 
games, hide-and-seek games, pat- 
tern games, board games, business 
and social science simulations and 
science fiction games Large format 
158 pp $10.95 [8A| 




Fun & Games With the 
Computer 

Ted Sage "This book is designed as a 
text for a one-semester course in 
computer programming using the 
BASIC language The programs used 
as illustrations and exercises are 
games rather than mathematical 
algorithms, in order to make the book 
appealing and accessible to more 
students The text is well written, with 
many excellent sample programs 
Highly recommended "— The 
Mathematics Teacher 351 pp $8.95 
[8B) 

Game Playing With 
Computers (Revised 2nd 
Edition) 

Donald D. Spencer. Now you can 
sharpen programming skills through 
a relaxed and radically different 
approach. Including 70 games, 
puzzles, and mathematical 
recreations for a digital computer. It's 
fully illustrated and includes more 
than 25 game-playing programs in 
FORTRAN or BASIC, complete with 
descriptions, flowcharts, and output. 
Brand-new "how to" information for 
applying mathematical concepts to 
game playing with a computer. 320 
pp. $1695 [10G1 



Other Games & Activities 



The Way To Play 

The newest, most comprehensive 
encyclopedia of games in the world. 
Complete rules for over 2000 games 
and indoor pastimes including race 
board games, strategic board games, 
tile games, card games, solitaire 
games, dice games, table games, 
casino and gambling games, games 
of chance and many more. Over 5000 
drawings and diagrams in color. The 
perfect sourcebook for the computer 
game author. 320 pp. $7 95 [10HJ 

The I Hate Mathematics 
Book 

Marilyn Burns. This book is for 
non bel levers of all ages, but especial- 
ly for kids who are convinced that 
mathematics is (1) impossible. (2) 
only for smart kids, and (3) no fun 
anyhow. This book shows that 
mathematics is nothing more (nor 
less) than a way of looking at the 
world and is not to be confused with 
arithmetic. In this book you'll find 
several hundred mathematical 
events, gags, magic tricks, and ex- 
periments to prove it. 128 pp. $3.95 
(11F] 



TOY BOOK 




Toybook 

Steven Caney. "More than 50 toys 
and projects have been chosen with 
imagination and care to provide a 
high ratio of satisfaction and fun in 
return for effort invested." —Parents' 
Magazine. It is "... a must for kids and 
anybody else interested in conjuring 
up delightful playthings out of oddc 
and ends and scraps of stuff around 
the house," —Whole Earth Epilog. 
Packed with illustrations, photos, 
and step-by-step instructions. 176 
pp $3.95 [10J) 



Star Games 

Razzi, Brightlield and Looney. For 
Star Trek and Star Wars fans, here's a 
book that invites you to "join the 
Space Force for the greatest galactic 
battle of your life!" A game book, not 
a puzzle book, it challenges you to 
crack space-age binary codes and 
help your friends escape from the 
krakon's clutches. $6.95. (10K) 



GEOMFTRC 



CROSS 

SUMS 



Cross-Sums 

Maltby & Fulbrook. The answers are 
numbers! Vertical columns must total 
the same as horizontal rows It's a 
new puzzle game — constructed by 
Richard Maltby. Jr., master puzzfe- 
maker for Harper's and New York 
Magazines. 30 puzzles including 
Nursery Rhymes. Children's Hour. 
Golf. Movies. Famous Dates, and 
more. 108 pp $1 95 |10L] 

Geometric Cross-Sums 

Maltby & Fulbrook. Another puzzle 
game This one has 30 puzzles 
ranging in difficulty from easy to 
fiendish. Each diagram takes a 
special shape — Triangles Fun. The 
Magic Hexagon. Shapes Within 
Shapes. Literature in 3-D., and more! 
108 pp. $195 [10M] 

Merlin's Puzzlers 

Charles Barry Townsend. "Puzzle 
books are nothing new. and neither 
are the puzzles in them. But what sets 
Merlin's Puzzlers apart from the 
crowd is the style and imagination 
with which the material is presented. 
In Volume 1 he calls upon Sherlock 
Holmes to pose the problems to 
Watson, and the Mad Hatter and 
Humpty Dumpty (among others) to 
confuse and confound "Alice in 
Puzzleland." Richly illustrated with 
old woodcuts, lithos. prints, and 
playbills — Games Magazine. Each 
volume 128 pp. large format. Two- 
volume set $7.50. [10P] 




To Order 



^?\ 



Use the bound-in order form or send 
your check for books plus $2.00 
shipping and handling per order 
(Foreign: $1 25 per book) to Creative 
Computing. P O. Box 789-M. 
Mornstown. NJ 07960. NJ residents 
add 5% sales tax. Visa or 
MasterCharge are acceptable also. 
For faster service, call in your bank 
card order toll free to 

800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201 540-0445) 



JANUARY 1980 



173 



creative 

comparting 
book sepvice 




Building Your Own 




Small Computw Systems 
Handbook 

Sol Lioes The emphasis throughout 
this primer is on the important 
practical knowledge that the home 
computer user should have to be able 
to intelligently purchase, assemble, 
and interconnect components, and 
to program the microcomputer. Only 
a minimal knowledge of electronics is 
required to use this book. 196 pp. 
$8 45 (11D) 



The Best of Byte, Vol 1 

Helmers & Ahl. Contains the majority 
of material from the first 12 issues of 
Byte magazine. The 146 pages 
devoted to hardware are crammed 
full of how-to articles on everything 
from TV displays to joysticks to 
cassette interfaces and computer 
kits. Also 125 pages of software and 
applications ranging from on-line 
debuggers to games to a small 
business accounting system. A sec- 
tion on theory examines the how and 
why behind the circuits and 
programs. 386 pp. $11.95 [6F] 

How to Build a Computer- 
Controlled Robot 

Tod Loofbourrow Every step of the 
construction is explained, with 
photographs and diagrams. The 
complete control programs for a 
robot are clearly written out The 
robot can be built within the budget 
of the average hobbyist and the only 
technical requirement for building 
him is the ability to read and under- 
stand a circuit diagram. 144 pp. $7.95 
|11E] 




Build Your 
Own Workin 
Robot 

David Heiserman. Complete plans, 
schematics and logic circuits for 
building a robot Not a project for 
novices, this robot is a sophisticated 
experiment in cybernetics Vou build 
him in phases and watch his cap- 
abilities increase and his personality 
develop Phase I is leash led. Phase II 
has a basic brain, while Phase III re- 
sponds and makes decisions 238 pp. 
$595 |9M] 

Power Semiconductor 
Handbook 

Covers high-power transistors and 
related switching devices Want your 
computer to control some external 
device? Then this is the book 800 pp 
$395 [9C] 



Nothing is as easy as it looks 



» 




Pocket Calculators 



Games With The Pocket 
Calculator 

Sivasailam Thiagaraian and Harold 
Slolovilch. A big step beyond tricks 
and puzzles with the hand calculator, 
the two dozen games of chance and 
strategy in this clever new book 
involve two or more players in 
conflict and competition A single 
inexpensive four-banger is all you 
need to play Large format 50 pp 
$3.95 [8H] 



• ••. 



w% % % *% **<»»%<ia Boooo 



gs# 



S%e* 



^ % « *% **%1«3 tt >3 M t»* T ».X*%- 



Games, Tricks and 
Puzzles For A Hand 
Calculator 

Waliy Judd. This book is a necessity 
for anyone who owns or intends to 
buy a hand calculator, from the most 
sophisticated (THE HP65,for exam- 
ple) to the basic "four banger." 110 
pp. $4.95 (8Dj 




Art, Music, and Literature 



Artist and Computer 

Ruth Laavitt. This unique art book 
covers a multitude of computer uses 
and the very latest techniques in 
computer-generated art. In its pages. 
35 artists explain how the computer 
can be programmed either to ac- 
tualize the artist's concept (such as 
the visualization of fabric before it is 
woven) or to produce finished pieces 
Over 160 examples, some in full 
color. 122 pp. $4.95 softbound [60], 
$10.00 hardbound. [6E] 



The Technology of 
Computer Music 

Max Matthews. It you're interested in 
creating music on your micro- 
computer, here is an excellent source 
book written by the "Father of Com- 
puter Music" Includes funda- 
mentals of digital sound generation, 
including the sampling theorem, 
digital to analog converters, analog 
to digital converters, filtering and 
storage of musical data. Also, a 
description of MUSIC V. a high level 
music language. $16 hardcover (ION) 



frr rj»r 



COMPUTERS, 
COMPUTERS, 
COMPUTERS 
In Fiction And In Verse 

D. Van Tassel, Editor This collection 
of stories, commentaries and poems 
project the reader into a world where 
lifestyles are dominated by the com- 
puter to an extent tar greater than 
they are by the telephone today By 
revealing reactions and effects, the 
stories offer the reader insight into 
what is a potential reality Cleverly- 
written, this book should entertain 
anyone who is aware of the com- 
puter's impact on society Includes 
work by such distinguished writers as 
Gordon R Dickson. Art Buchwald. 
Michael Shaara and Bob and Ray. 
192 pp $6 95 |9Xj. 



To Order 



Use the bound-in order form or send 
your check for books plus $2.00 
shipping and handling per order 
(Foreign: $1 .25 per book) to Creative 
Computing. P.O. Box 789-M. 
Morristown. NJ 07960 NJ residents 
add 5% sales tax. Visa or 
MasterCharge are acceptable also. 
For faster service, call in your bank 
card order toll free to: 

800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201 540-0445) 




174 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



creative computing book sfjmmkx 



Business Applications 



Accounts Payable and 
Accounts Receivable 

Poole & Borchers. Includes program 
listings with remarks, descriptions, 
discussion of the principles behind 
each program, file layouts, and 
complete step-by-step instructions. 
Covers accounts payable and 
receivable in regard to invoice aging, 
general ledger, progress billing, 
partial invoice payments, and more. 
375 pp. $15.00 [10VJ 




Payroll with Cost 
Accounting in BASIC 

Lon Poole. Includes program listings 
with remarks, descriptions, discus- 
sion of the principles of each 
program, file layouts, and a complete 
user's manual with step-by-step 
instructions, flow charts and sample 
reports with CRT displays. 356 pp 
$15.00 [10VV] 

How to Profit From Your 
Personal Computer 
Professional, Business 
and Home Applications 

T.G. Lewis. Put your computer to 
work for you. This new guide 
describes the use of personal com- 
puters in common business 
applications, including terms, 
notations, and techniques used by 
programmers. 256 pp. $6.95 [10X] 



Small Computer Systems 
For Business 

Gerald A. Silver. Useful for operators, 
programmers, teachers, students, 
etc.. this book explores the world of 
small computers: what they are, how 
they are used, their internal structure, 
and our means of communicating 
with them. Describes assemblers, 
interpreters, and compilers, as well 
as operating systems and small 
computer applications. 254 pp $11.96 
[10Y] 



Some Common BASIC 
Programs 

Poole & Borchers. This book com- 
bines a diversity of practical 
algorithms in one book : matrix 
multiplication, regression analysis, 
principal on a loan, integration by 
Simpson's rule, roots of equations, 
chi-square test, and many more. All 
the programs are written in a 
restricted BASIC suitable for most 
microcomputer BASIC packages, 
and have been tested and debugged 
by the authors. $9.50 (7M] 



BASIC With Business 
Applications 

Richard W Lott. This book focuses 
on the BASIC language and its 
application to specific business 
problems. Part one introduces the 
BASIC language and the concept of 
logical flowcharting. Part two 
presents problems and possible 
solutions. Topics include: interest 
rate calculations, break-even 
analysis, loan rates, and deprecia- 
tion. This book is a great aid to the 
beginner wanting to leam BASIC 
without having a technical or scien- 
tific background. 264 pp. $11.95 M0Z) 



1 "The real ^ 

purpose of 

books is to 

trap the mind 

Into doing 

Its own 







Computing Milieu 



COMPUTER 




Computer Lib/Dream 
Machine 

Ted Nelson. This book is devoted to 
the premise that everybody should 
understand computers In a blithe 
manner the author covers interactive 
systems, terminals, computer 
languages, data structures, binary 
patterns, computer architecture, 
mini-computers, big computers, 
microprocessors, simulation, 
military uses of computers, computer 
companies, and much, much more 
Whole earth catalog style and size A 
doozyl 127 pp. $7.00 |8P]. 



PCC's Reference Book of 
Personal and Home 
Computing 

Ever try to find the address of a man- 
ufacturer of a cassette interface that a 
friend told you about 2- weeks ago'' 
Frustrating isn't it? This book will go 
a long way toward ending that 
frustration with its comprehensive 
list of manufacturers, stores and 
products Also contains survey arti- 
cles on software, hardware, kits and 
applications as well as an index of ar- 
ticles from various hobbyist maga- 
zines Several bibliographies, too 
$5 95 |7P) 



The Home Computer 
Revolution 

Ted Nelson. Here is one of the most 
controversial books on home com- 
puters. Nelson takes a look at how the 

"dinky" computers got here, where 
they are where they're going and 
what will become of the big boys like 
IBM. This thought-provoking and 
highly opinionated book picks up 
where Computer Lib/Dream Machine 
left off 224 pp $2 00 [9U] 



Space and Science Fiction 



Star Wars Album 

The incredible behind-the-scenes 
story of the most extraordinary 
motion picture of our time including 
over a hundred exclusive photos. 
special effects secrets, interviews 
with George Lucas. Carrie Fisher and 
Mark Hamill. the Anatomy of an 
Android and a technical glossary. 
Lots of color. 76 pp $5.95 (11Aj 



Masterpieces of Science 
Fiction 

This lavishly illustrated large format 
book has nine classic stories by Isaac 
Asimov. Gregory Benford. Ray Brad- 
bury, Arthur C. Clarke. Harlan 
Ellison, Robert Heinlein, Frank 
Herbert, A.E. Van Vogt, and Kurt 
Vonnegut, Jr. Fabulous full color 
illustrations throughout. 108 pp. 
$7.95.[11B] 





The Star Trek Star Fleet 
Technical Manual 

Franz Joseph. This important 
resource book is packed with the 
data you need to create or modify 
STAR TREK computer games It 
includes all Starship operating 
characteristics, defense and weapon 
systems, standard orbits, 
velocity /time relationship, space/war 
technology. Milky Way galaxy charts. 
Federation codes, etc.. etc A 
national best seller Large format, 
vinyl binder 180 pp $7 95 [8C|. 



Star Wars Portfolio 

Complete technical specifications 
and engineering drawings of ships, 
space stations, and 'droids of both 
The Imperial Empire and the rebels. A 
vital resource book. 180 pp. $7.95 
[«C] 



To Order 



Use the bound-in order form or send 
your check for books plus $2.00 
shipping and handling par order 
(Foreign: $1.25 per book) to Creative 
Computing, P.O. Box 789-M, 
Morristown, NJ 07960. NJ residents 
add 6% sales tax. Visa or 
MasterCharge are acceptable also. 
For faster service, call in your bank 
card order toll free to: 

800-631-8112 

(in NJ call 201 540-0445) 




JANUARY 1980 



175 



Reader 

Service Advertiser 

1 06 Aardvark Technical Services 

101 AB Computer* 

125 Acom Software 

157 AJ A Software 

138 Aladdin Automation 

136 Alpha Supply Co. 

1 58 American Square Computers 

159 Apple Computer Co. 

137 ASAP Computer Products 

160 Automated Simulations 
122 Basics £ Beyond 

102 Bits, Inc. 
120 The Bottom Shelf 

140 Cload Magazine 

161 CompucoTorCorp. 

162 Compucover 
155 Com pu max 

193 CompuServe (MIcroNet) 

1 63 Com puterCity (The CPU Shop) 

103 Computer Corner/ N J 

104 Computer Corner/ White Plains 

194 Computer Design Labs 
* The Computer factory 

* Computer Headware 

139 Computer Information Exchange 

164 Computer Room 

127 Computersmlths 

141 The Computer Stop 
119 Computronlcs 

197 Connecticut Microcomputer 146-1 47,1 51 
154 Corvus Systems 
203 Cottage Software 

128 Creative Publications 

126 Cromemco 

165 Crown Publishers 

166 D.C. Software 

* David McKay Co. 
145 Disc/ 3 Mart 

167 Dynacomp 

142 Edu-ware Services 

143 Electro-Controls, Inc. 

198 Electronic Specialists 



t£^ Index To Advertisers 

D a.*4a. Da*i4ar 





Reader 




Pag* 


Service Advertiser 


Page 


57.83 


• 


Factory Direct Salea 


33 


163 


144 


Qalaxy 


167 


61 


168 


Glmlx 


67 


137 


169 


Qlmix 


67 


27 


169 


Hayden Book Co. 


33 


119 


170 


Heath Co. 


14 


161 


109 


In Business 


69 


2 


110 


Instant Software 


95 


103 


202 


Ithaca Intersystems 


156 


C2 


111 


Level IV 


79 


99 


• 


Lifeboat Associates 


13 


39 


178 


Lobo Drives International 


59 


21 


180 


McGraw-Hill 


47 


19 


192 


Mead-Hatcher Associates 


101 


9 


147 


Meca 


53 


161 


200 


Robert Mernick 


159 


93 


179 


Metatron 


97 


16 


171 


Micro- Ap 


11 


73 


172 


Micro Architect 


161 


163 


146 


Micro Computer Technology, Inc. 


45 


163 


107 


Micro Management 


161 


158 


173 


Micromart 


161 


99 


174 


Mlcroware Associates 


111 


67 


129 


Mini Business Systems 


161 


103 


175 


Mountain Hardware 


76 


75 


• 


NRI Schools /Electronics Dlv. 


29 


123 


106 


National Software Marketing 


163 


166 


112 


Ohio Scientific 


C4 


145 


176 


Omikron 


71 


7,151 


105 


Omni Communications 


163 


C3 


123 


Omni Tronics 


101 


159 


177 


Osborne & Associates 


89 


101 


156 


Organic Software 


23 


1 


130 


Pacific Exchanges 


150 


150 


181 


PFDC Software 


113 


111 


182 


Percom Data Co. 


15 


85 


183 


Peripheral People 


159 


168 


132 


Personal Software 


5 


102 


184 


Pickles & Trout 


158 


167 


195 


Powersoft 


137 


103 


124 


The Program Store 


143 


119 


148 


Programme International 


105 



Reader 

Service Advertiser 

185 Proteus 

149 Quality Software 

186 RACET computes 

* Radio Shack 

116 Radio Shack Sales Center 

113 Ramsey Electronics 
199 Ram works 

150 Realty Software 
121 Reliance Plaatics 

187 Slmutek 
201 Small Bualneas Applications 

188 Softech 

1 31 The Software Association 

118 The Software Exchange 

1 52 The Software Factory 

153 SOROC Technology 

117 Southeastern Software 

1 33 Southwestern Data Systems 
106 Steven Shaw, P.E. 

189 Square 1 

190 Sybex 109 

191 Tano 

• Tlny-c 
135 Tarbell Electronics 

134 Total Information Services 

1 1 4 Ucatan Computer Store 

115 Vantage Preas 



Creative Computing 
205 Adventure 
205 Air Traffic Controller 

Book Service 

Computer Music Record 

Computer Myth Prlnte 

Creative Computing Press 

Five T-shirt* 

Katie & The Computer 

Robot Rabbit T-shirt 
205 Sensational Software 
205 Super Invader 

* Direct Correspondence Requested. 



159 
113 
77 
36 

160 

97 

141 

160 

153 

167 

162 

99 

157 

138-139 

169 

7 

169 

157 

160 

87 

156,162 

46 

10 

109 

109 

137 

97 

91 
113 

171-175 
168 
170 
165 
151 
170 
166 

126-133 
111 



■N 



IMAGINE. ...193 GAMES 
FOR YOUR CP/M SYSTEM 

OUR BEST ACTION, STRATEGY AND FANTASY GAMES 

Creative Computing Software should be stocked by your local computer store. 
If your favorite retailer does not have the software you need have him call our retail 
marketing department. Or you can order directly from Creative Computing, at 
800/631-8112, with your bankcard number. In NJ 201/540-0445. Our mall order 
address Is P.O. Box 789-M. Morrlstown NJ 07960. 



ADVENTURE Original Aventure. You'll search 
perilous underground caverns for enchanted 
treasures. Bilingual: English/French. (S24.95 
CS-9004). Adventursland and Pirate Adven- 
ture. Two fantastic adventures. You'll meet up 
with WILD ANIMALS, MAGICAL BEINGS, and 
the PIRATE himself. (S24.9S CS-9003). 

BASIC QAMES($24.95 each) 1.51 action and 
strategy games including Depth Charge, 
Hammurabi, and Football (CS-9001). 2. 51 
more fun and challenging games featuring 
Lunar Lander, Stock Market, and Super Star 
Trek (CS-9002). 3. 50 programs for games 
freaks including Close Encounters, Grsnd 
Prix, and Life Expectancy (CS-9005). 4. Hours 
of Diversion: 38 games with Mastermind, and 
Yahtzee (CS-9006). Basic Gamee Disks require 
48K and Microsoft Basic. 




sensational 
software 



FREE 

SOFTWARE CATALOG I 

• 

For a free 20-page catalog of f 
Creative Computing Software for | 



all computers circle 
reader service card . 



205 on the 



Answers to Crossword Puzzle 



R U 3 1| 


M P A 


C T 




Q 


AM A 


j|d 


A II 


H 1 lju 


N 





R 


N | |"P |a 


R 


' - M A 


G 


U 


l 


D 


m o 


O 


1 >IN 


e| 


T 


E 


R |"m 


i 


N 


A 


'lIIt 




E 


n a 


a a 


uIrIu 


A 


1 Iw 


E 


A !"P 1 O 


n IIm 


D 


o 


r M 1 A [ 1 


flffl 


13 


E 




G 


A | L | E ||~R 1 O 


8 


M 


E 


M 


H 


n 


A 


1 


N 


P 


uhr 




S 


T 


A 


i 


R 


S 


L | 


i | 


H 


A 


R 


R 


/ 


S 


L 


A 


1 


N^_ 


II II 


O 


E 


A 


S 


t||"p|a |"n 


E 


"lIIo 


R 


- II A | N 1 1 1 |*B 


R 


o w 


N 



176 



CREATIVE COMPUTING 



o 
oo 
co 



SfcgffS 

CM CM CM CMP 



Q. 
< 

CO 

<D 

Q. 
X 
UJ 



KrZ r*. r- r- r»- ; 9>g>d>S>§ 
CM CM CM CM CM CMCMCMCMft 

CM CM CM (M CM cmcmcmcmcm 

O 

o 

I 

ft 
C 



tD ^- COCAO 






*- »- »- ^* ^- rtortft^ 
oo3o»- ortcorto 



SS33S 



SftSRS 



StSSS i9939 

nnnno cocortcoco 

SSSSS 8S3SSS 

onfOMrt cortcortrt 

ftc*5c*5coco cocortcoco 

ft??ftftft cocortcoco 



CRCSR 



£38312 






oSo>o>(£q 



cor^coato 

K.K-cN.£.CD 



ftrlftftco i c*>o">c>r)o 

8333$ $833$ 



tfSiQtfJAS 

ocnrtoo 



S9S5S 

(Or-COCDQ 

ortwort 



eNOOkQ i T-cMO»m 
.-^-•^.-CM i **«*•* 
CM CM CM CM CM CMCMCMCMCM 



49 

a 

SB 

o ° 



o 
co 



•-Oicn^m 

CMCMCMCMCM 






CO 

o> 

CO 



hi* 

& Z P < 






it I 



55 fifl 
8U«*c?, 

}o||,t=8 



s * 
1 I 

I ° I 

2 = a«i: p 



"k_ 


0? 


Q. 

< 


> 


CO 


4d 


x— 


CO 


Q. 


OP 


X 


c 


111 

• 


tf 


o 




co 




O) 




^ 




^ 




03 





251 256 261 266 271 

252 257 262 267 272 

253 258 263 268 273 

254 259 264 269 274 

255 260 265 270 275 


276 281 286 291 296 

277 282 287 292 297 

278 283 288 293 298 

279 284 289 294 299 

280 285 290 295 300 


301 306 311 316 321 

302 307 312 317 322 

303 308 313 318 323 

304 309 314 319 324 

305 310 315 320 325 


326 331 336 341 346 

327 332 337 342 347 

328 333 338 343 348 

329 334 339 344 349 

330 335 340 345 350 


SSSSS 


95998 




CDOJCnChO 


111 116 

112 117 

113 118 

114 119 

115 120 


36 141 

37 142 

38 143 

39 144 

40 145 


61 186 

62 167 

63 168 1 

64 169 1 

65 170 1 


186 191 

187 192 

188 193 

189 194 

190 195 


8S882 


co coco coco 


JSi/iInSto 


cooocococo 


5SSS8 


8S8R8 


Jimirt^tfj 


tor*-coo>Q 











. -cmco^o 

r- r- c-~ r^ r-~ 
onnon 



c£K-ap 

<OC0CO 
ft ftft 



Sz«?5o 
CO CO CO 



§ 



?s$ 



8S$$8^ 38338 

ss838 53833 

•-CMCO^tO <Or-0Op>Q 



h.r*.f*.r^co ■ O 



cor-aDcno 
cm cm cm cm cm 

cm cm cm cm cm 

mm 



95998 

CMCMCMCMCM 

59939 

CM CM CM CM CM 

8SS89 

CMCMCMCMCM 

ortnnrt 

CM CM CM CM CM 

cpr^cocnQ 

ssssas 



S 



CO 



Q- 3 M 



J 5 



|oi IDDO 5 DD 



c 

4 







| * 3 S3 



51 |LII I 



si 



& 

8 
5 I 

3S««o 

iff ill! 

n <mooujii. n<a> 



E 

; o 
: u. 

: is 
i "S 
; o 

! C 

I 5 

' 9- 

n 

, CO 



o o <c 
c z o 

o.a>- 

ecu 
one 

V) 0) (0 

S $ " 

0) 0) s 

c c a> 
w w C 

03 QJ *- 
> > 0) 

o o > 

(MO ° 

rjcj o> 

_ a) a> a> 

o > > > 

.5 « <u ai 

— WW Ifl 

ex ~- — ~ 

C ooom 

o "W«M >- 

co *»*»*» 

-, CO CO CO 

« a> a> a> 

" 3 3 3 

>* CO CO CO 

c: co co co 
• S5^ 



0) 



CO to CO 



co 

• ■- 

>-^ co 

i. .CO tt> 

ex >».- 
« ■- CD 

*» £ °- 

TJ coco 
CO**** 

OUT! 
OT3T3 
- CO CO 
m <» — 

CO <o (0 
CO c c 

TJ CTOl 

cff'ff 
co o o 
Oii-u- 



fl 

CD 
I 

g» 6 x^°^ 

O CO 

-J d 
coo»ff 
••' — ^cx 
£•„ 



<w 



° cox 

_ -c en ^ 
c O « E 

CD ?<->">« 

c ®c; » £ 

5.™ •» S S « 
co.2«E|u 



If 

til 00 

OS 

m 

6 
a! 



o. DDD DDD DDDDD 



CD 
O) 

c 
to 
c 
O 

CO 
CO 
CD 

c 

TJ 

TJ 
< 

D 



to 

i 

CD 

c 

CD 

cc 
D 



i 

CD 

z 
D 









1 ^ 


0) 










1 O 


3 
CO 




! ^ 


CO 




! o 


to 




1 CO 






i « 


o 




' CD 


c 




1 CO 


tfl 




I <o 


C) 




1 ° 






| CX<D 






< 




■ "> 






1 cd 


— 










■ 'O 


^. 




! TJ 


-) 




I CO 


o 


et i 




^ 


1 o 


•; 


0) | 


• D 


5 


TJ I 


■ O) 




CD J 








1 (0 




a. ■ 


■ jr 


0) 


3 , 


1 "-c 


t . 


1 to 




CD J 


1 o 


0J 


C | 


1 u- 




3 | 



o 
o 

o 

00 



•OS 

C9 CS 

4£ S 

a 

O O 





CO 
CO 
CD CD 

E T3 >• 5 , 

Z<OB)N 



CD 

_> 

V 
TJ 



5 

CD 

i 
O 




0*0 



CD 



3 O ^ 

ss o 

a 
so, 



1^2 

ft * 01 

5 I 8 



% O 

S S 

a 

£ 

a 
so. 



1^2 

<t> 01 Oi 

S| s 



!£& 

la® 

s*0 

5 3 

I ■§ 

£ 

a 

SO. 



•% 
O X 

6 N) 

3 00 

B* 

o 

VO 
On 

o 



•8 
CD 

I 

CD 

o 
3 

a 
so. 




1^2 

re oi oi 

5 | 8 



s 




1 

< 


■ 
1 


IE 










j j ii 



111 
it 






I ■ 



WW 



■Vie answer. 



Corvus — the company that brought Winchester technology to 
the microcomputer— is now delivering the solution to backup 
for less than $1500. 

It's called the Corvus MIRROR ", a backup employing low- 
cost removable media with a total capacity of up to 100 million 
bytes each. In approximately ten minutes, you can transfer an 
entire ten million byte disk without operator intervention. 

Corvus is the company that gives you a complete systems 
solution to the mass storage needs of microcomputers. Our 
systems have fully compatible hardware and software for the 
Applet (including Apple Pascal), S-100 Bus, TRS-80 , and now 
the LSI-11 and ALTOS computers. We utilize proven Winchester 
technology with IMI-7710 drives. Up to four eight-inch disks can 
be used with our Z-80 based controller. 

Interested in our new removable-media backup or our pace 
setting Winchester systems? Both are available now. Call or 
write for full information. 






CORVUS SYSTEMS, Inc. 



•Apple is a regular ed trademark <X Apple Computers. Inc 

: TRS 80 is a registered trademark or Radio Shack, a Tandy Co 

CIRCLE 154 ON READER SERVICE CARD 



900 S. Winchester Boulevard 
San Jose, California 95128 
408/246-0461 







Step up to your 
next computer. 



O 




sSRiiSTsJ 



. - i 



V*) 




STEP UP TO A C4P 
FROM OHIO SCIENTIFIC 

You know about computers. In (act. 
you probably own one now. One that 
you might be thinking ot expanding. We 
have a better idea. Take a giant step 
into the personal computing future with 
an amazing, new C4P from Ohio 
Scientific. 

SPEED SEPARATES THE 
COMPUTERS FROM THE TOYS 

The C4P MF has execution speed that 
is twice as fast as Apple II or 
Commodore PET and over THREE 
times as last as TRS-80 They are 

iany times faster than the recently 
introduced flock of video game type 
computers. And, as if that weren't fast 
enough, the C4P nearly doubles its 
speed when equipped with the GT 
option. 

Just look at the back 
theC4PMF. 

ever need! 

JWrll <-—**«» ft! TBS lOndAwin:^ *^«*iir**t -— «. u.A.j-* 
CMWMtar C iwwi w h w w m Mar*.***. LU IU»fcoSt-rt Air. w^m i iwl, 



SOUND 

1 — programmable tone generator 

200 — 20KHz 
1 — 8 bit companding digital to analog 

converter for music and voice 

output. 

HUMAN INPUT EXPANSION 

2 — 8 axis joystick interfaces 
2 — 10 key pad interfaces 

HOME INTERFACE 

1 — AC-12 AC remote control interface 

DISPLAY 

32 x 64 with upper and lower case 
2048 Characters. 
256 x 512 effective Graphic Points 
16 Colors 

SOFTWARE 

Ohio Scientific offers a comprehensive 
library of both systems and 
applications software for the C4P. 



The C4P is an outstanding premium 
computer — years ahead of the 
market. We know because there's 
nothing quite like it for the price, 
anywhere. And probably won't be for a 
very long time 



C4P*698 

8K BASIC-in-ROM. 8K of Static RAM 
and audio cassette interface. Can be 
directly expanded to 32K static RAM 
and two minifloppy disks 

C4PMFM695 

All the features of the C4P plus real 
time clock, home security system 
interface, modem interface, printer 
interface, 16 parallel lines and an 
accessory BUS. The C4P MF starts 
with 24K RAM and a single minifloppy 
and can be directly expanded to 48K 
and two mini-floppies Over 45 diskette 
now available including games, 
personal, business, educational and 
home control applications programs as 
well as a real time operating system, 
word processor and a data base 
management system. 

Computers rout with keyboards and lloppis* what* s 
Olh»r squipfisnt showo IS optional 

For literature and the nimi of your local 
daalar, CALL 1 -800-321-6850 TOLL I — 



1333 SOUTH CHILLICOTHE ROAC 
AURORA. OH 44202 • (21 6) 562-31 01 1 



CIRCLE 112 ON READER SERVICE CARD